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G. T. Zoega 



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3 3333 06002 6537 





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Oxford University Press, Ely House, London W. i 





REPRINTED I 9 2 6, I942, I952, I961, I965, I967 




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While it cannot be said that the study of Icelandic has been 
neglected in Britain, there can be no doubt that it might with advantage 
become much more general than it has been. There are several good 
reasons why it should be so. The Scandinavian influence was the 
earliest, and one of the strongest, of those outward forces which have 
gone to the making of modern English, and for the proper investigation 
and appreciation of this a knowledge of Icelandic is of the first impor- 
tance. Not only does it supply a linguistic basis for such a study ; it is 
also the source of much of the information necessary for the under- 
standing of that period of British history. In itself, too, Old Icelandic 
literature, both in poetry and prose, presents a wealth of interesting 
material, which in some respects stands unrivalled among the literatures 
of mediaeval Europe, and without which our knowledge of the ancient 
North would be the merest shadow of what it is. 

This important language and literature first became easily accessible 
to the English student with the publication (in 1869-74) of the Icelandic 
Dictionary begun by Richard Cleasby, and completed for the Clarendon 
Press by Gudbrand Vigfusson. This still remains the fullest record of 
Icelandic as a whole, although some portions of the older vocabulary 
have been more fully dealt with in later works. For beginners, how- 
ever, and for those whose interests chiefly centre in the old Icelandic 
prose-writings, some more convenient and cheaper work has been greatly 
needed, and the present volume is intended to supply this want. In the 
main it is founded on the Oxford Dictionary, and has been compiled on 
the general principle of including all those words which the ordinary 
student of Icelandic is likely to meet with in the course of his reading. 
With the exception of the Edda poems, the purely poetic vocabulary has 


lor the most part been omitted, as well as a number of compounds 
occurring only in legal, theological, or technical works. The line has 
not been very strictly drawn, however, and in doubtful cases insertion 
has been preferred to omission, especially where space readily admitted 
of this course. In the English renderings of the Icelandic words it has 
usually been possible to follow the larger work, but changes have been 
freely made wherever they seemed to be required. To make the precise 
meaning of the word still more evident, a short phrase or sentence has 
frequently been inserted after the English equivalent, and the student 
will find the usefulness of these illustrations increase as his knowledge 
of the language improves. The more difficult examples have been 
translated, entirely or in part, especially those illustrating the idiomatic 
uses of common verbs, which even in a concise dictionary must be 
treated with considerable fullness. 

The arrangement of the larger dictionary has on the whole been 
followed, but a few changes have been introduced. The most important 
of these are the insertion of genitive compounds in their alphabetical 
places instead of under the simple word (e. g. alda-^ aldar- on p. 7 
instead of under old on p. 528), and the separation of de from ot. 
Although these vowels were confused in Icelandic from an early date, 
and editions of old texts printed in Iceland usually employ as only, 
the distinction has much value for etymology and for the study of the 
other Scandinavian tongues. The vowel e has also been distinguished 
from (for which many editions use the more original g\ but without 
separation of the words containing them. In the reflexive forms of 
verbs the later -st has been used instead of the early -sk ; the student 
must note, however, that in many editions the intermediate -z is 
employed. For purely philological purposes a different procedure 
would in some points have been advisable, but the dictionary is intended 
in the first place to assist in reading the Icelandic sagas as they appear 
in the most accessible editions. 

For the convenience of beginners the tables of declensions and con- 
jugations, and the lists of irregular forms, are reprinted (with some 


alterations and corrections) from the 'Outlines of Grammar' given in 
the larger work. A table of irregular verbs is unnecessary, as the con- 
jugation of these is fully given in the dictionary itself. 

For the original suggestion which led to my undertaking this work 
I am indebted to Dr. W. A. Craigie, Taylorian Lecturer in the Scandi- 
navian Languages in Oxford, and one of the foremost scholars in both 
ancient and modern Icelandic. Dr. Craigie has, moreover, revised the 
whole of the manuscript and proofs, and by doing so has helped con- 
siderably towards greater exactness in the renderings and correctness in 
the English. Although it is too much to expect that in a work of this 
nature all errors and omissions have been avoided, I trust that those 
which exist may prove to be of a minor character, and that the 
dictionary as a whole may help to bring about a wider interest in the 
language and literature of my native country. 


Marchf 19 10. 


a, a negative suffix to verbs, not ; 
era iimakligt, at it is not unmeet that. 

abbadis ipl, -ar), f. abbess. 

abbast (a5'. v. ref.. to be angry, to 
quarrel (a. vi6 e-n, upp i. e-n). 

abbindi ( = afbindi), n. constipation. 

aSal, n. nature., disposition. 

at5al-, in compds., chief., head, -prin- 
cipal-, -a,^'keri,n. sheet-anchor; -bol, 
n. manor ; -borinn, pp. of noble birth, 
= 65al-borinn ; -festr, f. see alads- 
festr ; -fylking, f. the main body of 
troops, centre ; -haf, n. the high sea ; 
-henda, f. = alhenda ; -hen ding, f. 
full or perfect rhyrne, as go^ : blo^ 
(opposed to ' skothending-'j ; -hendr, 
a. (verse) with perfect rhymes ; -kelda, 
f. chief well; -kirkja, f. chief part of 
a church, opp. to ' forkirkja' ; -liga, 
adv. co7npletely, quite ; -merki, n. 
chief bafiner ; -ritning, f. chief writ- 
ing; -skali, m. the maitihall, opp. to 
' forskali, forhus ' ; -tr6, n. ttunk of 
a tree ; -troll, n. downright ogre ; 
-tiilkr, m. chief spokesman. 

aSild, f. chief defendantship or pro- 

aSildarmac5r, m. =a6ili. 

a(5ili (-ja, -jar, later -a, -ar), m. 
chief dcfendajit ( varnaraSili) or pro- 
secutor (soknaraSili, sakaradilij. 

af, prep. w. dat. 1. Ot place : (i) ^ 
ff-om ; G. hljop af hesti sinum, G. jump- 
ed off his horse; ganga af motinu, to go 
away f> am the meeti7ig; Flosi kastaSi 
af ser skikkjunni, threw off his cloak ; 
Gizzur gekk af utsuQri at gerSinu. 
fro7n the south-west; hann halSi leyst 
af ser skua sina, he had taken off his 
shoes; Steinarr vildi slita hann af s^r, 
throiv him off; tok Gisli J)d af ser 
v^pnin, took off his a7-ms ; bref af 
Magniisi konungi, a letter from king 
M. ; land af landi, /r^;;z one land to 
the other; hverr af odrum, one after 


another, in succession ; vil ek J)u vinnir 
af J)er skuldina, work off the debt ; 
muntu enga saett af mer fd, 710 peace 
at 7ny hand; n'sa af dauda, to rise 
f 7-0771 the dead; vakna af draumi, to 
awake7i fro7n a drea77i ; luka upp af 
hrossi, to ope7i agate fro)7i off a horse ; 
vindr st66 af landi, the wind blew fr 0771 
the land; (2) out of; verQa tekinn af 
heimi, to be take7i out of the world ; 
gruflar hon af lasknum, she SLra77ibles 
Old of the brook; Otradalr var mjok 
af \t'g\,far out of the ix ay. Connected 
with ut ; fostudaginn for ut herrinn af 
borginni, 7narched out of the town. II. 
Of lime ; past, beyond: af omaga-aldri, 
able to support oneself, of age ; ek em 
nu af lettasta skeiSi, 710 longer i7i the 
pri7ne of life ; J)d er sjau vikur eru af 
sumri, when sei'en weeks ofstwwierare 
past; var mikit af nott, tnuch of the 
night was past. III. In various 
other relations : (i) t)iggja 16 af e-m, 
to 7-eceive help fro7)i one ; hafa umbo5 
af e-m, to be another's deputy ; vera 
g65s (ills) maklegr af e-m, to deserve 
good {bad) of ofie; feil J)ar lid mart af 
Eyvindi, 7nany of Eyvind's men fell 
there ; pd eru J)eir utlagir ok af goSorSi 
sinu, have forfeite I their ' go5or6 ' ; 
J)d skalt t>u af allri fjd.rheimtunni,y6'r- 
fcit all the claim ; ek skal stefna J)er 
af konunni, su7n77ion thee to give tip ; 

(2) off, of; hoggva fot, hond, af e-m, 
to cut off one's foot, hand; vil ek, at 
J)u takir sli'kt sem J)er li'kar af varningi, 
whatever you like of the sto7es; jDar 
M forkr einn ok brotit af endanum, 
with the poi7it broken off; absol., beit 
hann hondina af, bit the hand off; 
fauk af hofuSit, the head flew off; 

(3) of ci7no7tg; hinn efniiigasti ma6r 
af ungum monnuni, the 7>tost pro77iis~ 
ing oj the yountj; 77ie7i ; (4) with ; 
hlada (ferma) skip af e-u, to load 





{freight) a ship with ; fylla heiminn 
af si'nu kyni, to fill the world with his 
offspring', (5) ^/(=^r which is more 
frequent) ; husit var gert af timbr 
stokkum, was btiilt of trunks of trees \ 
{6) fig., eigi vita menn hvat at honum 
er orQit, what has become of hiin\ 
hvat hefir t)u gert af Gunnari, what 
hast thou done with Gunnar? ; (7) 
denoting parentage, descent, origin ; 
ok eru af peim komnir Gilsbekkingar, 
are descended from them ; kominn 
af Tr6jumonnum, descended froin the 
Trojans \ (8) by, of (after passive); 
ek em sendr hingat af StarkaSi, sent 
hither by S. ; dstsasllaf landsmonnum, 
beloved of \ (9) on account of by reason 
of by ; ubygQr af frosti ok kulda, be- 
cause of frost and cold', omdli af i.- 
verkum, speechless from wounds ; af 
dstsaeld hans, by his popularity ; af 
J)vi, therefore ; af hvi, wherefore, why ; 
af pvi at, because', (10) by means of, 
by ; framfcera e-n af verkum si'num, 
by means of his own labour ; af sinu 
i€, by one's own itieans ; absol., hann 
fekk af hina mestu soemd, derived 
great honour from it', (11) with ad- 
jectives, in regard to ; mildr af i€, 
liberal of money ; g66r af griQum, 
merciful ; fastr af drykk, close {stingy) 
in regard to drink ', (12) used absol. 
with a verb, off, away, hann baS 
hann Jjd roa af fjorSinn, to row the 
firth off', ok er {)eir hofSu af fjdrSung, 
when they had covered one fourth of 
the way ; sofa af nottina, to sleep the 
night away. 

afar, adv., used as an intensive be- 
fore an adj. or another adv., very, 
exceedingly (a. auSigr, a. breiSr, a. vel, 
a. ilia). 

afarko3ta-laust, adv. on fair terms. 

afar-kostr, m. hard ter77is', -ligr, 
a. immense, huge', -menni, n. an 
outstanding man ; -orS, n. overbear- 
ing word ; -uSigr, a. overbearing ; 
-yrSi, n. pi. proud speech. 

af-aut5it, pp. n., e-m ver3r afauSit 
um e-t, one has bad luck {fails) in a 
thing ; -blomga (a$), v. to deprive of 
fioivers ; fig., afblomga frasgC e-s, to 
detract from one's fame ; -boS, n. 

threats, hign woras ; -bragc5, n. para- 
gon (afbragS annarra manna) ; in 
genitive, as a prefix to nouns, sur- 
passing, excellent (afbragds vaenleikr, 
afbragds maQr). 

afbragcSligr, a. surpassing. 

af-brigtS, n. deviation, transgression. 

afbrigSar-tr6, n. tree of transgres- 

af-brig^i, n. (i) alteration ; (2) = 
-brigS ; -brot, n. offence, transgression ; 
-brug^ning, f. deviation ; -bruSigr, 
a. jealous ; -brySa (-dda, -ddr), v. to 
be Jealous', -lory^ifXi. jealousy. 

afburSar, gen. from ' afburSr ', used 
as an intensive before adjectives and 
adverbs, very, exceedi7igly (a. digr, a. 
vaenn, a. sterkliga, a. vel). 

afburSar-macSr, m. 7nan of mark ; 
-samr, a. given to distinguish one- 
self', -skip, n. first-rate ship. 

af-burtSr, m. superiority ; kvaS hon- 
um eigi annat vaenna til afbur3ar, to 
get the better of it ; ok vilda ek, at 
hon yrSi eigi meS minnum afbur6um, 
less glorious', -dalr, m. a retnote, an 
out-oft he-way, valley ; -deilingr, m. 
part, portion f share; -drattr, m. (i) 
dimimition, deduction ; (2) subtrac- 
tion ; -drif, n. pi. destiny, fate (likligr 
til storra afdrifa) ; -drykkja, f.= 
ofdrykkja; -doema (-da, -dr), v. (i) 
to take away from one by judicial 
decision (afdoema e-n e-u) ; (2) to 
prohibit', -eggja [e^]^ v. to dissuade', 
-eigna (at5), v. to dispossess (afeigna 
e-m e-t) j -eista (aS), v. to castrate ; 
-erfa (-5a, -Sr), v. to disinherit; 
-eyringr, m. one whose ears have been 
cut off; -fall, n. diminution, abate- 
ment ; selja e-t me5 affollum, to sell 
at a discou7it. 

affara-, gen. pi. from ' affor ', depar- 
ture ; hence affara-dagr, m. the last 
day of a feast ; -dagr jola, Twelfth 
-night; affara-kveld, n. the last 
eveni77g of a fast. 

af-feSrast (ac5), v. to degene7'ate; 
-ferma (-da, -dr), v. to unload (af* 
ferma skip) ; -fletta (-tta, -ttr), v. to 
strip (afifletta e-n e-u) ; -flutningr, 
m. (i) depreciation; (2) dissuasion; 
-flytja (see flytja), v. (i) to disparage 




(afflytja fyrir e-m) ; (2) to represent 
as unadvisable ; -foera, v. to misre- 
present'^ -gamall, a. very old, de- 
crepit; -ganga, f. (i) digression ", (2) 
deviation from the right course (af- 
ganga gu6s laga) ; -gangr, m. (i) 
surplus ; hafa hey me6 afgongum, to 
spare ; afgangs, left over, remaining ; 
(2) decease, death ; -gelja, f. chatter- 
ing ; -gipt, f. indtdgence, absolution. 

afgiptar-br6f, n. letter of indulgence. 

af-gjarn, a. eager to be off (afgjarnt 
er ofundarf^) ; -gjof, f. tribute ; -glapa 
(at5), V. to disturb an assenibly or 
ptiblic meeting ; -glapan, f, distur- 
bance (things afglapan) ; -glapi, m.fool, 
sifnpleton ; -greizla, f. payment, con- 

afgongu-dagr, m. = affara-dagr. 

af-g0ra (-5a, -t5r), v. to do amiss, do 
wrong (ek hefi engan hlut afg^rt vi3 
pik) ; -g0rS, f. transgression, offence ; 
-hallr, a. having a dowiiward slope ; 
-haugr, m. side-mound \ -hefS, f. 
ivithholdinganother' s property ; -helg- 
ast (at$), V. refl. to become iitiholy, to 
be profaned ; -hellir, m. side-cave ; 
-henda (-nda, -ndr), v. (i) to hand 
over ; (2) to pay (afhenda skuld) ; 
-hendis, adv. off one* s ha^id ; -hendr, 
a. out of one's hand; segja e-n (serj 
afhendan, to giveofte up ; -hent, a. n. 
unfit (e-m er e-t afhent) ; -heyrandi, 
pr. p. out of hearing, absent, opp. to 
* dheyrandi ' ; -heyris, adv. out of hear- 
ing, opp. to ' dheyris ' ; -hlaup, n. sur- 
plus ; -hlutr, m. share of a thing; 
-hly(5ast (-dd), v. refl. to disobey ; 
-hrapi, m. impoverishjnent ; -hroS, 
n. damage, loss ; gjalda mikit af hro3, 
to sustain a heavy loss ; gera mikit 
afhroS, to make great havoc ; -huga, 
a. indecl. having turned one's mind 
from ; verSa afhuga e-u, to mind no 
more ; -hugaSr, a. = -huga (-hugaSr 
vi6 e-t) ; -hugast (aS), v. refl. to put 
out of one's mind, with dat. ; -hus, n. 
outhouse, side-apartment; -hvarf, n. 
deviation from the di^-ect path (opp. 
to * gagnvegr ') ; -hy$a (-dda, -ddr), 
v. to scourge thoroughly; -hylja 
(see hylja), v. to uncover ; -hyming, 
f. by-corner, recess ; -haera (-Sa, -Srj, 

V. to cut off the hair-j -hoftSa fatJ), v. 
to behead; -hogg, n. hewing off, muti- 
lation ; chippings. 

afi, m. (1) grandfather; (2) man\ 
a. eptir afa, in regular descent. 

af-kaup, n. bad bargain (opp. to 
' hagkeypi '). 

af-karr, a. strange, prodis^ious. 

afkleyfis-or$, n., -samstafa, f. a 
superfluous word, syllable (in a verse). 

af-kl8B5a (-dda, -ddr), v. to undress 
refl., afklaeSast, to undress oneself 
-komandi (pi. -endr), m. descefidant 
-kvistr, m. lateral branch, offshoot 
-kvaBmi, n. offspring, 

afkvaBmis-maSr, m. descendant. 

af-kynjaSr, pp. degenerate ; -kyn- 
jast (aS), V. refl. to degenerate, 

afl, m. hearth of a forge. 

afl, n. (i) physical strength (ramr, 
styrkr, at afli) ; (2) force, violence ; 
taka me5 afli, by force; {-i^) plurality 
of votes, majority ; ok skal afl rd6a, 
the majority shall decide ; (4) virtue, 
inherent power; a. daudfoerandi grasa, 
the virtue of poisonous herbs. 

afla (at5), v. to gain, earn, procure 
(a. e-m e-s) ; a. ser iykx ok frama, to 
earn fame and wealth ; afladi {)essi 
bardagi honum mikillar fraegSar, 
brougitt him great fatne ; (2) with 
ace, to earn (aflaOi harm t)ar fe 
mikit) ; refl., e-m aflast e-t, one gains 
a thing; (3) with dat., to perform, 
accomplish (harm aflaSi brdtt mikilli 
vinnu) ; with infin., to be able (ekki 
aflar harm {jvi at standa 1 moti ydur). 

afla- far, a. short of strength ; e-m 
ver6r afla-fdtt, one fails in strotgth. 

aflag, n. ( I ) slaughteritig of cattle ; 
(2) gen., aflags = afgangs, left over. 

af-laga, adv. unlawfully ; -lagliga, 
adv. =aflaga. 

afla-litill, a. deficient in strength, 
weak; -matSr, m. powerful man; 
-mikill, a. (i) strong; (2) powerful; 
-munr, m. odds ; etja vid -muninn, 
to fight against odds. 

aflan, f. gain, acquisition. 

aflanar-matSr, m. good steward. 

afla-skortr, m. short-coining in 
power or strength ; -stund, i. fishing- 




af-lausn, f. (l) discharge {release) 
from claim or obligation ; (2) absohi- 
tioTty indulgence (aflausn synda) ; 
-Idt, n. (i) leaving off, relinquishing 
(afldt synda, misverka) ; ixi afldti, 
incessantly, (2) retnission, pardon 
(afldt misgernin^a, synda) ; -lata 
(see Idta), v. with infin. to cease ; 
-leggja (see leggja), v. (l) to put 
aside ; (2) to give up, abandon ; 
-leiSing, f. (i) terms ; godar afleiSing- 
ar eru me3 J)eim, they are on good 
terms', (2) metric, contimiation-, 
-leiSingr, m. = afleiSing (i); t^eir 
skildu goSan afleiSing, they parted on 
friendly terms; -leiSis, adv. (i) out 
of the right path or course (sigla 
afleiSis) ; (2) fig., ganga afleiSis, to go 
astray ; snua (draga, fcera) e-t afleicJis, 
to pervert, misrepresent (J)u foerSir or6 
peirra afleiQis) ; sniia e-m afleiSis, to 
lead astray ; -leifar, f. pi. leavings, 
remnants ; -leitinn, a. of odd appear- 
ance ; -leitliga, adv. perversely (ilia 
ok afleitliga) ; -leitligr, a. perverse, 
deforjned; -leitr, a. (i) strange, 
hideous, disgusting (hversu afleitir 
oss synast ^eirra hsettirj ; (2) with 
d2X., deserted by ; afleitr hamingjunni, 
luckless ; -lendis, adv. abroad ( = 
erlendis) ; -lendr, 2.. far fi'oin la?id, 
in open sea ; -letja (see letja), v. to 
dissuade from (afletja e-n at gera e-t, 
afletja e-t fyrir sdr) ; -l§tta (-tta, -tt), 
V. to cease; cf. letta af; -16ttr, a. 
prompt, ready. 

afl-fatt, a. n. short of strength ; e-m 
verSr -fatt, one fails in strength. 

afl-grof, f. forge-pit \ -hella, f. 
hearth-stone in a forge. 

afli, m. (i) means, gain, earnifigs, 
proceeds (afli ok herfang) ; (2) might, 
power; hafa afla til einskis, to have 
7neans for nothing, be tenable to do 
anything; (3) troops, forces ; {)eir 
draga afla at y3ur, they gather forces 
against you ; Ei'^inn {the inain body) 
Magnuss konungs fiySi allr. 

af-lima (a6), v. to dismember, muti- 
late ; -lima, a. indecl. ( i ) disme^nbered, 
mutilated; ( 2) fig., verSa aflima, to lose 
the use of one's limbs, to becojne para- 
lysed ; (3) ver6ae-maflima,/^^,?/(^r/^^ 

from (ek kve6 aflima orSnar Jj^rdisir) ; 
-liman, f. dismembering, mutilation. 

afl-lauss,a. nerveless, weak; palsied, 
paralytic ; -leysi, n. weakness, nerve- 
lessness ; -litill, a. weak, feeble ; 
-mikill, a. strong, of great strength, 

af-lofa (at5), v. to prohibit ; -loka 
(a$), v. to open (afloka hurSina). 

afl-raun, f. trial {proof) of strength 
(Jjotti J)etta mikil -raun) ; pi. bodily 
exercises (Skallagrimr hendi mikit 
gaman at -raunumokleikum); -skortr, 
m. lack of strength (ekki var6 mer 
-skortr vio J)ik fyrrum). 

afls-inat5r, m. stro?ig man ; -munr, 
m. difference in stretigth, odds. 

afl-vani, a. deficient i?i strength ; 
verda afl-vani, to succuinb, be over- 

afl-voSvi, m. the biceps muscle. 

af-logliga, adv. unlawfully ; -log- 
ligr, a. unlawful, contrary to law ; 
-ma (see ma), v. to blot out, destroy ; 
-moeSra (aS), v. to wean ; -nam, n. 
(i) tak'ng away, extirpation, de- 
structiofi ; (2) at afndmi, by reservation 
(before division of property, spoil, or 
inheritance) ; (3) loss (ef hann verSr 
at skaSa peim monnum, er oss mun 
pykkja afndm i) ; (4) surplus. 

afnams-fe, n., -gripr, m. goods, an 
article of value, taken before a divi- 
sion ; cf. afndm (2). 

af-nefjaSr, pp. having the nose cut 
off, noseless ; -neita (ac5 or -tta, -tt), 
V. (i) to r.?;^<7zm^<?(afneitaveroldinni) ; 
(2) dejiy, refuse (eigi vil ek J)vi afneita); 
-neitan, -neiting, f. abnegation, re- 
nunciation, deriia,l; -neyzla, f. use 
(afneyzla skogarins) ; -nita (-tta, -tt), 
v.= -neita. 

afr, m. some kind of beverage. 

af-ra5, n. payment ; gjalda afrdS, to 
pay heavily, suffer severely. 

af-rei5, f. setting off on horseback. 

af-reizla, f. outlay, paymefit. 

af-iek, n. great achievement, deed 
of prowess (vinna afrek ; margir 
lofuSu mjok afrek Egils). 

af-reka 1 aS), v. to achieve, perform 
(munu per mikit afreka). 

afreks-gripr, m. a thing of great 
value ; -maSr, m. a valiant man, hero ; 




afreks-verk, n. valia?it deed, great 
achievement, exploit. 

af-remma, f. restriction, encum- 

afrendi, f. strength, valour\ afrendr, 
a. strong (a. at afli) ; cf. afr-hendr. 

at-r6tt, f. comjnon pasture, = 2i{-r€ 

afrettar-domr, m. a court held for 
deciding causes concerning com?non 
pasture ; -menn, m. pi. partners in 
co))i7)ion pasture. 

af-r6ttr, m. cojn^non pasture (J)at er 
afrettr, er tveir menn eigo saman e6a 

afr-hendr, a. j/r^;/^, = afrendr. 

af-roS, n. = afhroo, afr^d ; -rog, n. 
justijication, excuse', -rutSningr, m. 
clearing off, defence ; -runr (pi. -ir), 
m. injury, wrong ; -rcekja (-ta, -tr), v. 
to neglect . = urcekja. (afroekja bod e-s); 
refl., afioekjast e-u or e-t, to neglect ; 
to leave off (konungar afrcEktust at 
sitja at Uppsolum) ; -saka (aS), v. 
to excuse, exculpate; -sakan, f. excuse, 
exculpation ; -sanna(ac5), v. to prove 
to be false, refute ; -segja (see segja), 
V. (i) to resign, renounce (afsagfii 
hann ser heiminn) ; (2) to refuse, deny 
(peir afsogSu leiSangr uti at hafa) ; 
-setning, f. deposition ; -siSa, a. indecl. 
immoral', -si:Qa (at5), v. to alienate 
from one's family (afsifja ser e-t); 
-sic5a, adv. aside, apart ; -skapligr, 
a. ?nonstrous, huge, shocking (afskap- 
ligt dfelli) ; -skeit^is, adv. out of the 
right path, astray, = 2i^G.\6\s, afvegis ; 
-skipan, f. dismissal, deposition ; 
-skipta, a. indecl. wrofiged, cheated', 
vera gorr afskipta, to be wrofiged. 

affak'pta-lauss, a. having nothing 
to do with (gera s^r -laust vi6 e-n) ; 
-litill, a. caring little about (um e-tj ; 
-samr, a. =afskiptinn. 

af-skipti, n. pi. dealings {with), 
intercourse (ok engi afskipti veita 
heiSnum godum) ; -skiptinn, a. 
meddlesome ; -skiptr, pp. ( i ) wronged, 
cheated', (2) afskiptr af e-u, void of, 
having no interest in ; -skrdmligr, a. 
hideous, monstrous (afskrdmligt ill- 
virki) ; -skraemiliga, adv. hideously ; 
dttast afskreemiliga to be scared at ; 

-skurtSr, m. cutting off', -skyld, f. 

obligation, encumbrance ; -sliSra (aS), 
v. to unsheath ; -smekkr, m. taste ; 
-sni5, n. a bit cut off, snip ; -sniSning, 
f. cutting or snipping off. 

afsniSningar-jarn, n. chopper. 

af-sni(5is, adv. obliquely^ aslant 
(afsnidis um handlegginn) ; -spraki, 
m. rtanoury news', -springi, n. (i) 
offspring, progeny ; (2) produce 
{growth) of the earth ; -springr, m. 
(i) = -springi; {2) band, detachment ', 
(3) fig. offshoot (er mikil vdn, at par 
verSi nokkur afspringr af {jessum 
6fri6i) ; (4) rumour, notice (finokkurn 
afspring um e-t) ; -spurn, f. news^ 
information ; -standa (see standa), 
V. to cede, part with ; -stigr, m. by- 
path ; -stuka, f. side-?iook, side-7'oom ; 
-styrmi, n. manikin, pigmy ; -svar, 
n. refusal', veita e-u afsvor, to refuse, 
deny ; -svara (at5), v. to deny, refuse 
(afsvara e-u 6»r um e-t) ; -sveipa (a5), 
v. to uncover (afsveipa likit) ; -sviptr, 
pp. deprived of ', afsviptr J^inni ^sjonu, 
cut off from thy countenance ; -synis, 
adv. out of sight ; -seell, a. unfor- 
tunate, luckless. 

af- tak, n . ( I ) taking away ; (2) slay- 
ing, manslaughter ; hvat hann vildi 
bj63a fyrir aftak Geirsteins, for the 
slaying of G. ; -taka, f. (i) taking 
away, loss ; {2) slaying, = aftak (hann 
hafSi verit at aftoku {^orkels fostra). 

aftaka-maSr, m. a determi7ted per- 
son (-mafir um e-t) ; -minni, a. com- 
par. less stubborn, more pliable. 

af-tekja, f. revenue (dbu3 ok aftekja 
staQanna) ; -tekning, f. taking away, 
-tekt, f. (i) «= aftekja ; (2) ='aftak 2 ; 
-telja (see telja), v. to represent as 
unadvisable, dissuade (aftelja e-t fyrir 
e-m) ; -tigna (ac5), v. to strip of dignity 
or honour ; -triia, f. unbelief, heresy ; 
-triia (atS), v. to make otie abandon 
his religious faith', refl., aftriiast, to 
fall into unbelief', -toekiligr, a. advis- 
able ; -tcBkr, a. blameworthy (at fitt 
muni vera aftoekt um skapsmuni 
y6ra) ; -toema (-da, -dr), v. to empty ; 
refl., aftoemast, to be emptied ox cleared 

afusa, f. gratitude ; see * aufusa *. 

af-valdr, a. vera afvaldr e-u or e-s. 




to be the cause of a thing ; -vega, adv. 
out of the right way, astray ; -vegaSr, 
pp. led astray, misled ; -vegar, -vegis, 
adv.= -vega ; -velta, a. m^&zX. fallen 
on the back and unable to rise ; -vensla, 
f. expenses, outlay ; -vik, n. creek, 
recess ; -vinna, f. = afvensla. 

af-virSa (-r^a, -r6r), v. (i) to dis- 
grace^ dishonour (afvirda ndunga 
sinn) ; afvirSa fyrir e-m, /^ throw a slur 
on one ; (2) to detest, abhor (afvirSa 
6dddirnar) ; refl., afvirSast, to think it 
unworthy of oneself, with infin. 

afvirt^iligr, a. detestable, 7nean. 

af-vir(5ing, f. disparagejuent^ de- 
preciation ; -vfiBnn, a. uiiexpected, = 
uvasnn ; -voxtr, m. decrease, loss, opp. 
to * dvoxtr '. 

af-I)okka (ac5), v. to disparage, dis- 
credit, to bring into discredit (aft)okka 
fyrir e-m); refl., afpokkast e-m, to 
displease ; -l)okkan, f . ( i ) disparage- 
ment; [2) displeasure, dislike', -J)vattr, 
m. washing off, ablutio7i ; -J)y^a 
(-dda, -ddr), v. = afvirSa, afJ)okka ; 
-aBta, f. a great bully. 

aga, V. impers., nu agir vi5, now 
there is a gt-eat uproar. 

aga-lauss, a. {i) free frojft distur- 
bances (var nu allt kyrt ok agalaust) ; 
(2) unpimished ; -samligr, a. nnjtily ; 
-ssiViiv y a., turbulent ; agasamt mun J)^ 
verSa 1 heraQinu, ef, there will be up- 
roar in the district, if. 

agi, m. (i) awe, tei-ror (J)d. skelfr 
jor3 611 f aga miklum) ; (2) uproar, 
turbulence (a. ok ufric3r) ; (3) dis- 
cipline, constraint. 

agn, n. bait\ ganga i. agnit, to 
nibble the bait ; -sax, n. a knife for 
cutting bait ; -or, f. barb of a fish- 

aka (ek, 6k, okum, ekinn), v. (i) 
to drive (a vehicle or animal draw- 
ing a vehicle), with dat. : gott er 
heilum vagni heim at a., it is good to 
get home safe and sound ; a. Jjrennum 
eykjum, with three yoke of horses ; 
(2) to carry or convey in a vehicle, to 
cart, with dat. or ace. (hann ok 
heyjum sinum i. yxnum : hann ok 
skarni d hoJa) ; a. saman hey, to cart 
hay ; likin vdru ekin f sleSa, carried 

in a sledge', (3) with the prep, f or d ; 
Freyr ok 1 kerru me3 gelti ; ri6r f>. 
hesti J)eim, er hann hafSi ekit d; 
(4) absol, to drive in a vehicle (f6ru 
l)eir i sledann ok oku alia nottina) ; 
with ace. of the road (oku urgar 
brautir) ; (5) naut., to trim the sail 
(a. seglum at endilongum skipum) ; 

(6) to remove, with dat. ; ok hann af 
ser f jotrinum, worked it off by rubbing ; 
ok Oddr ser J)ar at, worked himself 
//z/M^r (of a fettered prisoner) ; a. e-m 
d bug or a. bug i. e-n, to make one give 
way, repel', intrans. = akast, to 7nove 
slowly ; hvdrrgi ok {gave way) fyrir 
o6rum ; a. undan, to retire, retreat ; 

(7) impers., hart ekr at e-m, one is ift 
great straits ; ekr nu mjok at, 1 atn 
hard pressed; e-m ver6r naarekit, 07te 
gets into straits, is hard pressed; refl., 
e-m ekst e-t 1 tauma, one is thwarted 
in a thing. 

akarn, n. acorn. 

ak-braut, f. can-iage-road ; -foeri, n. 
driving gear, carriage and har?iess. 

akkeri, n. anchor ; liggja um akkeri, 
to lie at anchor; leggjast um a., to 
cast anchor ; heimta upp a., to weigh 
anchor ; a. hrifr vi5, the anchor holds, 

akkeris-fleinn, m. fluke of an 
anchor ; -lauss, a. without anchor ; 
-leggr, m, shank of an anchor ; 
-laegi, n. anchorage; -sat, f.=-lcegi; 
-stokkr, m. anchor-stock; -strengr, 
m. anchor-rope, cable; -ssBti, n.= 

akr (gen. akrs, pi. akrar), m. (i) 
field, corn-field (bleikir akrar en 
slegin tun) : (2) crop (J)eirhofc5u niSr- 
brotit akra hans alia). 

akra-dvoxtr, m. produce of the 
fields ; -gerSi, n. enclosure of arable 
land; -merki, n. field-boimdary ; 
-skipti, n. parcelling out of fields ; 
-spillir, m. destroyer of fields. 

akr-dai,m. rt>6/;'2^/^w^^^/(ga]eopsis) ; 
-deili, n. patch of arable la?id ; -for, 
f. plough-furrow; -gerS, f. agri- 

akrger(5ar-niat5r, m. husba7tdman. 

akr-ger$i, n. e7iclosu7'e of arable 
land; -hssna, f. quail; -karl, m. 
plough7}ian, 7'eaper\ -kal, x\. potherbs'.. 




-kvlsl, f. dung-fork^ — mykikvisl ; 
-land, n. arable land\ -lengd, f. a 
fields s length (svd at akriengd var f 
milium peirra) ; -lykkja, f. = -ger3i ; 
-maSr, m. = -karl, akrgerQarmadr. 

akrplogs-maSr, xw. ploughman. 

akr-rein, f. strip of arable land\ 
-skipti,n. division of afield \ -skurtSr, 
m. reaping. 

akrskurSar-mat5r, m. reaper. 

akr-8ura, f. field-sorrel ; -tiund, f. 
tithe paid on arable land\ -vertS, n. 
price of a corn-field \ -verk, field- 
work, harvest-work. 

akrverks-maSr, m. husbandtnan j 
tiller of the ground. 

akta (at5), v. (i) to number^ tax, 
value (a. folkit, a. visaeyri konungs) ; 

(2) to examine., search into (aktid per 
ok oil leyni J)au, er hann md felast) ; 

(3) to devote attention to, to study 
(a. ymisligar ijirottir, bokligar listir) ; 

(4) to procure (a. pa hluti er hinum 
sjuka henta) ; a. e-t inn, to furnish, 
supply ; {^)to debate, discuss in parlia- 
vient (mi sem petta var aktat, gengu 
menn til logrettu). 

ak-tamr, a. tajne under the yoke 
(griSungr -tamr) ; -taumr, m. esp. in 
pi. aktaumar, braces {straps) of a sail 
(cf. aka segli) ; |>6rarinn haf3i -taum- 
ana um herSar sdr, had the braces 
round his shoulders; sitja i -taumum, 
to tnanage the sail; fig., to have the 
whole management of a thing. 

ala (el, 61, olum, alinn), v. (i) to 
beget ; born olu pau, they begat chil- 
dren ; born pau, er hann elr vi6 peirri 
konu, begets by that woman ; {2) to 
bear, give birth to (f^ora 61 barn um 
sumarit) ; born pau oil, er alin eru 
fyrir jol, who are born before Christ- 
mas ; alnir ok ualnir (= ubornir), born 
and unborn, present and future gene- 
rations ; iz) lo bring up (children) ; 
ala skal bam hvert er borit verSr, 
every child that is born shall be 
brought up ; adding the particle 
'upp'; skal eigi upp ala, heldr ut 
bera barn petta, this child shall not 
be brought up, but be exposed to 
perish; of animals, to rear, breed 
(einn smdsauS, er hann 61 heima 1 

husi sfnu) ; (4) to give food to, har- 
bour, entertain (a. gest ok ganganda) ; 
gud elr gesti, God pays for the guests ; 
(5 ) fig. in various phrases ; a. aldr, a. 
aldr sinn, to pass one's days ; a. sut, 
to grieve, mourn ( = sy ta) ; a. dnn of 
e-t or at e-u, to take care of, see to ; 
a. e-t Q^iit e-m, to give one encourage- 
ment in a thing (61 hann eptir engum 
monnum odaSir) ; a. i. vniX, to press or 
urge a matter (mi elr Gunnarr d mdlit 
vis |»6r5 ok segir). 

alaSs-festr, f. the last ounce (eyrir) 
of the sum * fjorbaugr ' to be paid by 
a convict in the Court of Execution. 

al-aut5n, f. total devastation ; -au^r, 
a. altogether waste ; -bata, a. indecl. 
co77ipletely cured, quite well; -berr, 
a. (i) quite bare, stark-naked; (2) 
mafiifest; -bitinn, pp. bitten all over; 
-bjartr, a. quite bright, brilliant; 
-blindr, a. stone-blind; -blotSugr, a. 
bloody all over ; -breitSr, a. of the full 
breadth (albreitt lerept) ; -brotinn, pp. 
quite broken, shattered; -brynjaor, 
pp. cased in mail; -bua (see bua), v. 
to fit out, furnish or equip completely 
(albiia kirkju) ; -buinn, pp. (i) com- 
pletely equipped (ok er Bjorn var 
albiiinn ok byrr rann d) ; (2) albiiinn 
e-s, at gera e-t, quite ready {willing) 
to do a thing; -bygSr, pp. com- 
pletely inhabited; at albygfiu landi, 
after the colonization was finished. 

alda, f. a heavy {swelling) wave, 
a roller. 

alda, gen, pi. of ' old '. 

aldafars-bok, f. = De Ratione Tem- 
porum, a work by Bede (svd segir 
heilagr Beda i -b6k peirri, er hann 
gerSi um landaskipan i heiminum). 

alda-mot, n. pi. the meeting of two 
{lunar) cycles, change of cycles. 

aldar, gen. sing, of ' old '. 

aldar-e^li, n. everlasting possession 
(at -edli) ; -fa^ir, xn.patriarch ; -far, 
n. spirit or manners of the age ; -mdl, 
n. tenure for life ; -menn, m. pi., hinir 
fyrstu -menn vdrir, our first ancestors ; 
-rof, n. end of ages ; -rog, n. strife of 
men ; -tal, n. age fgamall at -tali) ; 
-tryg^ir, f. pi. everlasting truce \ 
-J)opti, m. = aldavinr. 




alda-skipti, n. change oftijne ; -tal, 
n. (i) chronology, (2) coinptitation of 
time (by the various chronological 

al-dau^a, a. indecl. dead and gone, 
extinct (eptir dau6a Haralds var 
aldauSa hin forna aett Danakonunga) ; 
aldauSa arfr, inheritance to which 
there is no heir alive. 

alda-vinr, m. old, trusty friend. 

aldin, n. tree-frtiit (nuts, acorns, 
apples) ; fig., blezat s^ a. kviSar J)ins, 
the fruit of thy wo^nb. 

aldin-berandi, pr, p. bearing fruit . 

aldin-falda, a. indecl. wearing an 
old-fashioned head-dress. 

aldin-garSr, m. garden^ orchard. 

aldini, n. = aldin. 

aldin-lausB, a. bearing no fruit 
(-laust tr^). 

aldinn, a. old (inn aldni jotunn). 

aldin-skogr, m. wood of fruit-trees ; 
•^6, n. frtdt-tree ; -vicSr, m. fruit- 
bearing trees. 

aldr (gen. aldrs), m. (i) age, life- 
time ; sautj^n vetra at aldri, seventeen 
years of age ; ungr at 2A^x\, young ; d, 
ungum aldri, in {one's) youth ; d gam- 
als aldri, in (one's) old age ; hniginn 
at aldri, in the decline of life ; hnig- 
inn d efra aldr, stricken in years ; d 
Idttasta aldri, iti the prime of life ; 
lifa langan aldr, to enjoy a long life ; 
nema, rasna e-n aldri, to take one's 
life\ tyna (slita) aldri, to lose one's 
life ; (2) old age ; vera vi5 a., to be up 
in years ; aldri farinn or orpinn, "very 
old\ (3) long period, age (eptir marga 
vetr ok mikinn a.) ; allan a. through 
all time, always ; of a., um a. (ok asfi), 
for ever and ever ; after a negation, 
ever (t)vilika gersemi hofum ver eigi 
set um a.) ; hverr um a. var svd djarfr, 
who ever was so bold f 

aldrat5r, a. elderly (oldruS kona). 

aldr-dagar, m. pi., um -daga, for 
ever and ever ( = um aldr) ; -fremd, 
f. everlastifjg honour. 

aldri, adv. (i) never (a, skal ek 
heSan ganga fyrr en hann riss upp) ; 
(2) ever, after a preceding negative or 
a comparative (er mi 0rva2nt at ver 
munum a. ii. dyr skotit) ; gerSu \ii. 

verra en aldri fyrr, worse than ever 

aldrigi (aldri-gi, dat. of aldr with 
the negative suffix -gi), adv.= aldri. 

aldr-lag, n. (i) otie's appointed lot 
or fortune, destiny ; (2) end of life, 
death ; verSa e-m at -lagi, to bring one 
to his end. 

aldr-lok, n. pi. end of life, death ; 
-mali, m. tenure for life; -nari, m. 
poet, name of fire ; -ninar, f. pi. 
Iife-ru7ies, charms for preserving life ; 
-sattr, a. on terms of peace for ever ; 
-slit, n. pi. end of life, death (til -slita). 

aldrs-munr, m. difference in years. 

aldr-stamr, a._/kj, doomed to n'eath ; 
-till, m. loss of life, death ; -tjon, n. 
loss of life ; -tregi, m. life-long sor- 

ald-roenn, a. elderly, aged. 

aldyggiligr, -dyggr, a. faithful', 
-dfiBli, a. very easy to deal with, gentle. 

aleiga, f. one's entire property; al- 
eigu-mal, n., -sok, f. a suit itivolving 
a person's whole property. 

al-eySa (-dda, -ddr), v. to lay totally 
waste, devastate ; -eyc5a, f. devasta- 
tion ; gera aleySu, to turti into a wil- 
derness ; -ey5a, a. indecl. altogether 
waste, empty, void of people 1 J)Ar var 
aleySa at monnum) ; hann brennir ok 
gerir aleySa landit, makes the land an 
utter waste. 

al-fari, a.fara (ri6a 1 brott) al-fari, to 
go away (ride off) for good ; -farinn, 
pp. worn out, far gone ; -feginn, a. 
very glad', •fv]k\s,?L.quite free \ -froSr, 
a. ve?y wise ; -fullr, a. guit.^ full ; 
-fuinn, a. quite rotten ; -fot^r, m. 
father of all (name of Odin) ; -gangsa, 
a. indecl. quite com7non ; -geldr, a. 
quite gel fed; -gera (-t5a, -t5r), v. to 
finish, make perfect. 

alger-leikr, m. perfection ; -liga, 
adv. cof?ipletely, fully ; -ligleikr, m. 
= -leikr. 

al-gerr, a. perfect, complete ; finish- 
ed; -gervi, f. (i) perfection ; (2) full 
attire ; -gildi, n. full value. 

algildis-vitni, n. competent witness. 

al-gjafta, a. indecl. stall-fed ; -gley- 
mingr, m. great glee ; sll d algleym- 
ing, to beco77ie ve7y t7ierry ; -goSr, a. 




perfectly good', -grar, a. quite grey ; 
-groinn, T^'p. perfectly healed \ -groenn, 
a. quite green ; -gullinn, a. all-golden ; 
-gaeft, 2idy. fully. 

al-g0ra— al-gprvi, see algera, &c. 

al-heiSinn, a. utterly heathen ; -hei- 
lagr, a. all-holy \ -heill, a. (l) com- 
pletely whole, entire ; (2) perfectly 
healthy (alheill at likam) ; -heilsa, f. 
perfect health ; -henda, f. a inetre 
having two pairs of rhyming words 
in every line ; -hending, f.= -henda ; 
-hendr, a. with full rhyme in every 
line (tvau kvasSi alhend) ; -hreinn, a. 
quite pure, clean ; -huga, a. indecl. 
whole-hearted, in full earnest ; -hugat, 
pp. n. resolved, fully determined-, ef 
|)er er |)at alhugat, if you are in real 
earnest ; adv. in earnest, sincerely 
(iSrast alhugat); -hugi, m. earnest', 
l)etta er alhugi minn, / am in real 
earnest ; -hugligr, a. sincere ; -hung- 
racSr, a. starving, famished ; -husa 
(atS), V. to build fully ; -hvitr, a. quite 
white ; -hysa (-ta, -tr), v. = -husa ; 
alhyst,w///^ all the buildings finished; 
-hysi, n. all the farm-buildiiigs ; 
-hcBgr, a. quite easy, smooth (alhcEgt 

ali-bjorn, m. tame bear ; -dyr, n. do- 
mestic animal ; -fiskr, m. fish fattened 
in a pond ; -fugl, m. tatnefowl ; -gas, 
f. tame goose. 

alin (gen. sing, alnar or alnar ; pi. 
alnar or alnir), f. = oln ; (i) the old 
Icelandic ell (about half a yard) ; (2) 
unit of value, an ell of w^ 'ollen stuff [ a. 
va6mdls^, = onesixthofanounce(eyrir). 

ali-sau^r, m. ho7ne-fed {pet) sheep ; 
-svin, n. tame swine. 

al-jatn, a. quite equal; -jarnaSr, 
pp. shod on all four feet ; -keyptr, pp. 
dearly bought, = fullkeyptr ; -klasS- 
naSr, m. a full suit of clothes ; -krist- 
inn, a. entirely Christian ; -kri&t- 
naSr, pp. completely christia^iized; 
-kunna, a. indecl. (i) universally 
known, notorious (sem alkunna er 
or6it); {2) fully informed; unz al- 
kunna, until I know the whole ; 
-kunnigr, a., -kunnr, a. notorious ; 
-kyrra, a. indecl. completely calm, 

all- may be prefixed to almost every 
adjective and adverb in an intensive 
sense, very, extremely ; -annt, a. n. 
very eager ; -apr, a. ve7y harsh ; -autS- 
sottligr, a. very easy to accimiplish ; 
-auSveldliga, adv. very easily ; -auS- 
veldr, a. ve^y easy ; -agaetr, a. very 
famoits ; -dhyggjusamliga, adv. very 
anxiojisly ; -akafliga, adv. with much 
ardour; -akaff-, adv. very fast (ri3a 
-dkaft) ; -arsB^iliga, adv. very appo- 
sitely ; -arsBSislitill, a. very timid ; 
-astut^ligr, a. very hearty, intimate ; 
-beinn, a. very hospitable ; -beiskr, 
a. very harsh, bitter; -bitr, a. ve7y 
sharp ; -bjartr, a. very bright, splen- 
did; -bjugr, a. very much bent; 
-blit5liga, adv. very kindly ; -bliSr, 
a. very mild, ge?itle; -brdSgorr, a. 
very precocious; -bro3ligr, a. very 
laughable, funny ; -digr, a. 7'ery big; 
-djarfliga, adv. very boldly ; -dreng- 
iliga, adv. very gallantly ; -draemt, 
adv. very boastfully ; -dyrr, a. very 
dear; -eigulegr, a. very precious; 
-einarSliga, adv. very frankly, sin- 
cerely ; -eldiligr, a., of a very aged 
appearance ; -fagr, a. very bright, 
fair; -fast, adv. 'z/<?ryyfr?;//y ; drekka 
-fast, to dj'ink very hard; -f aster Sr, 
a. very true to one's word ; -famaligr, 
a. of very few words ; -famennr, a. 
followed or attended by very few per- 
sons ; -fdraetSinn, a. very chary of 
words ; -feginn, a. very glad ; -fegin- 
samliga. adv. very gladly ; -feigligr, 
a. having the mark of death plain on 
Ofte's face ; -feitr, a. very fat ; -f6- 
mikill, a. very costly; -:Qarri, adv. 
very far, far from ; -fjartekil-, pp. n. 
very far-fetched \ -f j ^Ikunnigr, a. 
very deeply versed in sorcery ; -fjol- 
mennr, a. followed or attended by 
very many people ; in very great num- 
bers; -fjolroett, pp. n. very jnuch 
talked of; -forsjall, a. very prudent; 
-frekr, a. vety during; -fri!5r, a. very 
beautiful; -froSr, a. very learned; 
-frsBgr, a. very famous ; -fuss, a. very 
eager ; -fysiligr, a. very desirable. 

All-foSr, v^. father of all (a name of 

all-gamall, a. very old ; -gemsmik- 




ill, a. very wanton ; -geria, adv. 
very clearly, precisely \ -gerviligr, 
a. very manly, -geatrisinn, a. very 
hospitable', -geysiligr, a. very im- 
petuous; -glaSliga, adv. very joy- 
fully ; -glaSr, a. very joyful ; -glatt, 
adv. very bright (Ijos brann -glatt) ; 
-gleymr, a. very gleeful, in high 
spirits (ver6a -gleymr vi3 e-t) ; -glsBS- 
iligr, a. very shiny, splendid ; -gl0gg- 
ssBr, a. clearly visible, very trans- 
parent ; -gl0ggt, adv. very precisely 
(vita e-t -gl0ggt) ; -goSr, a. very good ; 
-g65v8Bnliga, adv. very promisingly ; 
-grimmr, a. very cruel or fierce ; 
-grunsamliga, adv. very suspiciously, 
-g0rla, adv. = -gerla; -g0rviligr, a. 
= -gerviligr ; -hartSr, a. very hard, 
stern ; -heimskr, a. very silly, stupid \ 
-herSimikill, a. very broad-shoul- 
dered; -hjaldrjugr, 2k. very talkative ; 
-hogliga, adv. very gently ; -hraustr, 
a, very valiaftt ; -hrumliga, adv. very 
infirmly (from age) ; -hraeddr, a. very 
77iuch cifraid ; -hraB^inn, a. very timid ; 
-hugsjukr, a. very much grieved, 
anxious; -hvass, a. blowifig very 
hard (var -hvast i. norSan) ; -hyggi- 
ligr, Vi.very prudent, judicious; -hfietS- 
iligr, a. very scoffing; -haBldreginn, 
a. very slow in walking, dragging 
the heels; -hoegliga, adv. gently, 
jneekly (svara -hoegliga) ; -iSinn, a. 
very diligent ; -ilia, adv. very badly ; 
-illr, a. very bad; -jafhlyndr, a. very 
calm, even-tempered. 

al-lj6ss, a. (i) quite light; dagr al- 
Ijoss, broad daylight; (2) quite clear. 

all-kaldr, a, very cold; -kappsam- 
liga, adv. with very much zeal, very 
liberally ; -karlmannliga, adv. very 
manfully ; -kaupmannliga, adv. in 
a very businesslike way ; -katligr, a. 
very fu?iny ; -kdtr, a. very merty ; 
-kerskiligr, a. very funny, pleasant ; 
"kynligr, a. very strange ; -kaerr, a. 
very dear, beloved; -langr, a. vefy 
long; -laust, adv. very loosely ; -lagr, 
a. very low, short of stature; -16tt- 
brunn, a. of very cheerful countenance ; 
-16ttm8Blt, pp. n. 7'ery cheerfully 
spoken ; -16ttr, a. very light (in weight) ; 
-likliga, adv. in very agreeable terms ; 

-likligr, a. very likely ; -likr, a. very 
like ; -litill, a. very little ; -lyginn, a. 
much given to lying; -mannhaettr, 
a. very dangerous; -mannskoetSr, a. 
very murderotis; -mannvaenn, a. (a 
man) of very great promise ; -marg- 
liga, adv. very affably ; -margmaBltr, 
a. very talkative ; -margr, a. very 
numerous ; pl. allmargir, very tnany ; 
-raargroett, pp. n. very much spoken 
of; -mdlugr, a. very loquacious; 
-mattfarinn, a. very much worn out ; 
-mattlitill, a. very weak ; -megin- 
lauss, a. very void of strength \ 
-mikill, a. very great ; -misjafnt, adv. 
very variously, in very diffierent ways; 
-Ijoss, a. very light; -mjor, a. very 
slim, slender; -mjok, adv. very inuch ; 
-naut^igr, a. very reluctant ; -nauSu- 
liga, adv. very dangerously (-nauSu- 
liga staddr) ; -ndinn, a. very near, 
nearly related ; -nsBr, adv. very near ; 
-naerri, adv. = -nasr. 

al-loSinn, a. shaggy all over ; -lokit, 
pp. n. entirely gone. 

all-opt, adv. very often ; -ort5fdtt, 
a. n., gera allorSfdtt urn, to be very 
chary of words as to ; -ogurligr, a. 
very frightful. 

allr (oil, allt), a. (l) all, entire, 
whole ; hon d, allan arf eptir mik, she 
has all the heritage after me ; af ollum 
hug, with all [one's) heart; hvitr a., 
white all over ; bu allt, the whole 
estate; allan daginn, the whole day; 
i allri verold, in the whole world; 
allan hdlfan minu6, for the entire 
fortnight; with addition of 'saman'; 
allt saman feit, the whole amount-. 
urn jDenna herna6 allan saman, all 
together; (2) used almost adverbially, 
all, quite, entirely ; klofnadi hann a. 
1 sundr,^ he was all cloven asunder , 
kvddu Orn allan villast, that he was 
altogether bewildered; var Hrappr 
a. brottu, quite gone; a. annarr maSr, 
quite another tnan ; (3) gone, past ; 
d3r J)essi dagr er a, before this day 
is past ; var pd oil |3eirra vindtta, their 
friendship was all over; allt er nu 
mitt megin, 7fiy strength is exhausted^ 
gone ; (4) departed, dead (J)d er Geir- 
mundr var a.) ; (5) neut. sing, (allt) 




used as a subst. in the sense of all, 
everything-^ eigi er enn Jjeirra allt, 
they have not yet altogether won the 
game ; f)d var allt {all, everybody) 
vi6 pd hraett ; h^r er skammastt allt, 
here eve?ythi7ig is transient) J)vi 
ollu, with a compar. all the more 
(J)vi ollu t^ungbagrri) ; with gen., allt 
missera ( = 611 misseri), all the year 
rou7id\ allt annars, all the rest; at 
ollu annars, in all other respects ; alls 
{yrs\., first of all \ alls mest, most of 
all; in adverbial phrases : at ollu, in 
all respects, in every way ; f ollu, in 
everything; me6 ollu, wholly, quite; 
neita me6 ollu, to refuse outright; 
(6) pi. allir (allar, oil), as adj. or sub- 
stantively, all (J)eir gengu ut allir) ; 
or ollum fjorSungum d landinu, from 
all the quarters of the lafid', allir 
a6rir, all others, every one else ; flestir 
allir, nearly all, the greatest part of; 
gen. pi. (allra) as an intensive with 
superlatives, of all things, all the 
more ; nii t)ykkir mer pat allra synst, 
er, all the more likely, as ; allra helzt, 
er J)eir heyra, particularly now when 
they hear ; allra sizt, least of all. 

allraheilagra-messa, f., -messu- 
dagr, m. Allhallow-mass, All Saints' 

all-rammskipa^r, pp. very strongly 
manned; -raucSr, a. very red; -ra6- 
ligr, a. very advisable ; -reiSiligr, a. 
looking very angry ; -rei^r, a. very 
angry ; -rikmannligr, a. very grand, 
mag7i2ficent ; -rikr, a. very powerful ; 
-roskliga, adv. very briskly. 

alls, gen. sing, of ' allr ', used as an 
adv.; (i) a. ekki (eigi), 7iot at all, by 
no means; J)eir ug6u a. ekki at ser, 
they were not a bit afraid; a. engi, 
no one at all ; sometimes without a 
negative following it, quite, altogether; 
ser a. geldar, ewes quite barren ; a. 
vesall, altogether wretched ; hann var 
eigi a. tvitugr, not quite twenty years 
old; (2) in connexion with numbers, 
in all; alls forust niu menn, there 
perished nine in all; (3) altogether, 
far ; alls of lengi, alls til lengi, far 
too long a time. 

alls, conj. as, since (a. t)u ert goSr 

drengr kalladr) ; with addition of ' er ' 
(a. er bij ert svd brdhaldr d binu 

all-sannligr, a. very likely; -satt- 
fuss, a. very placable ; -seinn, a. very 
slow ; -seint, adv. very slowly. 

alls-endis, adv., esp. with a preced- 
ing negative, in every respect, quite, 
thoroughly ; also, til -endis ; -hattar, 
adv. of every kind. 

allsherjar-,^^«<?;v2/, public, common ; 
-bu5, f. the booth of the -go3i ; -domr, 
m. public judgement ; -f6, n. public 
property; -goSi, m. the stipreme 
priest (who opened the alj)ingi every 
year) ; -lic5, n. ptiblic troops ; -lySr, 
m. the people, commonalty ; -log, n. 
pi. public law; -I)ing, n. general 

all-sigrssBll, a. very successful in 
war; -aka,Jiijn.r, £i. very short ; neut., 
-skammt, a very short way, short dis- 
tance ; -skommu, a very short time 
ago ; -skapliga, adv. very fittingly ; 
-skapvserr, 2l. of a very gentle dis- 
position ; -skapl)ungr, a. very de- 
pressed in spirit (e-m er -skappungt) ; 
-skemtiligr, a. very a?nusing; -skil- 
litill, a. very untrustworthy \ -skjall- 
kcBnliga, adv. in a very coaxing way ; 
-skjott, adv. very soo?i ; -skygn, a. 
very sharp- sighted; -skyldr, a. (i) 
very obligatory, neut., -skylt, bounden 
duty; (2) very nearly related, near 
akin ; -skynsamliga, adv. ve?y ju- 
diciously ; -skoruligr, a. very striking 
or magnificefit (allskorulig veizla) ; 
-slsBliga, adv. very sluggishly ; -aloeg- 
liga, adv. very cunningly ; -smar, 
a. very small; -snarpliga, adv. very 
sharply or smartly ; -snarpr, a. very 
sharp ; -snemma, adv. very early ; 
-snjallr, a. very shrewd or clever; 
-spakr, a. very gentle, very wise ; 
-starsynn, a. looking fixedly upon ; 
-sterkligr, a. very strong-looking; 
-sterkr, a. very strong; -stilliliga, 
adv. very calmly, very composedly; 
-stirSr, a. very stifi; -storhcggr, a. 
dealing very hard blows ; -storliga, 
adv. very haughtily ; -stormannliga, 
adv. very munificently; -storoiSr, 
a. using very big words ; -storr, a. 




very great or big ; -styggr, a. very 
ill-humoured ^ very cross ; -styrkliga, 
adv. very stoutly \ -styrkr, a. very 

alls-valdandi, pr. p. of God, Al- 
mighty ; -valdari, m. almighty ruler ; 
-valdr, a. = -valdandi ; -vesall, a. 
utterly wi'etched. 

all-svangr, a. very hungry. 


very wisely 


alls-voldugr, a. = alls- valdr. 

all-ssettfuss, a. very placable, very 
eager for peace. 

all-soerailigr, a. very honotirable. 

allt, neut. from * allr* ; (i) right up 
to, all the way \ Brynj61fr gengr a. at 
honum, close up to him ; a. norSr um 
Sta.6, all the way north, round Cape 
Stai\ {7.) everywhere; SigroSrvarkon- 
ungr a. um {rsendalog, over all Dront- 
heim ; voru svirar a. guUi bunir, all 
overlaid with gold \ {2,) already \ voru 
a. komin fyrir hann bref, warrants of 
arrest were already awaiting hiin ; 
(4) of time, all through, until (a. til 
Jonsvoku) ; (5) a. til, a. oi^far too (J)u 
ert a. of heimskr) ; (6) a. at einu, a. 
eins, all the same, nevertheless (ek 
aetla 1)6 utan a, eins). 

all-tillatsamr, a. very indulgent; 
-tit5rcBtt, pp. n. very 7nuch talked 
of; -ti($virkr, a. very quick at work ; 
-torfyndr, a. very hard to find', -tor- 
fcert, a. n. very hard to pass ; -tor- 
sottr, pp. very difficult to reach ; 
-tortryggiliga, adv. very suspicious- 
ly ; -trauSr, a. very slow, unwilling', 
-tregr, a. very tardy ; -trur, a. very 
true ; -tryggr, a. very trusty ; -und- 
arligr, a. very strange', -ungr, a. 
very young ; -libeinskeytr, a. shoot- 
ing very badly ; -ublitSr, a. very 
harsh, unkind ; -ubragSligr, a. very 
ill-looking ; -udaBll, a. very ujttracta- 
ble ; -ufagr, a. -^ery ugly ; -ufimliga, 
adv. very awkwardly ; -uframliga, 
adv. very timidly ; -ufrynn, a very 
sullen ; -ufreBgr, a. very inglorious ; 
-uglaSr, di.very gloomy, sad ; -uhoegr, 
a. ^'<?ry difficult] -uh6f(5ingligr, a. 
very plebeian ; -likdtr, a. in very low 
spirits ; -ukndr, a. -z/i^ry a/^rt>^ <?/" 

frame; -ukonungligr, a. ■z/<fr)/ ««- 
kingly, -ukunnigr, a. ^«//<f unknown\ 
-ulifLigr, a. very unlikely to live ; 
-ulikliga, adv. very unlikely ; -ulikr, 
a. -z/^rj/ unlike ; -umattuliga, adv. 7/^ry 
weakly ; -urdt^inn, a. T/^fry ufidecided ; 
-urat5liga, adv. ^'(?;J unadvisedly or 
rashly ; -usannligr, a. T/^ry unjust, 
very unlikely ; -usattfuss, a. z/^ry //«- 
placable ; -uskyldr, 2l. far from being 
incumbe7it on one (hitt astla ek mer 
-uskylt) ; -uspakr, a. very unruly ; 
-usvdss, a. 7/^ry uncomfortable (var 
J)d. veflr -usvdst) ; -usynn, a. 7'(?ry /^«- 
certain, very doubtftd', -lisaeligr, a. of 
very wretched appearance', -uvinssBll, 
a. very unpopular ; -uvisliga, adv. 
very unwisely ; -uvasnligr, a. of very 
unfivoia-able prospect ; -uvsenn, a. 
(l) 7/^rK z<^^/y ; (2) T/^r^ unpromising 
or uffavourable ; neut., -uvsent, •27^;2K 
unfavourably ; -u)?arfr, a. -z^^^ry ««- 
profitable, injurious (e-m). 

all-valdr, m. sovereign, king (heilii 
all-valdar M6ir !). 

allvalds-konungr, m. = all valdr. 

all-vandlatr, a. very difficult to 
please ; -vandliga, adv. very care- 
fully, exactly ; -vant, a. n., e-m er 
-vant um, ofte is in a very great 
strait ; -varfoerr, a. very catitious, 
careful', -vaskr, a. very brisk or 
gallant; -veSrlitit, a. n. very calm ; 
-vegliga, adv. splendidly, nobly ; 
-vegligr, a. very grand; -vel, adv. 
very well ; -vesall, a. vejy miserable, 
vile ; -vingott, a. n. o?t very friendly 
terms (var -vingott me6 peim) ; -vin- 
ssell, a. very popular ; -virSuligr, a. 
very worthy, dignified; -vitr, a. very 
wise ; -vitrliga, adv. very prudently ; 
-vitSa, adv. very widely ; -vigliga, 
adv. in a very warlike manner ; -vig- 
mannliga, adv. very martially ; -vig- 
m6t5r, a. quite wearied out with 
fighting ; -viss, a. quite certain ; 
-vsBnligr, a. , -vaBnn, a. vejy profnis- 
ing', Jjykkja -vasnt um e-n, to be de- 
lighted with one; -vsent, adv. very 
favourably (konungr tok l)essu -vsent) ; 
-vorpuligr, a. of a very stately fra7ne'y 
-voxtuligr, a. very tall ; -parfliga, 
adv. very pressingly ; biQja -parfliga, 




to beg very hard; -l)6ttr, a. very 
crowded \ -J)rekligr, 2l. of a very 
robust frame ; -l)ungliga, adv. very 
heavily ; taka -t)ungliga a e-m, to be 
very hard upon ; -J)ungr, a. ( i ) very 
disagreeable, hard\ (2) hostile, badly 
disposed towards (til e-s) ; -Jjykkr, 
a. very thick ; fellu fieir -J)ykkt, in 
great numbers ; -oefr, a. very furious ; 
-oegiligr, a. very terrible ; -CBstr, pp. 
greatly excited ; -ororSr, a. 7/(?r/ 
frank, outspoken', -0ruggr, a. -z/^fry 
tmfi inching. 

alinanna-byg(5, f. a well-peopled 
district ; -foeri, n. public way ; -leitJ, 
f. public road ; -lof, n. universal 
praise ; -skript, f . general confession ; 
-stofa, f. /y^<? common hall, opp. to 
' litla stofa'; -tal, n. (i) co7nmon 
reckoning (at -tali) ; (2) general cen- 
sus; -vegr, m. high r^(Z^, = J)j66vegr, 

al-mattigr, a. almighty ; -mdttr, m. 
almightiness, o??mipotence ; -menni, 
n. M^ people, puolic; -menniliga, 
adv. generally, cojnmonly, -menni- 
ligr, 2i. gefieral, comjnon. 

almenning, f., almenningr, m. (i) 
cojfimon lajid ', (2) co77imon ox public 
pasture; (3) public thoroughfare (in 
Norse towns) ; (4) the people, public 
in general ; ( 5 ) levy, conscriptio7i ; 
fulir (allr), hdlfr almenningr, a full 
{co77iplete) or half levy of men and 

airaennings-br6f, n. procla77iation ; 
-drykkja, f. public banquet ; -far, n. 
public fe7'ry ; -gata, f. public road ; 
-glofar, m. pi. co 771771071 gloves ; -bus, 
n. a house for the use of travellers ; 
-mork, f., -skogr, m. public forest ; 
-straeti, n. public thoroughfare ; -tollr, 
m. public tax; -tru, f. catholic faith 
( = almennilig tru); -vegr, ra. public 
way ; -61, n. co77i7non ale. 

almennr, a. co77i77ion^ ge7teral, 

al-mugi, m. the co7n7no7ts, co77i7non 
people (konungrinn ok almiiginn) ; 
-mugr, m. = al-mugi ; -mseli, n. (1) 
co77i77ion sayi7ig^ ge7ieral rep07t ; pat 
er almasli, at, all people say {agree), 
that; (2) sayi7ig,prove7-b; J)6tt almaslit 

sannafiist, at moSurbroeSrum verSi 
menn likastir, though the saying 
proved true, that ; -masltr, pp. 
spoken by all; -maelt tiSindi, co77i77ioti 
news ; (2) of a child that has learnt to 
talk; -maBtti, n. = almattr. 

al-naktr, a. quite naked. 

alua-inal, n. 77ieasure by the ell 
(see alin). 

al-nyr, a. quite fiew ; -noktr, a. 
= alnaktr. 

al-ogat, a., -ogi, m., -ogligr, a., 
see -hugat, -hugi, -hugligr. 

air (-S, -ir), m. a7vl; skjalfa J)6tti 
husit, sem i. als oddi leki, as if it were 
balanced on the point of a7i awl, 

al-rau5r, a. quite red ; -ra5inn, pp. 
quite deter77iined ; -rann, a. utterly 
piunde7^ed ; -reyndr, i^"^. fully proved. 

alri, m. elder tree, see elri. 

al-roskinn, a. quite grown up ; 
-rotinn, a. quite rotten ; -rcemdr, pp. 
ru77ioured by all ; alroemt er, every one 
says ; -sagcSr, pp. spoken of by all ; 
-satt, f., als^ttum sittir, co77ipletely 
reconciled ; -sattr, a. fully reconciled ; 
-sekr, a. an outlaw in the greater de- 
gree =sk6g?irn\^6::; -sitSa, a. indecl., er 
Kristni var 7Ji\s\63.,whe7t the Christian 
faith had beco77ie u?iiversal ; -skip- 
atSr, pp. (l) of a s\{\\i, fully 7na7ined; 
(2) of a bench, quite full; -skjaldaSr, 
a. closely set with shields ; -skrif- 
aSr, pp. written all over; -skygn, 
2l. fully seei7ig; -skyldr, a. (l) quite 
bound in duty, obliged; (2) quite 
binding; -slitinn, pp. quite worn 
out ; -slikr, a. quite the satne ; -smitS- 
a6r, pp. co77ipletely built ; -snau(5r, 
a. very poor ; -snotr, a., -spakr, a. 
all-wise, very clever ; -styfSr, pp. 
(a metre) i7i 77iasculine 7-hy77ies ; -styf- 
ingr, m. an a7ii7nal with close-cropped 
^arj- (= afeyringr) ; -svartr, a. quite 
black; -sveittr, a., -sveitugr, a. 
perspiri7ig all over ; -sviSr, -svinnr, 
a. all-wise ; -sykn, a. altogether free 
Qx guiltless {2\-^y\xi saka) ; -sykna, f. 
co77iplete rehabilitation; -aasll, a. 
altogether happy ; -saett, f., -ssBtti, n. 
co77iplete reconciliation. 

altari, n. and m. altar. 

altaris-blaeja, f. altar-cloth ; -bok, 




f. altar-book ; -brik, f. altar-piece ; 
-bunat$r, m. altar-furniture ; -dagr, 
m. anniversary of the consecration 
of an altar ; -dukr, m. altar-cloth ; 
-embsBtti, n. service of the altar ; 
-fom, f. offering on the altar ; -golf, 
n. the floor round an altar \ -horn, 
n. corner of an altar ; -hus, n. chapel \ 
-klaeSi, n. altar-cloth ; -likneski, n. 
image placed on ajt altar ; -messa, f. 
7?iass at an altar ; -staSr, m. the place 
where an altar stands ; -steinn, 
m. altar-slab \ -stika, f. candlestick 
for an altar ; -jDJonusta, f. altar- 

al-tjaldaSr, pp. hung all round with 
tapestry ; -ugat, a. = alhugat. 

al-uS, f. (older form olu5) affection^ 

alu5ar-ma(5r, m., -vinr, m. sincere 
or devoted friend. 

al-valdr, a. = allvaldr. 

alvara, f. (i) seriousness^ earnest ; 
taka e-t fyrir alvoru, to take it in 
earnest', vissa ek eigi, at J)6r var a., 
that you were in earnest ; (2) affection 
= aluQ ; er oil bans a. (inclination) 
til Olafs konungs. 

alvar-liga, adv. (i) seriously, ear- 
nestly ; (2) heartily (fagna e-m -liga) ; 
(3) entirely (-liga hreinn) ; -ligr, a. 
hearty, affectionate (-lig vindtta). 

al-vaskligr, a. tnost valiant, martial; 
-vaxinn, pp. quite grown up ; -vdp- 
naSr, pp. itt full armour ; -vdtr, a. 
thoroughly wet, wet through ; al- verki 
and -verkja, a. indecl. aching^ feeling 
pains all over the body, 

al-virkr, a., alvirkr dagr, a full 
working day ; -vist, adv. with full 
certainty ; -vitr, a. all-wise ; -veepni, 
n. complete arms ; hafa alvaepni, med 
alva2pni, {to be) fully armed. 

alvoru-liga, adv. earnestly, sin- 
cerely ; -ligr, a. = alvarligr ; -sam- 
liga, adv. = -liga ; -samligr, a. sin- 
cere, devoted (-samlig t)j6nusta). 

al-yrkr, a. = alvirkr (dagr) ; -{jakinn, 
pp. thatched all over', -J)iljatSr, pp. 
completely wainscotted or panelled. 

alj^ingi, n. the annual parliament 
or general assembly of the Icelandic 
Commonwealth (held in June). 

al-l)ingis, adv. quite, altogether 

all)ingis-d6nir, m. court of justice 
at the alt)ingi ; -far, f. journey to the 
a.; -helgun, f. inauguration of the a.; 
-lof, n. permission, leave, given by 
the a. ; -mdl, n. parliamentary rules 
or proceedings ; -nefna, f. tiomination 
of judges to the courts of the a.; -rei5, 
f. journey to the a. ; -satt, f. agreement 
entered into at the a.; -sdttarhald, n. 
the keeping ^alj) 

al-JjjoS, f. people in general (alt)j63 

al-{)ykkr, a. quite thick, foggy (veSr 

al-l)y5a f. (l) the whole people (bau5 
hann alpySu rikis sins at gofga lik- 
neskjuna); (2) people in general, the 
majority or bulk of the people (var 
pat heit J)d fest ok jdtat af allri alJjySu) ; 
vera litt vi6 alj)y6u skap, to be un- 
popular', (3) the common people 
(dnauQ ok ufrelsi gekk yfir folk allt, 
basdi rika menn ok alj)y6u). 

al-J)y5ast (dd), v. refl., alj)^6ast 
til e-s, to incline towards, attach one- 
self to ; -t)ySi, n.=-{)y5a. 

alt)ySis-f61k, n. the cofmnon people. 

alJjySligr, a. common, ge?ieral ', -ligr 
ma6r=mennskr ma3r,tj common man; 
1 -ligri rceSu, in ordinary speech ; hitt 
vaeri -ligra, more plain. 

al{)y(5u-drykkja, f. common ban- 
quet; -leit5, f. high-road ( = almanna- 
lei5) ; -lof, n. general praise, popu- 
larity ; -mal, n. general report ; -tal, 
n. common reckoning, opp. to ' rimtal' ; 
-vapn, n. ordinary weapon ; -vegr, 
m. = -lei3 ; -vir?5ing, {.public opinion; 
-vitni, n. universal testi7Jtony ; -t)y8S, 
m. general tumttlt. 

al-J)aegr, a. quite acceptable or pleas- 
ing (to one) ; -cestr, pp. quite excited, 
stirred up. 

ama (a5), v. to vex, molest; refl., 
amast vi6 e-n, e-t, to incofivenience, 
trouble (omuSust liSsmenn litt vi6 
hana) ; to object to, disapprove, show 
dislike to (a. vi6 byg^ e-s). 

amalera (atS), v. to enatnel (for- 
eign word). 

amban, f. (Norse) = ombun. 




ambdtt, f. (i) bondwoman'^ (2) coti' 

ambatta-fang, n. titssle between 

ambdttar-barn, n., -dottir, f. child, 
datighter of a bondwoman ; -ligr, a. 
vile, like an ambdtt ; -mot, n. ex- 
pression {mien) of a bondwoman (er 
eigi -mot d henni) ; -sonr, m. so7t of 
a bondwoman. 

ambo5, n. = andbo6, annboS. 

amma, i. gra7idmother (fodur-moQir, 

ampli, m., ampull, m. jug (am- 

amra (ao), v. to howl or yell 
piteously (of cats). 

an, conj. tha^i (an old form for ' en *). 

and-, a prefix denoting whatever is 
opposite, against, towards, and fig. 
hostile, adverse ; often spelt an- or 

anda(aS), V. to breathe, live (meSan 
I)eir megu a.) ; refl., andast, to breathe 
one's last, die ; andaSr, pp. dead', hun 
var y^k ondu6, had breathed her last. 

anda-gift, f. inspiration ; -kast, n. 
breathing', -lausa, a. without breath- 
ing (lifa -lauss) ; -liga, adv. spiritu- 
ally ; -ligr, a. spiritual (-lig foeSa). 

andar-, gen. from ' ond ' ; -auga, n. 
spiritual eye', -dauSi, m. spirit^ial 
death ; -drattr, m. breath, respiration. 

andar-egg, n. duck's egg', -fygli, n. 

andar-gjof, f. = -gift ; -gustr, m. 
breath of wind ; -heilsa, f . spiritual 
welfare', -kraptr, m. strength of 
mind', -T\xica.,Ti. breathing time', -sdr, 
n. mental wound. 

andar-steggi, -steggr, m. drake. 

andar-syn, f. vision ; -tak, n. breath ; 
-vani, -vanr, a. bi-eathless, lifeless. 

and-blasinn, pp. blown up, inflated 
with wind or air. 

and-boS, n. utensil ( = annbo3). 

and-dyri, n., -dyrr, f. ^\. porch. 

and-fang, n. reception, hospitality. 

and-faslur, f. \i\. fright-, vakna me6 
-faelum, to awake in a fright. 

and-fcBtingr, m. (i) a person whose 
feet are turned backwards ; (2) pi. 

and-foetingar. Antipodes. 

and-hlaup, n. suffocation. 

and-hvalr, m. bottle-nosed whale. 

andi, m. (i) breath, breathing '^ a. 
Ingimundar er ekki g63r, his breath 
smells, is foul', (2) current of air (a. 
handar l)innar) ; (3) gramm., aspira- 
tion (linr, snarpr a.) ; (4) soul (gu6 
skapaSi likamann ok andann) ; gjalda 
gu6i sinn anda, to die ; (5) spirit, 
spiritual being; uhreinn a.,a« unclean 
spirit ; heilagr a., the Holy Ghost. 

and-kostr, m. see annkostr. 

and-lauss, a. breathless, lifeless, 

and-lat, n. (i) death (J)d er J)u fregn 
andldt mitt) ; (2) the last gasp ; J)d var 
konungr na^r andldti, was almost 
breathing his last. 

andldts-dagr, m., -doegr, n. day of 
death ; -sorg, f. grief for a death ; 
-tiS, f, -timi, m. time of death. 

and-liga, adv. spiritually ; -ligr, a. 
spiritual (biskup hefir andligt vald til 
andligra hluta). 

andlit, n.face, countenance. 

andlits-bjorg, f. visor', -bli?5a, f. 
jnild expression of the countenance ; 
-mein, n. cancer in the face ; -skepna, 
f. form or make of the face ; -skop, 
n. pi. = -skepna ; var vel -skopum, had 
well formed features ; -vsBnn, 3.. fine- 
featured', -voxtr, m. form of the 
face, features. 

and-marki, m., see annmarki. 

and-malugr, a. contentious, quarrel- 
some; -msBli, n. pi. contradiction, 

and-nes, n. promontory, headland; 
-orSa, a. indecl., at verSa andorSa, to 
come to words with ; -of, n. paddling 
with the oars, so as to keep a boat 
from drifting (cf. andcefa). 

and-rammr, a. having foul breath. 

andrar, m. pi. snow-shoes. 

andrjd, f. tunmlt, uproar. 

and-rotSi, m. pulling against tide 
and wind; Jjeir toku (dttu) mikinn 
-r63a, they had a hard pull; -r6(5r 
(-rs), m. = andr63i ; -saka (acSj, v. to 
reprimand (hann -sakaSi sveinana 
harSliga) ; -sakan, f. reprimand, re- 
buke ; -skoti, m. (l) opponent^ adver- 
sary ; (2) the devil, satan. 

and-spilli, n. colloquy, discourse^ 




and-spjall, n. (l) = andspilli ; (2) pi. 
andspjoll, answery reply. 

and-stefja (ac5), v. to respond, an- 
swer \ -stefna (-da, -t), v. = -stefja ; 
-streymi, n. adversity ; -streymr, 
a. strongly adverse (-streym 0rl6g) ; 
Sighvatr var heldr -streymr urn eptir- 
mdlin, hard to come to terjns with ; 
-stygS, f. disgust] e-m er -styg6 af 
^-u^ one feels abhorrence for \ -stygg- 
iligr, -styggr, a. abominable, odious ; 
-svar, n. answer, reply, decision 
(vera skjotr 1 -svorum) ; -svara (a(5), 
V. (i) to answer (e-m) ; (2) to respond 
( = andstefja) ; (3) to answer for^ be 
respofisible for (e-u). 

andsvara-maSr, m. respondent, de- 

and-syptir, m. difficulty in breathing. 

and-scBlis, adv. against the course 
of the SU71, withershins ( = rangsoelis), 
opp. to 'rettsoelis '. 

and-vaka, f. (i) sleepiessfiess; (2) 
ivakefulness ; and-vaki, a. sleepless 
(liggja -vaki). 

and-vana or -vani, a. destitute of, 
wanting, with gen. (au6s andvani ok 
alls gamans) ; -vanr, a. = -vani ; and- 
vanr a.i\i, famished for food. 

andvara-gestr, m. unwelcome guest; 
-lausa, 2l. free from care or anxiety. 

and-varc5a (atS), v. to hand over 
( = afhenda). 

and-vari, m. care, anxiety. 

and-varp n. (i) breath, breathing; 
(2) sigh ; -varpa (aS), v. to heave a 
sigh ( = varpa ondinni) ; -varpan, f. 
sighing, sobbing. 

and-vegi, n. throne (=6ndvegi) ; 
-vertSr, a. = ondver6r ; -viSri, n. head 
wind; -virSi, n. worth, equivalent, 
price ; andvirdi hvalsins, the value of 
the whale. 

and-virki, n. (l) hay, hay-stacks, 
crop ; nautaQoldi var kominn 1 tun ok 
vildi brjota -virki, throw dozen the 
cocks ; -virki {fodde}') gekk }3ar upp 
fyrir hestum ; (2) Norw. agricultural 
implements ; viSarkost, timbr, grindr, 
sieda et3a onnur -virki ; (3) fig., legit 
hafa mer -virki nasrr gardi en at ber- 
jast vid f)ik, / hai'e had busi?iess more 
urgent than to fght ivith yoti. 

and-vitni, n. contradictory testi- 
mony ; -vigr, a. a match for (hann var 
eigi betr en -vfgr o3rum peirra broeS- 
ra) ; -yrSi, n. pi. objection, contra- 
diction ; -sera, f. resistance ; -SBris, 
adv. adversely, ujfavourably (ganga 
mun ykkr -asris) ; -oefa (-t5a, -t), v. to 
keep pulling against wind and tide 
so as to prevent a boat from drifting 
astern ; -cepa (-ta, -t), v. to reply 
against (ekki er t^ess getit, at t>6r6r 
andoepti |)essarri vi'su). 

ang, n. fragrance (me3 una3 ok a.). 

anga (at5), v. to exhale odour orf'u- 
grance; angan, f. sweet odour \ a. 
Friggjar, the love of Frigg. 

angi, m. sweet odour. 

angi, m. prickle, sting (J)etta mdl 
hefir anga). 

angist, f. anguish. 

angistar-ar, n. year of misery ; 
-neyS, f. great distress ; -timi, m. 
hour of distress. 

angr (gen. -rs), m. grief, sorrow, 
gera e-m angr, to do one harm ; vera 
e-m at angri = angra e-n. 

-angr (gen. -rs), m. in Norse local 
names, bay, firth, 

angra (ac5), v. to grieve, vex, dis- 
tress (mik hefir angrat hungr ok frost) ; 
with dat. (hv^rt sem mer angrar reykr 
e5a bruni) ; impers. to be grieved (an- 
graSi honum mjok) ; refl., angrast af 
e-u, to be vexed at, take offence at ; 
a. vi3 e-n, to fall out with. 

angraSr, pp. sorrowftd, sady vexed 
(reidr ok a.). 

angran, f. sorrow, affliction. 

angr-fullr, a. sorrowful, sad ; -gapi, 
m. rash, foolish person ; -lauss, a. 
free from care; -ligr, a. sad; -Ij6t5, 
n. pi. mourning songs, dirges ; -lyndi, 
n. sadness, low spirits ; -moet^ast (dd), 
v. refl. to be in low spi7'its ; -samliga, 
adv. sorrowfully, sadly ; -samligr, 
a. = -fullr; -samr, a. (i) troubleso?ne 
(-som fluga) ; (2 ) depressed, downcast; 
e-m er -samt, one is in low spirits ; 
-semd, -semi, f. depression of spirits ; 
-vaeri, f. dejection ; -oeSi, n. moody 
te^nper, sullenness. 

ankanna-fuUr, a. full of faults ; 
-lauat, adv. with flawless title (Mag- 




nus konungr haffli pi. riki einn saman 
ok ankannalaust). 

ann-, in several compds. = and-. 

anna (at5), v. ^o be able to do (a. e-u) ; 
cf. * annast '. 

annarligr, a. strange^ alien. 

annarr (onnur, annat), a., indef. 
pron., ord. numb.; (i) one of the two, 
the one {of two) \ Kgill t)essi hefir a6ia 
hond iojily o?ie ha?id) ok er kallaSr 
einhendr ; d a5ra hond, on the one 
side ; a. ... a. one . . . the other (het a. 
Sorli, en a. f>orkell) ; (2) second \ \ 
annat smn, for the second time ; h0ggr 
hann l)egar annat {viz. hogg), a second 
blow ; (3) the next following', k 66ru 
hausti, the next autumn ; annat sumar 
eptir ; fig., next in value or ra7ik ; 
annat mest hof i Noregi, the next 
greatest temple \ fjolmennast {^ing 
annat eptir brennu Njdls, the fullest 
assembly next to that after the burn- 
ing of N. ; (4) so7ne other (hon lek d 
golfinu vi6 aSrar meyjar) ; f>6rarinn 
ok tiu menn adrir, and te?i men be- 
sides ; hann var orvari af fe en nokk- 
urr a., tha?i aftybody else-, (5) other, 
different ; ol er a.maSr, ale {a drunken 
matt) is another man, is not the sa7ne 
man ; pau hof(5u annan dtrunafi, a 
different religiott ; (6) in various com- 
binations ; a. sh'kr, such another, 
another of the same sort', gekk a. til 
at o6rum {otie after another) at bidja 
hann ; hverja nott a3ra sem a6ra, 
every night in turn ; annat var or3 
Finns harfiara en annat, each word of 
Finn was harder than another ; adrir 
. . . a3rir,i'<3;;/^. . . others', einir ok adrir, 
various ; ymsir ok a6rir, tiow one, notv 
another (nefna upp ymsa ok adra) ; 
hvdrr {or hverr) . . annan, each other, 
one another (hetu hvdrir o6rum atior- 
um) ; vid J)au tidindi urQu allir gladir 
ok sagdi hverr o6rum, one told the 
news to afiother, man to man. 

annarra-toroetSra, gen. pi. used ellipt. 
in the sense of children of ' nassta 
broe^ra ', thit'd cousitis ; -broeSri, m. 
third cousin. 

annarr hvarr, indef. pron., one or 
other of two persons, either (drepa 
annan hvdrn J)eirra sona Skalla- 

grims) ; at ocJru hv^ru, every noiv 
and then, aSrir hvdrir, one or other 
of the two parties ; neut. used as adv., 
annat hvdrt . . . e3a, either . . . or. 

annarr hverr, indef. pron. every 
other alternately ; annan hvern dag, 
every other day ; annat hvert 01 6, 
en.>ery other {second) word', at o6ru 
hverju, eve^y now and then. 

annarr tveggi, annarr tveggja, 
indef. pron. one or other of the twu = 
annarr hvdrr ; er aSrir tveggju eru 
lengra i hurt komnir en ordrag, when 
either of the two parties has got 
farther away thajt an arrow'' s flight \ 
annat tveggja . . . e6a, either . . . or. 

annars, gen. from ' annarr ', used as 
adv. otherwise, else (stendr a. riki J'^itt 
1 mikilli hasttu). 

annarsligr, a. = annarligr. 

annaistacSar, adv. elsewhere^ in 
another place— 2ir\r\2ixs stadar. 

annast (at5), v, refl. {i) to take care 
of{vi\i\ t)etta mun ek a.) ; (2) to pro- 
vide for, stipport (a. born, omaga) ; 
a. sik, to support oneself; (3) a. um 
e-t, to be busy about, to occupy oneself 
with (a. um matreiSu). 

annall (-s, -ar), m. chronological 
register, annals. 

ann-botS, n. agricultural imple- 

ann-friSr, m. cessation from law- 
suits during the spring farming. 

ann-kostr, m.«=onnkostr. 

ann-kvista, v. to take care of. 

annmarka-fullr, a. faulty, full of 
faults; -laMss, a. faultless. 

ann-marki, m. (i) defect, flaw, fatili 
(t)u leyndir -marka d honum) ; (2j ad- 
versity (t>u gaft mer varygQ 1 farsaelu, 
huggan { -marka). 

ann-rikt, a. n., eiga -rfkt, to be very 
busy ; -samligr, a. toilso?ne, laborious; 
-samt, a. n., e-m er -samt, one is very 
busy ; -sen: d, f. business, care, con- 
cern ; bera mikla -semd fyrir e-u, to 
be co?tcer?ied about. 

annt, a. n., e-m era., eager, anxious ; 
morgum var a. heim, many were eager 
to get home ; hvi mun honum svd a. at 
hitta mik, why is he so eager? ekki er 
a. um ]^at, it is not pressing; hvat er 





nd a. mfnum einga syni, what has my 
only son at heart f sagdi ser a. [that 
he was busy) um daga ; vera a. til e-s, 
to be eager for. 

antikristr, m. Antichrist. 

anza (at5), v. (i) to heed, take notice 
of (a. e-u) ; (2) to reply, answer (a. 
til e-s). 

apa (aS), v. to 7nock, make si>ort of, 
to befool (margan hefir au5r apat) ; 
refl., apast at e-u, to become the fool of 

apaldr (gen. -rs or -s, pi. -rar or 
-ar), m. apple-tree. 

apaldrs-garSr, m. orchard', -klub- 
ba, -kylfa, f. club made of apple-tree ; 
-tr6, n. apple-tree. 

apal-grdr, a. dapple-grey. 

api, m. (l) ape, monkey \ (2) fool 
(margr verdr af aurum api ). 

apli, m. bull^ = ^]6xx, graSungr. 

appella, appellera (a$), v. to cite, 
summon to the pope. 

apr (opr, aprt), a. (l) hard, sharp; 
en aprasta hri6, the sharpest fighting', 
aprastr vi3 at eiga, the worst to deal 
with ; (2) sad, dispirited. 

aprligr, a. cold, chilly (-ligt ve8r). 

aptan, a-dv.from behind, behind, opp. 
to ' framan ' ; J)d greip hann a. undir 
hendr horwim, from behind', fyrir a., 
as prep, with ace, behind; ek hjo 
varginn i sundr fyrir a. boguna, Jitst 
behind the shoulders, 

aptann (gen. -a, dat. aptni ; pi. apt- 
nar), m. evening', si6 um aptaninn, 
late i?t the evening; mi5r a., middle- 
eve, 6 o'clock. 

aptan-drykkja, f. evening carouse ; 
-kveld, n. = aptann ; -langt, adv. all 
the eve?iing; -sksBra, f. twilight; 
-stjarua, f. ez'ening star ; -songr, m. 
evensong, vespers. 

aptansongs-mal, n. the time of 

aptan-tic5ir, f, pl. = aptansongs ti3ir ; 
-timi, m. the time of evening. 

aptari, a. compar. = eptri. 

aptarla, adv. behind, far in the rear. 

aptarr, adv. com par. farther back, 

aptast, adv. sn^ptrX. farthest back. 

aptastr, a. sn^ptxl. farthest back. 

aptna (ac5), v. impers. to become 
evening', refl., aptnast = aptna. 

aptr, adv. (l) back ; fara (snua, koma, 
senda, soekja, hverfa) a., to go {turn 
Sec.) back ; reka a., to drive back, repel; 
kalla a., to recall, revoke; (2) back- 
wards ; fram ok a., backiuards and 
forwards, to and fro ; J^eir settu 
hnakka d bak ser a., they bent their 
necks backwards ; (3) luka (lata) a., to 
shut, close; hliS, port, hurS er a., is 
shut ; (4) at the back, in the rear ; 
J)at er ma3r fram, en dyr a., the fore 
part a maft, the hind part a beast; 
basSi a. ok fram, stetn and stern (of a 
ship) ; Sigur5r sat a. i. kistunni, S. sat 
aft on the stern-chest; (5) again; 
Freyja vaknar ok snerist vi3 ok sofnar 
a., a?td falls asleep again. 

aptra (aS), v. to take back, with- 
draw, recall; a. fer3 sinni, to desist 
from, give tcP; a. s^r, to withdraw, 
waver, hesitate. 

aptran, f. withdrawal, keeping back. 

aptr-bati, m. convalescence; vera f 
-bata, to be on the way to recovery; 
-bati, a. convalescent, getting better, 
reco7'ering ; -beiSiligr, a. reciprocal ; 
-borinn, pp. born again, regenerate; 
-byggi, m. (esp. pi. -byggjar opp. to 
frambyggjar) a 7nan i?i the stern in 
a ship of war ; -drattr, m. reflux of 
the tide (-drattr hafsins) ; -drepa, f. 
relapse, shock ; -elding, f. dawning ; 
-ferS, {.Journey back, return ; -foersla, 
f. bringing back ; -for, f. = -ferS ; -gan- 
ga, f., -gangr, m. ghost, apparitiofi ; 
-gjald, n. repayment ; -hald, n. check- 
ing, holding back. 

aptrhald-samr, a. saving, close. 

aptrhalds-maSr, m. one who ifn- 
pedes the progress of a thing. 

ing, f. repulse ; -huppr, m. haunch ; 
-hvarf, n. (i) retur7i ; illr -hvarfs, dis- 
inclined to face the enemy again ; (2) 
relapse, apostasy; (3) turning away 
f'om sift (rare) ; -kail, n. recalling, 
rei'ocation ; -kast, n. hurling back, 
repulse; -kaup, n. repurchase ; -koma 
or -kvdma, f coining back, 7-eturn ; 
-kvaemt, a. n. ad77iitting of return ; 
esp. eiga -kvaemt, to be allowed to 
return (from exile) ; -lausn, f. rede7np' 
tion ; iHght of redeeming ; -mjor, a. 




tapering behind \ -mundr, m. regret^ 
loss\ mer er mikill -mundr at e-u, 1 
miss a thing greatly ; -reka, a. indecl. 
driven back (by stress of weather) ; 
-rekstr, m. driving back, repulse ; 
-sja, f. regret, longing ( = eptirsj^) ; 
-skipan, f. restoration (-ski pan allra 
hluta) ; -velting, f. rolling back. 

apynja, f. she-ape, she-monkey. 

ara-hreit$r, n. eagle's nest, eyrie. 

arSar-, gen. from ' 6r6 ' ; -leiga, f. 
rent for one yearns crop ; -mail, m. 
contract, agreement for one year. 

artSr (gen. arSrs), m. a simple form 
oi plough. 

ar5r-for, f. furrow, trench made by 
a plough; -gSingr, m. cotilter ; -jarn, 
n. plough-iron ; -jarn pat er ristill 
{coulter) heitir; -uxi, m. plough-ox. 

arSi-geldingr, m. = ar6ruxi. 

arfa, f. heiress (Norse, rare). 

arfa-sdta, f. a heap, or small rick, of 
chickweed (arfi). 

arfa-J)attr, m. section of law treating 
of inheritance (arfr). 

arf-borinn, pp. by birth entitled to 
inherit, legitimate ( = til arfs alinn) ; 
-deild, f. = arfskipti ; -gengr, a. en- 
titled to inherit. 

arfi, m. heir, heiress ; a. e-s or at 
e-u, heir to a property. 

arfi, m. chickweed. 

arf-kaup, n. suyn paid for another's 
expectation of inheritance ; -leiSa 
(-dda, -ddr), v. to adopt as an heir 
( = aettlei3a) ; '\%\^\T\g,i. adoptioji of 
an heir; -nyti (gen. -nytja), m. heir, 
inheritor (poet.). 

arfr (gen. arfs), m. (i) inheritance-, 
taka arf, to take possession of an in- 
heritance; taka arf eptir e-n, to be 
heir to a person, to inherit ; standa 
til arfs eptir e-n, to be entitled to inherit 
a person ; hon i. allan arf eptir mik, 
she is my sole heir ; selja arf, to sell 
the expectation of inheritance ( = selja 
arfvan) ; (2)/rt/r/w^«j=f6Qurleifd. 

arf-ran, n. unjust taking of one's 
inheritance ; -raBning, f. = arf-ran ; 
'raaningr, m. one stripped of his 
inheritance ; -sal, n. cession of right 
of inheritance (on condition of getting 
maintenance for life). 

arfsals-maSr, m. one who has made 
another his heir on condition of being 
maintained by him for life ; -maldagi, 
m, deed concerning ' arfsal '. 

arf-skipti, n. pa?'titio?i of an inheri- 
tance ; -skot, n. fraud in matters of 
inheritance ; -sokn, f. suit in a case 
of inheritance; -svik, n. pi. defrauding 
in matters of inheritance; -svipting, 
f. taking away of one's inheritance ; 
-tak, n. the act of taking one as arf- 
salsmaSr (taka e-n arftaki) ; -taka, f. 
receiving, taking possession of, an 
inheritance ; -takari, -taki, m. in- 
heritor ; -tekinn, pp. taken by in- 
heritance; -tekja, f. = -taka. 

arftekju-land, n. land obtained by 

arf-toeki, n. = arftaka; -tcekr, a. 
= arfgengr ; verda arftoekr e-s, to re- 
ceive by inheritance. 

arftoku-karl, m. one taken as arf- 
salsmaSr; -maSr, m. inheritor, suc- 
cessor to an inheritance. 

arf-vdn, f. expectancy of inheritance ; 
-J)egi, m. heir. 

arg-hola, f. harlot, 

argr, a. (i) unmanly, effeminatey 
cowardly (sem fyrir lilfi org geit 
rynni) ; (2) lewd; (3) wicked, per- 
nicious (J)u hit argasta dyr). 

argskapr, m. effeminacy^ cowardice, 

ari, m. eagle (=6rn). 

arin-domr, m.f reside gossip ; -eldr, 
m. hearth-fire ; -elja, f. a home-rival 
to a wife; -greypr, a. encompass- 
ing the hearth (bekkir aringreypir) ; 
-hella, f. hearth-stone. 

arinn (gen. arins ; dat. arnl ; pi. 
arnar), m. (i) hearth (eldr var d arni) ; 
as a law term, fara eldi ok arni, to 
remove one's homestead, taking fire 
and hearth together; (2) an elevated 

arins-horn, n. corner of the hearth ; 
-jam, n. poker. 

arka (a^), v. to walk heavily y 
trtcdge ; a. at auSnu, to take what- 
ever course fate may decide. 

arkar-fotr, m. the foot of a chest 
(ork) ; -smit5, f. the buildifig of 
Noah's Ark, 




arma, f. pity ; drottinn sd ormu d 
mannkyni, took pity upon. 

arm-baugr, m. arrnlet, bracelet. 

arm-bryst, n. cross-bow. 

arm-fylking, f. = fylkingar-armr. 

armingi (pi. -jar), m. poor Jellow 
( = aumingi). 

arm-leggr, m. arjn (=armr). 

armligr, a. pitiful, tniserable. 

armr (-s, -ar), m. (i) arm ; leggja 
arma um e-n, to embrace (of a 
woman) ; koma d arm e-m, to co?ne 
into one's e?nbraces (of a woman 
marrying) ; (2) the wing of a body, 
opp. to its centre ; armar uthafsins. 
the ar7ns of the ocean, viz. bays and 
firths ; armr fylkingar, a wing of an 

armr, a. (i) tmhafpy^ poor \ (2) 
wretched, wicked ; hinn armi Bjarn- 
grimr, the wretch, scotcndrel B. ; hin 
arma kerlingin, the wicked old 

arm.-skapac5r, pp. misshapen, miser- 
able, poor ; -vitki, f. compassion ; 
-vitugr, a. charitable, compassionate ; 
litt armvitugr, hard-hearted. 

armoetSa, f. distress, trouble ; ar- 
moetSast, v. refl. to distress ofieself. 

arnar-, gen. from ' orn ' ; -hamr, m. 
eagle's plutnage ; -hreiSr, n. eagle's 
nest, eyrie ; -kl6, f. talon of an eagle ; 
-liki, n. eagle's shape ; -ungi, nx. eaglet. 

arning, f. tillage, ploughing (related 
to ' erja '). 

arn-sugr, m. the rushing sound 
caused by the flight of an eagle. 

ars, m. posteriors, — x?i%s. 

arta, f. a species of teal, garganey. 

aska, f. ashes (mold ok a. ; dust eitt 
ok a.). Cf. osku-. 

aska-amiSr, m. shipwright ? 

aska-spillir, m. ship-spoiler ? 

ask-limar, f. pi. branches of an ash. 

ask-macSr, m. shipman, viking, 
pirate', cf. askr (3). 

askr (-S, -ar), m. (l) ash, ash-tree ; 
(2) ash-spear; (3) small ship (J)eir 
sigla hurt d einum aski) ; (4) woodeti 
vessel or dish (storir askar fullir af 
skyri) ; (5) a Norse fneasure for 
liquids equal to four bowls (bollar), or 
sixteen 'justur'. 

ask-rakki, m. marten ; -vi(5r, m. 
asna, f. she-ass. 

asna-hofuS, n. ass's-head; -kjalki, 
m. jawbone of an ass. 
asni, m. ass, donkey. 
at, prep. A. with dative. I. Of 
motion: {\) towards, against', Otkell 
laut at Skamkatli, bowed down to S. ; 
hann sneri egginni at Asgrimi, turned 
the edge against A.', (2) close up to ; 
Brynjolfr gengr allt at honum, quite 
tip to hi7n ; peir komust aldri at 
honum, they could never get near 
hifn, to close quai^ters with him ; (3) 
to, at ; koma at landi, to come to 
land', ganga at domi, to go into 
court', (4) along (=eptir); ganga at 
straeti, to walk along the street ; dreki 
er ni6r for at dnni {went dow?i the 
river) fyrir strauminum ; refr dro 
horpu at isi, on the ice ; (5) denoting 
hostihty ; renna (soekja) at e-m, to 
7'ush at, assault ; gerSi J)a at peim 
J)oku mikla, they were overtaken by 
a thick fog ; (6) a7'ound ; vefja motri 
at hbfdi ser, to wrap a veil round 
one's head ; bera grjot at e-m, to heap 
stones upon the body, (7) denoting 
business, engagement ; ri5a at hross- 
um, at sau6um, to go looking after 
horses, watchi7ig sheep ; fara at land- 
skuldum, to go collecting rents. II. 
Of position, &c. ; (i) ^tnoXxng presence 
at, near, by, upon ; at kirkju, at 
church ; at domi, in court ; at log- 
bergi, at the hill of laws ; (2) denoting 
participatio7i i7i ; vera at veizlu, brul- 
laupi, to be at a ba72quet, weddi7ig', 
vera at vigi, to be an accesso7y i7i 
7nan-slaying ', (3) ellipt., vera at, to 
be about, to be busy at ; kvalararnir, 
er at voru at pina hann, who were 
to7'77tenting hi7n ; var par at kona 
nokkur at binda {was there busy 
dressing) sdr manna ; (4) with proper 
names of places (farms) ; konungr at 
Danmorku ok Noregi,/7>/^^; biskup 
at Holum, bishop of Holar ; at Helga- 
felli, at Bergt)6rshvdli ; (5) used ellipt 
with a genitive, at {a person's) house ; 
at hans {at his house) gisti fjolmenni 
mikit ; at MarSar, at Mard's ho77ie ; 




at hins heilaga 6lafs konungs, at St. 
Olave's church ; at Rdnar, at Rans 
{abode). III. Of time; (i) at,in\ at 
upphafi, at firsts in the begi7ming\ at 
skilna6i,rt//<^;/z>/i/-, when they Piirted\ 
at pdskum, at Easter \ at kveldi, at 
eventide ; at J)inglausnum, at the 
close of the Assembly ; at fjoru, at the 
ebb\ at floeSum, at the flooatide ; (2) 
adding ' komanda' or * er kemr'; at 
dri komanda, next year \ at vdri, er 
kemr, next spring] generally with 
' komanda ' understood ; at sumri, 
hausti, vetri, vari, next sinn}?ier, Sec. ; 
(3) used with an absolute dative and 
present or past part. ; at ser lifanda, 
during his lifetime ; at ollum d.sjd.nd- 
um, in the sight of all ; at dheyranda 
hofdingjanum, in the hearing of the 
chief \ at upprennandi solu, at sun- 
rise ; at liSnum sex vikum, after six 
•weeks are past ; at honum onduSum, 
after his death ; (4) denoting uninter- 
rupted succession, after ; hverr at 
oSrum, annarr at oorum, o?ie after 
another ; skildu menn at {)essu, there- 
upon, after this ; at J)vi {thereafter) 
komu aSrar meyjar. IV. fig. and in 
various uses; (i) to^ into, with the 
notion of destruction or change ; 
brenna (borgina) at osku, to burn to 
ashes ; veroa at ormi, to become a 
snake; (2) for, as\ gefa e-t at gjof, 
as a present ; eiga e-n at vin, to have 
one as friend \ (3) by \ taka sverfi at 
hjoltum, by the hilt ; draga ut bjorn- 
inn at hlustunum, by the ears ; kjosa 
at afli, dlitum, by strength, appear- 
ance ; (4) as regards, as to ; audigr at 
fe, wealthy in goods ; vaenn (fagr) at 
dliti, fair of face ; (5) as a law term, 
on the ground of by reason of\ rydja 
{to challenge) dom at msegdum, kviS 
at frsendsemi ; (6) as a paraphrase of 
a genitive ; fadir, m66ir at barni 
( = barns, of a child) ; a6ili at sok 
=a6ili sakar ; (7) with adjectives 
denoting colour, size, age, of; hvitr, 
svartr, rau6r at lit, white, black, red 
of colour; mikill, litill at stcerS, vexti, 
tall, small of stature ; tvitugr at 
aldri, twenty years of age \ kyr at 
fyrsta, 65rum kdlfi, a cow that has 

calved once, twice ; (8) determining 
the source from which anything 
comes, of from ; Ari nam ok marga 
froeSi at ^uric3i {from her) ; t>iggja, 
kaupa, geta, leigja e-t at e-m, to 
receive, buy, obtain, borrow a thing 
from one ; hafa veg (virSing) styrk 
at e-m, to derive honour, power, frofn 
one ; (9) according to, after (heygdr 
at fornum si6) ; at ra6i allra vitrustu 
manna, by the advice of; at lands- 
logum, by the law of the land; at 
vdnum, as was to be expected ; at 
leyfi e-s, by one's leave; (10) in ad- 
verbial phrases ; groa (vera groeddr) 
at heilu, to be quite healed; bita af 
allt gras at sn0ggu, quite bare ; at 
inWn, fully ; at visu, surely ; at frjdlsu, 
freely; at €\\\i\i, for ever and ever \ 
at rongu, at rettu, wrongly^ rightly ; 
at liku, at somu, equally, all the 
same; at mun, at rd5i, at marki, to a 
great extent. B. with ace, after, 
upon ( = eptir) ; sonr d at taka arf at 
foSur sinn, to take the inheritance 
after his father ; eiga ferdnsdom at 
e-n, to hold a court of execution 
upon a person ; at J)at ( =eptir {)at), 
cifter that, thereafter ; connected with 
a past part, or adj., at Gamla fallinn, 
after the fall of Gamli; at Hrungni 
daudan, upon the death of Hriingnir. 

at, (i) as the simple mark of the 
infinitive, to ; at ganga, at ri5a, at 
hlaupa, to walk, to ride^ to run; (2) 
in an objective sense ; hann bau5 
peim at fara, sitja, he bade {ordered) 
them to go, sit ; gefa e-m at eta, at 
drekka, to give 07ie to eat, to drink ; 
(3) denoting design or purpose, in 
order to (hann gekk 1 borg at kaupa 

at, (i) demonstrative particle before 
a comparative, the, all the, so fnuch 
the ; hon gret at meir, she wept the 
more; l)ykkir oss at likara, all the 
more likely ; J)u ert ma6r at verri {so 
much the worse), er J)u hefir J)etta 
mcelt ; (2) rel. pron., who, whichy 
that { = Qr); Jieir allir, at pau tiSindi 
heyrSu, all those who heard; sem 
peim er titt, at {as is the custom 
of those who) kaupferSir reka. 




at, conj., that', (i) introducing a 
subjective or objective clause ; J)at 
var einhverju sinni, at Hoskuldr hafSi 
vinaboS, it happened once that H. ; 
vilda ek, at J)u reSist austr i fjorSu, 
/ should like you to go ; (2) relative 
to ' svd ', denoting proportion, degree ; 
svd mikill lagama6r, at, so great a 
lawyer^ that; (3) vi^ith subj., denoting 
end or purpose, i7i order that (skaru 
peir fyrir J)a {viz. hestana) melinn, at 
J)eir dcei eigi af sulti) ; (4) sifice^ be- 
cause^ as (=I)vi at); (5) connected 
with J)6, l)vi, svd ; J)6 at (with subj.), 
though, although ; l)vf at, because, 
for; svd at, so that; {6) temp., J)d at 
( = j)a er), when; pegar at ( = {). er), 
as soon as; l)ar til at ( = t). t. er), 
until, till; Abr at ( = d. en), before; 
(7) used superfluously after an in- 
terrog. pron. or adv. ; Olafr spurdi, 
hvern styrk at hann mundi ii. honum, 
what help he was likely to give him ; 
in a relative sense ; me6 fullkomnum 
dvexti, hverr at {which) J)ekkr ok 
psegiligr mun ver6a. 

at, negative verbal suffix, = -a; var- 
at, was not. 

at, n. an incited conflict q>x fight (see 
etja) ; odda at, Yggs at, battle. 

ata (atS), v. to stain, s?near. 

atall (otul, atalt), a. fierce; otul 
augu, fierce, piercing eyes. 

at-beini, m. assistance, help. 

atbldstrar-matSr, m. instigator. 

atburSa-lauss, a. eventless, un- 

at-bur5r, m. (l) occurrence, event; 
verSr sd atburSr, at, it so happens 
that ; drdp BarSar ok J)d atburoi er 
{3ar hofdu orSit, and the evetits that 
had happened ^there ; (2) incident, cir- 
ciimstance; O. sagdi honum alia at- 
burdi {all the circumstances, par- 
ticulars) um sitt mdl ; 1 hverjum 
atburSum, under what circumstances ; 
me3 hverjum atburSum, in what man- 
ner, how ; (3) chance, accident ; slikt 
kalla ek atburS, en eigi jartegn, such 
a thing I call an accidetit, and not a 
miracle; af atburS, by chance; acci- 
dentally ; me6 atburS, by chance ; per- 
adventure, perhaps; (4) attack; (5) 

gesture (me5 atburS kallaSi hann 
mik til sin) ; var hon en friSasta jung- 
fru ok vel at atbuiSum, of good ma?i- 
ners, well-bred. 

at-lbunat5r, m. proper outfit, equip- 
jnent, Qt'c. ; veita atbunaS dauSum 
monnum, to lay out dead bodies. 

at-djup, n. deep water close to shore ; 
-djiipr, a. deep close to the shore. 

atdrdttar-maSr, m., mikill -ma5r, 
a good housekeeper. 

at-drattr, m. provisions, supplies 
for household use ; hafSi hann atdrdtt 
at J)eirra biii, he supplied their house- 
hold; atdrsettir ok utvegar, ways and 

at-dugna$r, m. assistance, help. 

at-eggjan, f. eggi^ig ^;z, = d.eggjan. 

at-fall, n. risi7ig tide, flood-tide. 

atfanga, gen. pi. from atfong, pro- 
visions; -dagr, m. -kveld, n. the 
day, or evening, preceding a church 
festival; atf. jola, Christmas Eve; 
-lauss, a. destitute of means of sub- 
sistence, without resources; -inac5r, 

atfara-lau3t, a. n. withoiit ojisl aught 
or ai-med aggression (see atfor). 

atfarar-domr, m. se7itence of execu- 
tion (for payment) ; -J)ing, n. court of 

at-fer5, f. (l) proceeding, co7iduct, 
behaviour (skynsamlig atferd) ; vik- 
jast eptir atferSum enna fyrri frasnda 
})inna, to follow their (good) exa7)ipie ; 
(2) activity, energy; (3) attack, as- 
sault ; veita e-m atferS, to set upon 
one; (4) a law term, executio7i (me3 
domrofum ok atferSum). 

atferSar-bot, f. i77iprove7nent of con- 
duct; -g65r, a. well-behaved; -leysi, 
n. i7iactivity, idleness; -maSr, m. 
efiergetic 77ian. 

atler^ligr, 2.. fit or 77ianly. 

at-ferli, n. action, proceedi7ig, pro- 
cedure • hann spur6ist fyrir um atferli 
heradsmanna, what they were doing; 
-flutning, f. conveya7ice to a place, 
supply ; -fr6tt, f. asking, inquiry. 

atfr^ttar-maSr, m. inquirer (e-s, 
after something). 

at-fundull, a. fault-findi7ig, cen- 
sorious; -fylgi, n., -fylgja, f. help^ 




backings support] -fyndiligr, a. 
blameable, reprehensible', -fyndli, f. 
censorioiisness ; -fcersla, f. exertion^ 

atfoerslu-mat5r, m. a man of vigour. 

at-for, f. (i) proceeding, method \ (2) 
attack ; gera atfor at e-m, veita e-m 
atfor, to make an attack upon ; (3) a 
law term, execution (domr ok atfor) ; 
-ganga, f. (i) attack, onslaught ; veita 
e-m atgongu, to attack; (2) help, 
assistance ; -gangr, m. {l) fighting, 
combat] (2) inroad, intrusion-, veita 
e-m atgang, to intrude upon ; (3) 
help, co-operation. 

atganga-mikill, a. energetic. 

atgeirr, m. bill or halberd. 

atgengiligr, a. acceptable, inviting. 

at-ger5, at-gervi, see atgord, at- 

at-geyminn, a. careful, mindful, 
attentive; -geymsla, f. attention, 
heedfulness ; -gSBzla, f. care, caution. 

at-g0r$, f. (l) achievemeftt (pessa 
heims atg0r5ir) ; (2) accomplish7ne7it, 
ability ; (3) surgical operation (cf. 
g0ra at meini) ; (4) pL, measures, 
steps taken ; litlar atgorQir, small 
measures; var eigi va^nt til atg0r6a, 
there were few expedients. 

atg0rt5a-lauss, a. inactive, idle ; 
-laust er um e-t, no steps are taken ; 
-matSr, m. a ready man. 

atg0r8ar-mat5r, m. = atgorvimaSr ; 
-mikill, a. active, energetic, -vinr, 
m. a friend in deed. 

at-g0rvi, f. (or neut.), accomplish- 
ments, ability. 

atg0rvi-maSr or atg0rvis-mat5r, 
m. a man of great (physical) accom- 

athafnar-lauss. a. inactive ; -matSr, 
m. an enterprising man. 

at-hald, n. (i) constrai?it, restraint] 
(2) ascetic abstinence. 

athalds-maSr, m. ascetic ; -taumr, 
m. constraining force. 

at-hjukan, f. nursing, attendance on 
a sick person. 

at-hlaup, n. onset, attack ; 1 einu 
athlaupi,z« one rush (in a battle) ; tokst 
nu J)egar athlaup, a hand to hand fight. 

at-hldtr, m. mockery ^ laughing- 

stock] -hlo0gi,n.= -hldtr ; -hloegiligr, 
a. ridiculous. 

athuga-lauss, a. heedless, careless; 
-leysi, n. heedlessness ; -litill, a. rather 

at-hugall, a. heedful^ thoughtful^ 

atJiuga-mat^r, m. devout person ; 
-samliga, adv. attentively ; -samligr, 
2i. {i) attentive ', (2) = -ver6r; -samr, 
a. heedful, attentive ; -ver$r, a. 
worthy of attention. 

at-hugi, m. attention, meditation ; 
af ollum 2L\h\i<g?^, carefully ; flytja fram 
bcenir sinar me8 athuga, with devo- 
tion ] Iei6a e-t athuga, to reflect upon, 
to take into co7isideration. 

athugliga, adv. attentively. 

at-hvarf, n. courteous attefttions to 
any one, in the phrases, g0ra e-m 
athvarf, gora at athvarfi vi6 e-n. 

at-hyggja, {.attention (me3 allri hug- 
arins athyggju) ; -hygli, f. heedful- 
7tess, atte7itiveness ; -hyllast, v. refl., 
to cultivate one's friendship ; to side 
with (e-n) ; -haefi, n. co7iduct, beha- 
viour, proceeding (1 ollu si'nu athasfi) ; 
-haefiligr, a. fit, fitting] -hofn, f. (1) 
doings, business] fengin var peim 
onnur athofn, occtcpation ; (2) beha- 
viour, co7tduct] -kail, n. de77tandy 
clai7n ] -kast, n. rebuke, reproach. 

atkeri, m. anchor ; see * akkeri *. 

at-koma, -kvama, f. (i) arrival] 
(2) pai7i, visitation ; -kominn, pp. 
situated (vel, ilia atkominn). 

atkvseSa-lauss, a. u7ii77iportant, of 
no consequence ; -niat5r, m. a man of 
ii7iportai:ce] -mikill, a. of weighty 

at-kv8BSi,n. (i) technical term ; skal 
soekja sem J)j6fssok fyrir utan atkvasdi, 
with exception of the technical ter77is, 
withotit calling it theft ; (2) word, 
expression ; {'^ sound, pronunciation 
(atkvaedi nafns hvers J)eirra) ; (4) 
decision ; var pvi vikit til atkvasda 
Mardar, referred to Mard''s decision ; 
S. veitti atkvasSi [ordered, decreed), at 
hastta skyldi dverkum ; af atkva^Qi 
gudanna, by the gods' decree ; (5) sfell, 
char7)i ] atkvasQi Finnunnar, the spell 
of the Finnish witch. 




at-laga, f. ( i) laying the ships along- 
side for attack in a sea-fight, attack^ 
assault (also on land); (2) landing^ 
without notion of fight (jarl skipaOi 
svd fyrir um atloguna). 

at-lat, n. compliance ; atldt synda, 
indulgence in sin. 

atlatsamr, a. compliant (e-u). 

atlcgu-skip, n. a ship engaged in 

atmsBlasamr, ^.faultfinding, 

at-meeli, n. blame, censure ; -rds, f. 
iharge, attack ; -reit5,f. (l) riding at ; 
(2) charge of horse. 

atreiSar-ass, m. quintain-post. 

at-rekandi, m. vigorous efforts^ 
great exertions. 

at-renna, f. running knot, noose^ 

atrennu-lykkja, f. = atrenna. 

at-r6c5r, m. ( 1 1 rowing towards ; (2) 
rowing against the enejny (to make 
an attack). 

atsamr, a. guarrelsomey conten- 

at-seta, f. residence ; hafa atsetu e-s 
stadar, to reside, esp. of kings ; -setr, 
n. = -seta. 

at-skelking, f. derision, ridicule. 

atsk'ljanligr, a. various, different. 

atskjaldac5r, a. covered with shields. 

atskjotaSr, a. j/Zz/rt/i?^; ilia atskjot- 
a6r, badly off. 

at-s6kn, f. (l) onslaught, attack ; 
(2) run of visitors or guests seeking 
hospitality (fong voru litil, en atsokn 

atsoknar-maSr, m. aggressor. 

at-spurning, f. inquiry ; leiSa at- 
spurningum um e-5, to make iiiquiries 
nbout a thing. 

at-stat5a, f. (i) assistance, sjipport\ 
{2) zeal\ (3) i7nportunity, obtrusion ; 
-staddr, a. situated, circumstanced 
{vel, ilia atstaddr) ; -stuSning, f. 
-stu(5ningr, m., -stcc5, f. support, 
assistance; -sugr, m., only in the 
phrase, bora frekan atsug til e-s, to 
lay vigorous claim to ; -^vif, n. inci- 
dent, bearing; -tekinn, pp.»=-staddr ; 
-tekt, f. state, condition. 
at-tonn, f. tusk,^w\gi'6nx\ (cf. at, n.). 
at-veizla, f. assistance (cf. *veita 

at ') ; -verknaSr, m. work, esp. in 
haymaking; var{>6rgunnu astlat nauts- 
f66r til atverknaQar, to toss and dry it. 

at-vik, n. (i) esp. in plur., details, 
particulars ; eptir atvikum, accordiiig 
tothecirctimstancesofthecase ; greina 
e-t me6 atvikum, circujnstantially, 
(2) concession; (3) onset ^ assatdt,= 

at-vinna, f. (l) assistance, support; 
(2) means of subsistence. 

atvinnu-lauss, a. without fneans of 

at-vist, f. presence, esp. the act of 
being present at a crime ; vera 1 atsokn 
ok atvist, to be presejit and a par- 
taker in the onslaught; atvistar 
-matSr, m. aider and abettor. 

at-vig\ n. onset, onslaught. 

atyrSa f-rSa, -rSr), v. to rebuke ; 
-jrr^i, n. pi. abusive wards. 

auS- adverbial prefix to a great many 
adjectives, adverbs, and participles 
(opp. to tor-), easily; -beSinn, pp. 
easily persuaded; -bcenn, a. easily 
moved by entreaty ; -boettr, pp. easily 
competisated for ; -eggjaSr, pp. easily 
egged on; -fenginn, pp., -fangr, a. 
easy to get ; -fimdinn, pp., -fjmdr, a. 
easy to find; -fundit (-fynt), easy to 
perceive, clear; -foerr, a. (l) easy to 
pass ^-fcerr vegr) ; (2) easily accessible. 

autSga (ac5) , v. to enrich (a. e-n e-u) ; 
refl., auSgast, to grow wealthy, 

au$-gengr, a. easy to pass (sti'gr 
-gengr) ; -gaBtligr, a., -gsstr, a. easy 
to get ; -gorr, pp. easily do?ie ; -heyrt, 
pp. n. easily heard, clear. 

auS-hof, n., -hoefi, n. pi. riches,= 

autSigr and autSugr, a. rich, wealthy 
(a. at fe) ; skip mikit ok audigt, with 
a rich lading. 

auSit, pp. n. of an obs. verb ; e-m 
ver^r e-s au., it falls to one's lot; oss 
var3 eigi peirrar hamingju au., this 
good fortune was not destined for us ; 
^6 at mer ver3i lifs au., though life be 
granted to me ; hafSi J)eim or6it sigrs 
au., they had won the day, varS t)eim 
eigi erfingja au., to them no heir was 
granted; au. fe, means possessed. 

au5-kendr, pp. easy to recognize, of 




dist'ngiiished appearance ; -kenni, 
n. mark^ distinct io7i ; -kenniligr, a. 
easy to recognize ; -keyptr, pp. easily 
bought, cheap \ -kjorinn, pp. easily 
chosen^ easy to decide on ; -kumall, 
a. tefider, delicate, easily hurt or 
ivounded\ -kumall i sVtx^'i, irritable', 
-kvaddr, pp. easily moved (vdru menn 
til t»css -kvadclir). 

au(5-kvisa, f., -kvisi, m. ; see * au- 
kvisi '. 

au^-kv8B^r, a. easily talked over, 
easily moved, pliable. 

au^-kymli, f. weakness (Jjd varp 
hon af ser -kymli konunnar). 

auS-kyfingr, m. a man of great 

au5-lattr, pp. easily kej. t in check ; 
-latinn, pp. of easy, affable man?iers, 

au5-leg8, f. wealth, riches ; -maSr, 
m. wealthy man ; -mildingr, m. 
generous, free-handed man. 

auS-mjukliga, adv. (i) humbly ; (2) 
easily ; -mjukligr, a. huinble (au6- 
mjukligt bcenarbref) ; -mjukr, a. (l) 
hujnble, meek \ (2) pliable, docile ; 
-muna^r, pp. easily reme77ibered\ 
-mykja (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to hu77ible\ 
au6-mykja s\V, to htwible oneself \ (2) 
to 7nake pliable ; -mykt, f. meekness, 

aut5n, f. {i)wilderness, desert {Mce.n- 
ligarauSnir) ; {1) U7iinhabited and uti- 
cultivated tract of la7id, waste (byg- 
6ust I)d margar auSnir landsins) ; 
(3) deserted far7n or habitation (sd 
boerhet si6an a HrappstoSum, J)ar er 
nu au6n>; (4) desolation-, riki mitt 
stendr mjok til audnar, is in a state 
of desolation ; liggja (leggja) 1 au3n, to 
lie {to lay) waste; (5) destruction 
(au3n borgarinnar). 

aut5na, t. {\)fate\ a. mun t>vi rdSa, 
Fate i7iust settle that \ (2) good for- 
tune ; me6 au6nu peirri, at {>orkatli 
var lengra lifs audit, by that good 
fortune that longer life was destined 
for Thorkel. 

auSna, f. desolation, ■=?i\x^n. 

auc^na (at5), v. impers. to fall out 
by fate \ ef honum auSnaSi eigi aptr 
at koma, z/"^^ did not have the good 

fortune to return ; ef gu5 vill, at })ess 
audni, that it shall succeed', sem 
audnar, as luck decides. 

auSnar-glutr, n. squandering, prO' 
digality, -lius, n. deserted house', 
-iiiac$r, m. dest7'oyer ; -6(5al, n. ?>;/- 
pove7-ished estate ; -sel, n. deserted 
shieli7ig', -stat5r, m. a desert place. 

aut5nu-laus3, a. luckless ; -maSr, 
m. lucky 77ian, favourite of fortune ; 
-samliga, 2idv.fo7'tunately. 

auf -nsemiligr, a. easy to learn. 

aut5-n8Bmr, a. easily lear7ted, soon 
got by heart. 

au8r, a. e77ipty, void, desolate ; husin 
voru au6, uni7ihatited \ au3 skip 
( = hro3in), e77?pty ships, all the crew 
being slain or put to flight ; a. af 
uionnMm, void of people', a. at yndi, 
devoid of pleasure, cheerless. 

auSr, m. riches, wealth ; audr fjdr, 
great wealth ; au6r er valtastr vina, 
wealth is the ficklest of frie7ids. 

aut5-rafS, n. wealth, = 2Mhx-&h\. 

auS-ratSinn, pp. (i) easily explained 
(of a dream) ; (2) easy to ma7iage (of 
a boat) ; -latSr, a. pliable, yielding. 

autS-rann, n. rich house ; -rfieSi, n. 
pi. means, property, wealth ; -salir, 
m. pi. rich {splendid) halls. 

au6-senn, pp. easily seen, evident ; 
-skilligr, a. easy to understand', 
-skreitSr, a. = orskreic5r ; -skcsSr, a. 
easily da77taged, delicate, tender; 
-sofctligr, a. (i) easy to perform, an 
easy task (J)6tti J)etta eigi vera -sott- 
ligt) ; (2) that can easily be taken by 
force (borg -sottlig) ; -sottr, pp. easy 
to win (mdl -sott) ; auSsottr til boena, 
pliable, yielding. 

au^-stafr, m. poet, wealthy man, 

au^-3veipr, a. pliable, yielding. 

auc5-syna (-da, -dr), v. to show, 
exhibit ; refl., -synast, to appear clear- 
ly ; -syniliga, adv. clearly ; -syniligr, 
a. ez'idefit, clear ; -syning, f. making 
evident, expla7iation ; -synn, a. easily 
see7i, clear, evident ; -ssBligr, a. 
= -syniligr; -ssBr, a. = -synn ; -trua, 
a. indeci., -trdinn, a. credulous', 
-tryggi, f. si77ipiicity, credulity ; 
-tryggr, a. si7nple-hearted, credtclous. 

auSugr, a. ; see ' au&igr '. 




aa5-velda (at$), v. to make easy^ 
take lightly. 

au&velda-verk, n. an easy task. 

auS-veldi, n. easi/; ess, facility ; me5 
-veldi, easily; -veldliga, adv. (i) 
easily, lightly; taka -veldliga i. e-u, 
to make light of\ (2) without re- 
luctance, willingly ; -veldligr, a. easy 
to overcofne (hversu -veldlig su borg 
var); -veldr, a. -velliligr, a. (i) 
easy ; { 2 ) complian t. 

aucS-virSa, iko.. ; see * afvirQa '. 

auS-vitaS, pp. n. easy to know, 
clear, evident', -vist, a. n., = -vita5. 

au$-l)rifligr, a. weakly, feeble. 

autS-oefi, n . pi. opuleftce, wealth,riches. 

aufi, interj. woe! alas I ', a. mer or 
a, mik, woe is nie / 

aufusa or aufusa, f. thanks, grati- 
tude, satisfaction, pleasure ; kunna 
e-m aufiisu fyrir e-t, to be thankful, 
obliged to one, for a thing ; gefa e-m 
aufiisu, to thank ; e-m er au. d e-u, 
one is pleased, gratified, with ; ef y6r 
er l)ar nokkur au. d, if it be any 
pleasure to yoti ; var monnum mikil 
au. i. J)vi, were much pleased by it. 

aufusu-gestr, m. a welcome guest, 
opp. to ' andvara-gestr ' ; -lauss, a. 
ungrateful, tmthatikful \ -orc5, n. 
thanks ; -svipr, va.friejidly 7nien. 

auga (gen. pi. augna), n. eye ; luka 
(bregSa) upp augum, bregma augum 
1 sundr, to open {lift up) the eyes\ 
luka aptr augum, to shut the eyes ; 
renna (bregma, leiSa) augum til e-s, 
to turn the eyes to ; leiQa e-n augum, 
to measure one with the eyes; berja 
augum 1 e-t, to take into consideration ; 
koma augum d e-t, to set eyes on, 
become aware of; hafa augu d e-u, to 
have, keep, an eye upon ; segja e-m 
e-t 1 augu upp, to ofie^s face, right in 
the face ; unna e-m sem augum i 
hofSi ser, as on^s own eye-balls ; e-m 
vex e-t 1 augu, one has scrtcples about ; 
ndit er nef augum, the nose is neigh- 
bour to the eyes ; gloggt er gests augat, 

a guest" s eye is sharp ; morg eru dags 

augu, the day has many eyes; eigi 

leyna augu, ef arm kona manni, the 
eyes cannot hide it if a womati love a 

man ; (2) hole, aperture in a needle 

(ndlarauga), in a millstone (kvarnar- 
auga) or an axe-head ; (3) pit full of 

auga-bora, f. socket of the eye; 
-bragS, n. (i) twinkling of an eye, 
jnojnent ; i. einu augabragdi, in the 
twinkling of an eye ; (2) glance, look ; 
snart -bragS, a keen glance ; hafa 
-bragQ af e-u, d e-u, to cast a look at; 
(3) a butt for ridicule; hafa e-n at 
-bragdi, to make sport of to ridicule ; 
ver6a at -bragQi, to become a laughing- 
stock ; -brag^ligr, a. ( i ) momentary ; 
(2) instantaneous; -staSr, m. socket 
of the eye; -steinn, m. apple (or 
pupil) of the eye. 

aug-brd, f. eye-lashes ; -dapr, a. 
weak-sighted; -fagr, a. = augnafagr ; 
-lit, n. face, countenance ; fyrir {or i) 
gu6s augliti, before the face of God; 
-Ijos, n., in the phrase, koma 1 -Ijos, 
to come to light, appear; -Ijoss, a. 
clear, manifest. 

augna-bending, f. a warning look 
ox glance; -bragS, n. = augabrag6 ; 
-fagr, a. fair-eyed, having beautiful 
eyes; -fVi\\v,3.. full of eyes ; -gaman, 
n. delight of the eyes ; -karl, m. pan 
of the hip-Joint; -kast, n. wild 
glafice ; -lag, n. look ; -mein, n. 
disease of the eye ; -myrkvi, m. dim- 
ness of the eye ; -sjaldr, n. eyebalL^ 
pupil; -skot, n. (i) look, glance of 
the eye ; (2) measure by the eye (at 
augnaskoti) ; -staSr, m. = augasta6r ; 
-sve'nn, m. a lad leading a blind 
man; -verkr, m. pain in the eye; 
-J)iingi, m. heaviness of the eye. 

aug-sjandi, pr. p. seeing with one's 
own eyes ; at augsjdndum postulum 
sinum, in sight of his apostles ; -sjon, 
f. = augsyn; -surr, a. blear-eyed, =^ 
sureygr ; -syn, f. sight ; koma 1 -syn 
e-m, to appear before hitn ; i -syn 
e-m, in the face of; -synast (d), v. 
refl. to appear clearly ; -syniliga, 
adv. visibly ; -syniligr, a.^ visible ; 
-synn, a. = au6-synn, aug-ljoss. 

auk, adv. and conj. (I) besides, — 2i\. 
auki (hundrad manna ok auk kappar 
bans) ; (2) aiso, = o\i. 

auka (eyk, jok, jokum, aukirin), v. 
(l) to augment, increase (a. virSing 




e-s ; a. aett sina ; a. vandraeQi) ; to pro- 
long (a. {)ing) ; aukanda ferr um e-t, 

something goes on increasing \ eigi 

er J)at aukit [it is no exaggeration) 
t)6 at hann se sagSr rikastr madr i. 

Islandi ; orSum aukit, exaggerated; 
aukin {jnore than) firju hundru6 
manna ; (2) to add, with dat. (jok ek 
t)vi es mer vard siSar kunnara) ; a. 
synd i. synd ofan, to heap sin upon 
sin ; a. e-u vi5, to add; aukast orSum 
vi6, to come to words, to co7iverse ; 
with ace, a. ny vandrasdi ( = ny)um 
vandras5am) d hin fornu, to add ftew 
difficulties to the old ones; impers., 
jok storum um hans harm, his grief 
increased greatly ; (3) to stcrpass, ex- 
ceed; J)at er eykr sex aura,J)a a konungr 
hdlft pat er eykr, if it exceeds six 
otinces, the king takes half the excess. 

auka (ac5), v. (a Norse form) = the 

auka-gorS, f. un?iecessary work. 

auka-hlutr, m., at -hlut, 'in addition, 
to boot, — 7x.\. auk. 

aukan, f. increase, augmentation. 

auka-nafn, n. nickname, additional 
na7ne; -sm.i6i, n. superfluous thing; 
-tungl, n. i7itercalary 7noon \ -verk, 
n. stipe7-fluous work. 

auki, m. (i) additio7i, increase (a. 
fagnadar, pi'nsla) ; ver6a at moldar 
auka, to beco77ie dust, to die ; til auka, 
in addition, to boot ; fcerast 1 alia auka 
(afls sins), to exert to the ut7nost 07ie's 
bodily strength ; (2) seed, proge7iy, 
offspring (eigi gaft t)u mer auka e6r 
afkvaemi) ; (3) produce of the earth ; 
(4) interest of capital. 

auk-nefna (-da, -dr), v. to nick- 
na7ne ; -nefhi, n. co7tte7nptuous na77ie, 
nickna7ne (eigi em ek bastarSr nema 
at -nefni, of William the Conqueror). 

aukning, f. i7icrease. 

aukvisi, m. degenerate person, 
laggard (einn er au. asttar hverrar). 

auma, f. 77iisery, in the phrase, sjd 
aumu or aumur d e-m, to take pity 
upo7i ; cf. * arma '. 

aum-hjartaSr, a. tender-hearted, 

aumingi f-ja), m. miserable person, 
wretch (gu6s aumingi). 

aumka (a^), v. to C077i7niserate, to 
feel pity for (a person, &c.). 

aumkan, f. la77ientation, wailing. 

aum-leikr, m. 7nisery, wretchedness ; 
-liga, adv. piteously, wretchedly ; 
-ligleikr, m.= -leikr ; -ligr, 2,. poor, 
77iiserable (aumligr ok hormuhgrj. 

aumr, a. poor, 77iise7'able, unhappy, 

aum-staddr, pp. in a poor, wretched 
state ; fniserably situated. 

aura-, gen. pi. from aurar ; see 
' eyrir '. 

aura-dagr, m. pay-day ; -lag, n. 
sta7tdard of 77ioney ; -Ian, n, worldly 
luck; -logan, f. squa7ideri7ig of 
money, profuseness ; -lykt, f. pay- 
7nent ; -skortr, m. scarcity of 77ioney ; 
-taka, f. receipt of 771071 ey. 

aur-bor$, n. the second plank fro7n 
the keel of a boat. 

aur-gati, m. ; see ' 0rgiti '. 

aurigr (ace. aurgan), a. clayey, 

aurr, m. 7710 ist earth, clay, mud 
(aurr etr iljar, en ofan kuldi). 

aurriSa-bekkr, m. trout-strea77i ; 
-fiski, n. trout-fishery ; -net, n. trout- 
net; -vat,n, n. a lake with trout. 

aurritSi, m. sabnon-trout. 

aur-skor, m. ' 7nud-shoe ', ho7'se- 
shoe ; -3krit5a, f. Ia7idslip. 

ausa (eys, J63, josum, ausinn), v. 
to sprinkle, pour, with dat.; Jjasr taka 
hvern dag vatn 1 brunninum ok ausa 
[viz. J)vi) upp yhr\nn, pour it over 
the ash-tree; a., sild or netjum, to 
e77ipty the nets of the herrings ; fig., a. 
sauri d e-n, to bespatter with abuse ; 
a. e-m e-u 1 augu upp, to throw . . .in 
one's face; (2) a. e-n {or e-t) e-u, to 
besprinkle with a thing ; a. e-n moldu, 
to sprinkle with earth, to bury ; a. 
barn vatni, a sort of baptism in the 
heathen age (SigurcJr jarl jos sveininn 
vatni ok kalladi Hdkon); (3) with 
ace, to bale; a. skip upp, to bale the 
ship out; fig., a. bdt sinn, to make 
water; (4) ot a horse, to kick or lash 
out with the hind legs. 

ausa, f. ladle ; ekki er enn sopit, t)6 
1 ausuna se komit, there's 7nany a slip 
'twixt the cup and the lip. 




aus-ker, n. = austrs-ker. 

ausli, m. ; see 'auvisli, usli*. 

austan, 2idv.from the east ; d austan, 
blowing from east \ fyrir austan (as a 
prep, with ace), east of\ (2) without 
motion, on the eastern side (t)rju hli6 
voru austan i. borginni) ; (3) with gen., 
to the east of (austan drinnar ; austan 

austan-fertS, f. jotiriiey from the 
east\ -gola, f . light breeze from the east ; 
-kvama, f. arrival from the east ; 
-mar c5, m. a manf?-om the east ; -ve$r, 
n. easterly gale ; -ver^r, a. eastern, 
easterly ; -vindr, m. east wind. 

austar-liga, adv., -ligr, a. easterly. 

austarr, adv. compar. more to the 
east', austast, adv. superl. most to 
the east; austastr, a. superl. most 
easterly, easternmost. 

aust-firSingr, m. one from the east 
of Iceland; -firSir, m. pi. the east firths 
of Iceland; -firzkr, 2.. from the east 
firths {in Iceland). 

aust-ker, n. = austrs-ker. 

aust-maSr, m. ^ eastman\ a man 
from the east ; in Iceland and in the 
Orkneys, a man from Norway. 

austr, n. (i) the east (sol 1 austri ; 
til austrs) ; (2) as adv., in the east (ek 
var a. ok dna varSak) ; towards the 
east (J)u vart a. sendr). 

austr (-r3 or -rar), m. (i) the act of 
baling out water; standa 1 austri, to 
be engaged in baling; (2) bilge-water 
(skipit fullt af austri). 

austr-dtt, f. = austreett. 

auitr-biti, m. a cross-beam near the 
baling-place (in a ship). 

austrfarar - knorr, m., -skip, n. 
vessel bound for the Baltic. 

austr-fert5, -for, f. voyage to the 
east, esp. to Russia or the eastern 

austr-hdlfa, f. (i) the easte7?i part ; 
hennar {of Europe) -hdlfa ; (2) Asia 
( = austr-hdlfa heimsins). 

austrhalfu-lySr, m., -J)j6t5, {.people 
of the east. 

austr-kendr, a. easterly (var veSrit 
austr-ker, n. scoop, ■=dMS\.xs-\itx. 

austr-ligr, a. eastern. 

austr-lond, n. pi. the East. 

austr-mdl, n. turn at baling. 

austr-oka { aS), v. to lavish, squander 
(-oka f^ sinu). 

austr-riki, n. the eastern empire^ 
esp. the east of Europe ; also of Asia. 

austr-riim, n. the baling-place in a 

austr 3-ker, n. scoop, bucket for bal- 
i?ig out water. 

austr-vegr, m. the east, esp. the east- 
ern Baltic, Russia. 

austrvegs-konungr, m. ki?ig of 
Russia ; -konungar, the three kings 
from the east ; -matSr, m. inhabitant 
of the austrvegr. 

austr-astt, f. eastern regiofi of the 
heaveji, east. 

aust-roenn, a. eastern, comifig fro7n 
the east ; -roen gola, easterly breeze ; 
-rcenn ma6r=austma6r ; -roenn viQr, 
timber frofn Norway. 

aust-skota, f. ^^^6'/, = austrs-ker. 

auvi, interj. alas / = 2i\i^ (auvi m^r 

auvir^ast (aS), v. refl., to become 
worthless, =■ afvirSast. 

auvirSi, n. (l) worthless wretch; 
(2) a law term, damage, a?iy thing im- 
pairing the value of a thing. 

auvir^iligr, a. worthless, wretched. 

auvircSis - maSr, m. a worthless 

auvirSskapr, m. worthlessness. 

auvisla-bot, f. compensation for 

auvisli (af, vesall), m., contr. ausli, 
usli; (i) a law term, damage ; boeta 
auvisia, to pay compensation for dam- 
age done ; (2) hurt, injury in general ; 
setja undan ollum auvisia, to get off 

ax, n. ear of corn. 

axar-, see ' 0xar- '. 

ax-helm a, f. stalk and ear of corn. 

axlar-bein, n. shoulder-bone, shoul- 
de7'-blade ; -lit5r, m. shoulder-joitit. 

axl-byrt5r, f. load borne on the shoul- 
der (oxl) ; -har, a. as high as a man's 
shoulder (axlhdr e-m). 

ay, interj. = auvi (ay m^r veslugri). 


d, prep., A. with dat. I. of place; 
(i) on^ upon^ in ; i golfi, on thefioo7-\ 
i. hendi, on the hand {oi a rinCT) ; ^ sja 
ok landi, on sea and land; a bokum 
enskum, in English books ; d himni, 
in heave?i ; i. jordu, on earth ; hafa 
lykil d. ser, . . . on one' s person ; vera d 
pingi, to be present at a meeting ; vera 
i. skogi, to be out in a forest (of a 
hunter, robber, deer) ; J)Der eyjar 
liggja d Brei5afir6i, . . .in Broadjirth ; 
(2j in connexion with proper names 
of countries, esp. those ending in 
'-land', in\ a Englandi, Irlandi, 
Skotlandi, Bretlandi, Groenlandi, 
islandi, &c., d Moeri, OgSum, Fjolum ; 
a Myrum (in Iceland) ; d Finnmork, 
a Fjoni (a Danish island), but i Dan- 
mork, SviJ)j63 ; also before names of 
Icel. farms denoting open spaces ; d. 
|>6risst6c5um, d Moc5ruvollum, d Fit- 
jum. II. of time; {i) during, in the 
course of', d nott, by night \ a degi, 
by day ; d \>\{ dri, vdri, sumri, in that 
year, spring, sicmmer ; d })rem sum- 
rum, zV^ the course of three summers ; 
var hann d fdm dogum heill, within 
few days ; d dogum e-s, /« the days of 
in his reign or ti7ne\ (2) used cf a 
fixed recurrent period or season ; d 
vdrum, sumrum, haustum, vetrum, 
every sfring, su77imer, &:c. ; d kveld- 
um, in the evening', t)risvar d dri, 
mdnuSi, th7'ee ti77ies a year, a month. 
III. fig. and in various relations ; (i) 
denoting personal relation, in, to, 
towards; boeta e-t d e-m, to 77iake 
amends to one (personally) ; sjd d e-m, 
to read 07i or in one's face ; hafa 
elsku (hatr) d e-m, to bear love 
{hatred) to one; rjtifa sastt d e-m, 
to break a truce on one; (2) with a 
reflexive pron., denoting personal 
appearance, temper, look ; vera 
J)ungr, lettr d ser, to be heavy or light 
(either bodily or mentally) ; kdtr ok 
lettr d ser, of a gay and light disposi- 
tion ; J)at bragc3 hafSi hann d ser, he 
looked as if; syna fdleika d ser, to 
show displeasure; (3) as periphrasis 

of the possessive pron. or a genitive ; 
hann retti d ser fingrna, he stretched 
his fingers ; fotrinn d honum, hisjoot ; 
1 vorunum a honum, z>z his lips ; 
stafn, skutr, drar, segl d skipi, the 
ste7)i, stern, oars, sail of a ship ; blo6 
d tre, leaves of a tree ; ^%<g d sver3i = 
sverSsegg; (4) denoting instru- 
mentality, by, by 7nea7is of; afla fjdrd 
holmgongum, to 77iake 7noney by 
duelli7ig; fella e-n d brag6i, . . . by a 
trick (in wrestling) ; komast undan d 
flotta, to escape by flight ; (5) with 
numerals ; d pridja tigi manna, 
between twenty and thirty ; d niunda 
\\<g\, between eighty a7id ninety years of 
age ; d o(5ru hundradi skipa, with 
above a himdred sail ; (6) in many 
adverbial phrases ; d lifi, alive ; d 
brautu, away; d floti, afloat; d milli, 
betwee7i ; d laun, secretly ; d moti, 
against ; d enda, at an end ; d flugi, 
a flying, i7i the air ; d gangi, walking; 
d skjdlfi, a-shiveri7ig ; d hleri, a- 
liste7iing; d veiSum, a-htcnting; d 
beit, a-grazing; (7) used absol. in 
reference to the air or the weather ; 
l3oka var d mikil, a thick fog was 07i ; 
allhvast d norSan, very stro7ig breeze 
fro77i the 7iorth ; g0r5i d regn, rain 
ca7ne on. B. with ace. I. of place; 
(l) indicating direction with or with- 
out motion, towards, to, on, upon ; 
ganga d land, to go ashore ; ganga d 
skog, i7ito the wood ; stiga d skip, to 
go on board; d bseSi bor5, 07i both 
sides (of the ship) ; d hli6, sidezvise; 
hoggva d tvaer hendr, to hew or st7'ike 
right and left ; stefna d fotinn, to aifn 
at the foot ; gekk vecJrit d vestr, the 
wind veered to the west ; hdrit tok 
ofan d belti, 7eached down to the belt ; 
reka austr d haf, to d7'ifl eastwards 
on the sea ; (2) in some cases the ace. 
is used instead of the dat., esp. with 
verbs denoting to hear or to see ; J)eir 
sd bo6a mikinn inn d fjoiSinn, they 
saw great breakers away in the firth ; 
with phrases denoting to be placed, 
seated, to sit, the seat is freq. in 



ace. ; sitja d miSjan bekk, to be seated 
on the middle bench ; skyldi konungs 
sasti vera d l^ann bekk ; (3) denoting 
parts of the body ; bita e-n d barka, 
to bite one in the throat ; skera e-n i. 
hdls, to cut one's throat \ kalinn d kne, 
frozen {frost-bitten) up to the knee. 
II. of time ; (i) connected with 
'evening, morning, the seasons' with 
the article ; d kveldit, every evenifig-^ 
d sumarit, every su7n7ner\ d vetrinn, 
in the wi^iter-time^ the plur., how- 
ever, is much more common in such 
cases ; d n«trnar/_y night, every night \ 
d morgnana, in the morning, every 
fnorning ; d kveld in, in the evening ; d 
vdrin,z;/ spring; d sumrin,z« summer; 
d haustin, ift atitimin (cf. A. II. i.) ; 
* dagr ' is always used in sing, with 
the art. suffixed ; d daginn, du7'ing 
the day-time, every day in turn ; 
(2) denoting a movement onward in 
time ; er leid d vetrinn (daginn, 
kveldit, nottina), as the winter, &c., 
wore on. III. fig. and in various 
relations; (i) oft, upon, to; bj63a 
voxtu d feit, to offer interest on the 
jnoney ; fd d e-n, to make an i?n- 
pression tipott ; koma d roeSu vi6 e-n, 
to enter into talk with, to speak with ; 
(2) of colour, complexion, in respect 
of, in regard to ; hvitr, jarpr, dokkr 
d hdr, havitig %uhite, brown, dark 
hair; d0kkr d horund, of dark com- 
■^lexion ; (3) denoting skill, dexterity ; 
hagr d tre, a good carpefiter; hagr d 
jdrn, mdlm, an expei't worker in iron, 
metals ; fimr d boga, good at the bow ; 
meistari d horpusldtt, a master in 
harp-playing; mikill d ijirott, highly 
accomplished; froeSimaSrd landnams- 
sogur ok forna froe5i, a great scholar 
in history and antiquities ; (4) denot- 
ing dimensions ; d hasS (lengd, breidd, 
dypt), in height {length, breadth, 
depth) ; (5) denoting instrumentality ; 
bjargast d sinar hendr, to live on the 
work of ones own hatids; vega d 
skdlir, to weigh in scales ; nefna e-n 
d nafn, by name ; (6) denoting man- 
ner ; d t)essa lund, in this wise ; d 
marga (ymsa, alia) vega, in many 
(various, all) respects \ esp. of a 

language ; msela, rita d e-a tungu, to 
speak, write in a tongue ; d Irsku, in 
Irish ; (7) in some phrases the ace. 
is used instead of the dat. ; hann let 
ekki d sik finna, he showed no sign of 
tnotion ; (8) in distributive sense ; 
skal mork kaupa gaszlu d kii eSr oxa, a 
mark . . .for every cow ; (9) connected 
with nouns, in prepositional and ad- 
verbial phrases ; d hendr e-m, 
against ; d hoela e-m, at 07ie's heels, 
close behi7id ; d bak e-m, at the back 
of, behind; d braut, azuay ; d vixl, so 
as to cross, cross-wise. 

d (gen. ar, pi. ar, gen. d, dat. am), 
f. 7'iver ; her kemr a til saevar, here the 
river runs i7ito the sea, ^g., = this is 
the very end. 

d-auki, m. (i) increase; (2) interest 
of mo7iey, yield, proft ; (3) reward. 

d-austr (-rs), m. abusive la7iguage. 

d-barning, f. (i) thrashitig,floggi7tg 
(=barsmid) ; (2) assault (of the Evil 
One), te77iptation. 

a-batan, f. = dbati. 

a-bati, m. profit, gain. 

d-bersemi, f. dispositio7i to accuse. 

a-bla3inn, pp. inspired (bok guSliga 

a-blaaning, f. (i) breathing upon 
(me6 elds d.) ; (2) gramm., aspiration ; 
(3) inspiratio7i ; d-blastr, m. (i) 
breathi7ig upo7t ; (2) i7ispiration. 

abota-doenii, n. abbacy, abbot ship ; 
-kosning, f. election of an abbot ; 
-ligr, a. abbatial; -3onr, m.son of an 
abbot; -st§tt, f, the rank, dignity of 
a7i abbot ; -stofa, f. abbot's parlour ; 
-saBti, n. seat of an abbot ; -vald, n. 
the power, dignity of an abbot. 

dbota-vaat, a. n. in need of im- 
p7'ove7nent, i77tperfect (J)ar er honum 
J)6tti -vant um kristnihaldit). 

dboti, m. abbot. 

a-breitSa, f., d-breiasl, n. bed-cover- 
ing, counte7pa7te. 

a-bruSigr, a. = afbruSigr; abrySa, 
v. = afbry6a; d-brySi, f. = afbry3i. 

dbur^ar-klaeSi, n. pi. fne clothes, 
showy dress; -kona, f. a showy, 
dressy wo77ia7i ; -matSr, m. showy 
person, dandy ; -mikill, a. puffed up, 
showy ; -samligr, -samr, a. showy. 




d-burt^r, m. (i) charge \ (2) salve^ 
ointment \ (3) pomp or bravery in 
dress (cf. 'berast mikit d.'). 

a-butS, f. (i ) tenancy ; ef land spillist 
1 ibu6 hans, dii7ing his tenancy \ {2) 
duties of a tenant. 

dbu^ar-matSr. m. an inhabitant \ 
-skylda, f. duties of a tenant. 

a-buna$r, m. te?iancy (=abu6). 

a-byrg$, 1. responsibility ; vera 1 a. 
um e-t, to be respo7isiblefor\ vera or 
a. um e-t, to be exempt from responsi- 
bility in a case\ hafa mikit 1 a., to 
have much at stake ; e-t er 1 dbyrgQ- 
um vi6 mik, /«;« responsible for it. 

abyrgSar-fulb', a. full of responsi- 
bility^ responsible-^ -hlutr, m. an 
object^ matter i?ivolving risk and 
responsibility, -lauss, a. irresponsi- 
ble, free from risk ; -litill, a. involv- 
ing Utile risk ; -raS, n. responsible 
step ; -samligr, a. momentous, very 

a-bjrrgja (-?a, -t^r), v. to make one 
answerable for (a. e-m e-t or e-t a 
hendi e-m) ; refl., abyrgjast e-t, to 
answer for .1 warrant. 

a-boeli, n. tenancy , farm, = i.h\xb. 

d^an, adv. (i) before (longu a.); 
(2) a little while ago (Kolr for fra 
sell a.). 

dt5r, adv. (i) already (ek hef d3r 
raSit brullaup mitt) ; (2) before, here- 
tofore ; litlu (longu) ^., a little while 
{long) before; (3) =a6r en, previous 
to the time when, before^ ere ; J)eir 
hofSu skamma hri6 setic^ a. par kom 
Gunnhildr, they had sat but a short 
while before G. catne ; dou margir a. 
l)eir koemi til fyrirheitsjarSar, before 
they came to the land of pro?nise ; (4) 
until^ till ({)at var svipstund ein a. 
stofan brann) ; (5) sem a., neverthe- 
less, for all that (hon ba6 hann J)at 
eigi gera, en hann tekr hana sem a.). 

a-dreifing, f. spri?tkling upon. 

at5r-nefndr, pp. before mentioned, 

a-drykkja. f. the act of drinking to ; 
sitja fyrir adrykkju e-s, to sit over 
against one as his drinking-mate 
(regarded as a mark of honour). 

d-drykkr, m. a wave dashing over 
a ship. 

to egg or tirge on^ to 

d-eggja (a(5), v. 
exhort (a. e-m). 

d-eggjan, f. egging on ^ instigation. 

aeggjanar-fifl, n. a fool or tool 
^Sg^^'i- on by a?iother (hafa e-n at 
-fifli); -grenir, f. pi. exhortations-, 
-op, n. encouraging shout. 

a-eggjari, m. instigator (deggjari 

dfa, f. disturbance, quarrel, strife. 

a-fall, n. (i) heavy sea (dashing over 
a ship) ; (2) law term, i^nposition of a 
fine (a. sektar) ; (3) =dfelli, calamity ^ 

afalls-domr, m. sentence of condem- 
nation or punishment. 

d-fang, n. (i) laying hands upon, 
rough handling (vard hann fyrir 
miklu spotti ok dfangi) ; (2) 7nulct, 
fine^ incurred by illegal seizure of 
another man's goods ; sex aura d., 
a fine of six ounces. 

a-fangi, m. = dfang 2. 

a-fangr, m. ; see di-vangr. 

a-fastr, a. fastened to, joined to. 

d,-fdtt, a. n. defective, faulty. 

a-felli, n. calamity ; standa undir 
dfelli, to be under great hardship ; 
hvert a. jarl hafdi veitt honum, what 
penalties the earl had laid on him. 

afellis-domr, m. condejnnation, 

a-fenginn, pp., -fengr, a. intoxicat- 
ing- (i. mjoSr, drykkr). 

a-flog, n. pi. brawl, fighting. 

a-form, n. arrangement. 

a-forma (at5), v. to arrange about a 
thing (um e-t). 

a-fram, ^&w. forward, onward \ fell 
hann d., on the face ; komst aldri 
lengra a. fyrir honum um skaldskap- 
inn, he never got any further in his 
verse-making; hdldu J^eir d. leiSina, 
they held forward on their way. 

a-fra, prep./r^w, = fra (a. J)eim degi). 

d-fryja, v. = fryja d e-n. 

a-fryja, f. reproach, rebuke. 

a-fysi, f. gratification, satisfaction 
(oss er engi d. at). 

a-foera (-3a, -5r), v. to reproach. 

d-ganga, f. = dgangr (veita e-m 

a-gangr, m. molestation, annoyance, 
assault, aggression. 




dgang-samr, a. aggressive, 

dgangs-matSr, m. an aggressor (vi3 
mfna dgangsmenn). 

a-gautS, f. barking (at one) ; abusive 
language ; veita e-m mikla dgau5, to 
abuse grossly. 

d-gengiligr, a. acceptable, agreeable. 

a-gengt, a. n., e-m ver5r agengt, one 
is exposed to dgangr. 

d-gildi, n. value of a ewe (aer). 

d-gildr, a. of a ewe' s value. 

a-girnast (d), v. refl. to covet, lust 
after (ilgirnast e-t = girnast i. e-t) ; d- 
girnd, f. (i) ardent desire, ambition ; 
(2) cupidity, avarice (hann hafSi 
dregit undir sik Finnskaitinn meQ 

agirndar-bdl, n., -eldr, -logi, m. 
flame of ainbition or cupidity ; -lostr, 
m. vice [passioji] of avarice. 

d-girni, f. (ij ambition \ (2) greed, 

agirnis-fullr, a. avaricious, selfish. 

a-gjarn, a. (i) ambitious {i.. ok 
fegjarn) ; i.. til fjdr, covetous ; (2) 
impetuous, eager (kappar dgjarnir ok 

dgjarn-liga, adv. (i) eagerly, vehe- 
mently ; (2) with greed or ciipidity ; 
-ligr, a. proceeding frojn cupidity or 
avarice (-lig rdn). 

dgoSa-hlutr, m. profitable share. 

a-g6t5i, vci. gain, profit, benefit. 

a-grip, n., in the phrase, litill 
dgripum, sjnall of size. 

agaBta (-tta, -ttr), v. to praise or 
commend highly. 

dgSBta-, gen. pi. from *^g^ti*, is 
prefixed to many words to express 
something capital, excellent', -goSr, 
a. excellent ; -gripr, m. capital thing ; 
-naut, n. fine ox ; -skjotr, a. very 
swift ; -vel, adv. excellently well. 

ageeti, n. glory, fame, renown, 
excellence ; in pi, glorious deeds 
(mikil dgseti voru sog^ af Gunnari) ; 
gera e-t at dgastum, to praise highly. 

dgaBtingr, m. = dgastisma6r, agastr 

ags9ti3-, gen. from *dga£ti', prefixed 
to a great many words with the same 
meaning as *aga2ta-'; -gripr, m.= 
agseLa-gripr; -IsBknir, m. excellent 

physician ; -maSr, m. excellent man ; 
-verk, n. 7naster-piece \ used as an 
adv. highly, extremely (husfru ^gaetis 

ag89t-liga, adv. capitally, -ligr, a. 
excellent, goodly. 

agaB r, a. Jamous, excellent ; dgaetr 
hofdingi, excellent chief', dgastir 
gimsteinar, fioble gems. 

a-g0r5, {.gain, profit ( = ^voxtr). 

d-hald, n. (i) laying hold of, esp. in 
^\., fighting, brawl', verSa ahold me5 
monnum, they come to a tussle; (2) 
possession ; veita e-u dhald or dhold, 
to take possession of; (3) hafa dhold 
vid e-m um e-t, to be equal to {match 
for) one in a thing, 

a-hankait (ac5), v. refl. to become 

d-heit, n. invocatioft, vow. 

a-henda (-nda, -ndr), v. to lay 
hands upon, seize ; a-hendr, pp. 
within reach ; t)au ur6u dhend, they 
were seized. 

a-heyrandi, pr. p. within hearing^ 
listening', at ollum boSsmonnum 
dheyrondnm, in the hearing{presence) 
of all the guests. 

a-heyriligr, a. worth hearing, well 
sounding', d-heyris, adv. within 
hearing, in one's hearing', a-heyrsi, 
-heyrsli, a. indecl., verda e-s d., to 
get to know by hearing. 

d-hlaup, n. (i) onset, attack, incur- 
sion ; gera e-t me3 dhlaupum, to do 
a thing impetuously ; (2} leaping, 
covef'ing (of animals). 

dhlaupa-maSr, m. a?t itnpetuous 

a-hlekking, f. (i) stumbling block 
(drepa fotum 1 dhlekkingar) ; (2) 
error, slip ; (3) adversity ; a-hley- 
pinn, a. impetuous, vehement', a- 
hly^ast (dd), v. refl. to give ear to, 
listen to (i.. ummseli e-s) ; i.. vid e-n, 
to agree with ; a-hly$inn, a. giving 
a willing ear, listeniiig readily (d. um 
e-t, til e-s) ; ekki i., obstinate, self- 

dlirins-ort5, n. pi. words {spells) that 
come true (ver6a at -orSum). 

ahuga-fullr, a. full of care ; -litill, 
a. slow ; -maSr, a. eager^ aspiring 




•samt, a. n., e-m er -samt, otie is 
concerned (about something) ; -vertSr, 
a. causing concern, serious. 

a-hugi, m. (i) intention, 7nind\ e-m 
er e-t 1 dhuga, one intends to do a 
thing \ (2) eagerness (ekki skortir 
ykkr ^huga) ; (3) mind, opinion 
(eigi er ^\\ at leyna, hverr minn d. er 
um t^etta) ; (4) care, solicitude,^ 
ahyggja; (5) devotion', biSja t)eir 
goOiii ine3 miklum ihu'ga., fervently. 

Q,-\\^. ggja, f. care, concern, anxiety ; 
bera dhyggju fyrir e-m, to be con- 
cerned about ; fer ]3at honum mikillar 
ihyggju ok reicJi, it causes him fnuch 
concern and anger. 

ahyggjast (aS), v. refl., d. e-t or um 
e-t, to be co7icerned about, take care 
or thought for. 

ahyggju-tenginn, -fuUr, a. anxious, 
concerned ; -lauss, a. unconcerned ; 
-mikill, a. very anxious ; e-m gerist 
-mikit, one grows very anxious ; 
-samliga, adv. gravely, anxiously, 
-samligr, a. anxious-looking ; -samr, 
a. anxious, careful ; -svipr, m., -yfir- 
brag?5, n. grave, anxious look. 

a-hofn, f. (i) the freight or loading 
of a ship', (2) htggage. 
a-hogg, n. slaughter of a ewe (asr). 
ai, m. great-g}andfather. 
ai-fangi, ai-fangr, m. res ting- f>l ace 

(for horses to rest and graze) ; -foSr, 
n. fodder for horses at a resting- 
place', -vangr, m. = di-fangr (cf. *aeja', 

to bait, and ' vangr \ field). 
akafa-mac5r, m. an eager, impetuous 

man (-maSr um e-t). 
akafast (at5), v. refl.,/^ be vehement, 

eager ; i.. a e-t, to busy oneself eagerly 

with a thing. 
akafi, m. eagerness, vehejnence ; 

me6 akafa miklum, vehemently ; 1 

akafa, eagerly, impetuotisly ; the gen. 

' akafa ' is prefixed to a great many 

adjectives and to some substantives, 

in the sense of in a high degree, very ; 

cikafa fagr, very beautiful', dkafa 

reiSr, very angry, furious ; dkafa 

drifa, a heavy snow-drift. 
dkaf-leikr, m. eagerness, vehemence ; 

-liga, adv. (i) vehemently, impetuous- 

ly; fara dkafliga, /<? rush on', biSja 
-liga, to pray fervently ; (2) very^ 
exceedingly (-liga reiSr) ; -ligr, a. 
vehement, hot (dkafligr bardagi, -Jig 
reiSi) ; -lyndi, n. a hot, impetuous 
temper ; -lyndr, a. hot-temperedy 

dkafr, a. vehement, fierce (a. bar- 
dagi) ; t)enna dag var veizlan allra 
dkofust, at the highest pitch ; neut. as 
adv., kail a dkaft a Bar 6, to pray to 
B. fervently ; ri6a sem dkafast, to 7'ide 
at a furious pace. 

a-kall, n. (i) calling upon, inz'oca- 
tion (a. a nafn gu6sj ; (2) clamour, 
shotcting', (3) clai?n, demand (a. til 
e-s, to a thing). 

akalls-lauss, a. free fro7n all 
clai7ns or de77iands. 

a-kals, n. a7i i77iportunatey urgent 
request (cf. kails). 

a-kast, n. (i j throwing upon, casting 
at ; (2) fig., assault (a. ohreins anda) ; 
(3) pi. tatmts ; a-kastan, f. casting 
upon ; akasta-samr, a. tau7iting. 

a-kef$, f. = dkati (vsegiliga en eigi 
me5 dkefd). 

akef$ar-orc$, n. pi. passionate 
or viole7it words. 

a-kenning, f. (i) S77iack, savour 
(hafa a. e-s or af e-u) ; (2) slight 
repri7na7id (gera e-m a.) ; a-kenningr, 
m. = akenning. 

a-keypi, n. right of p7'e-e7nption. 
a-klagan, f. accusation, charge. 
a-klee5i, n. bed-covering, counter- 
pane (sa^ngr me6 akl^dum). 
d-kneiki, n. sha7ne (snua e-u e-m 

til akneikis) ; -koma, -kvdma, f. 

(l) tottch', ufridar a,, visit atio7i of 

war', (2) hurt, wound. 
d-kiifottr, a. rotmd as a ball. 
a-kve(Sinn, pp. fixed, appointed', 

dkvedin or6, 7narked,poi7ited words', 

me6 akveQnum ordum, in express 

a-kv8e5i, n. decision, verdict ; me9 

akva^Sum, expressly. 
akvaeSis-teigr, m. apiece of field to 

be 77W2U71 in a day ; -verk, n. piece- 
work (t)at er ti'tt a Island! at hafa 

a-kynnis, adv. on a visit. 





d-ksBra (-t5a, -t5r), v. to complain of. 

a-kaera, f. charge^ complaint (bera 
dkasru i. e-n) ; a-k8Brari, m. accusery 
complainant ; d-kfi9rsla, f. = dkaera. 

dkaarslu-lauss, a. = akasrulauss ; 
-maSr, m. = ^kaeruma3r. 

dkaBru-lauss, a. undisputed ^ unim- 
peached\ -niac5r, m. accuser ^ com- 

dl (pi. -ar), f. leather- strap. 

d-lag, n. (i) esp. pi., dlog, impost^ 
iaXy burden ; (2) visit ation^ tribula- 
tion ; (3) law term, additional fine ; 
(4) j;^^//, char 711. 

a-laga, f. esp. pi. dlogur, = alag (i). 

dla-garSr, m. eel-p07td^ stew for eels. 

dlags-hattr, m. a kind of metre, the 
first syllable of the following line com- 
pleting the sentence. 

alar-endi, m. end of a leather strap ; 
-reip, n. rope of leather. 

dla-virki, n. = alagar6r. 

dl-belti, m. leathern belt ; -borinn, 
pp. measured with a thong or cord (of 
a field) ; -burSr, m. measurement [of 
afield) with a cord. 

d-leiSia, adv. (i) onwards, forwards 
(foru d. til skipa sinnaj ; vildu snua i.. 
for sinni, proceed on their journey ; 
fig., koma e-u a., to bri?tg about \ 
vikja a. me6 e-m, to side with one ; 
(2) on the right path, opp. to afleiSis ; 
snua e-m ^., to coftvert one. 

d-leikni, f. pertness\ d-leikr, m. 
trick ; d-leiksi, a. having got the 
worst of the gatne. 

d-leita (aS), v. to molest, annoy ; 
d-leitiligr, a. reprehensible ; d- 
leitinn, a. aggressive ; a-leitni, f. 
(i) aggressiveness (a. vi3 e-n); (2) 
blame, censure. 

d-lengdar, adv. for the future (eng- 
um friSi heit ek J^er d.). 

d-lengr, adv. (i) for the future, 
always (J)essi illvirki skyldi eigi i.. 
uhefnd vera) ; (2) furthermore ; (3) 
d. er, as soon as (alengr er hann er 
sextan vetra). 

dlfa, f. =h^lfa. 

dlfa-blot, n. sacrifices to the elves ; 
-kyn, n. the race of elves. 

alf-kona, f. female elf', -kunnigr, 
•kunnr, a. akin to the elves. 

dlfr (-8, -ar), m. elf , fairy (h611 ei 
skamt heSan er dlfar bua 1). 

dlf-rek, n., -reki, m. dirt, excre- 
ments (which drive away the elves) ; 
ganga -rek, -reka, at -reka = ganga 
0rna sinna. 

dlf-roSull, m. poet, the sun. 

d-lit, n. (i) aspect, appear ance^ 
countenance (vsenn at dliti, fagr 
alitum, dekkr alits) ; (2) view, co7i- 
sideration, reflection ; meS skj6tum 
alitum, without mature consideration ; 
eigi me3 nogum dlitum, inconsider- 
ately ; g0ra e-t at dlitum, to take into 
consideration ; (3) opinion, judge- 
ment (at rettsynna manna dliti). 

alita-leysi, n. absence of reflection ; 
-litjll. a. inconsiderate ; -mdl, n. pi. 
in the phrase, gora e-t at -mdlum=: 
g0ra e-t at alitum. 

alit-liga, adv. becoiningly, respecta^ 
bly, pretty well ; -ligr, a. deliberate. 

d-litning, f. consideration (d. him- 
narikis fagnaSar). 

d-likr, a. like, resefnbling, 

d-lj6tr (gen. -s or -ar), m. (i) serious 
bodily injury that leaves a mark, 
wilfully inflicted ; (2) contumelious 
language (masla dljot). 

dljots-eyrir, m. a fine for * dljotr ' ; 
-rdtS, n. intention to inflict * dljotr '. 

dlka, f. auk ; dlku-ungi, m. young 
auk (fugl ]Dvilikastr sem dlku-ungi). 

dll (-3, -ar), m. (i) eel', (2) a deep 
narrow chafinel in sea or river (eru 
nu iDeir einir dlar til lands, er ek get 
va6it) ; (3) germ, sprout of a plant. 

dlmr, m. (i) ehn ; (2) poet. man. 

alm-sveigr, m. elm-twig \ -tr6, n. 
ebn-tree — almr (i). 

dlmviSar-skogr, m. elm-wood. 

dlnar-breiSr, a. an ell broad '^ 
-kefli, n. a staff an ell long', -langr, 
a. an ell long ; -tiund, f. tithe of the 
value of an ell ; -virtSi, n. the value 
of an ell (alin, oln). 

dipt (pi. dlptir and elptr), f. siuan. 

dlptar-hamr, m. the skin and 
plumage of a swan ; -hreiSr, n. 
swafi^s nest; -liki, n. swan's shape 
or form. 

dlpt-veiSr, f. catching wild swans. 

al-reip, n. rope of leather. 




d-lutr, a. bending forwards y stoop- 
ing (cf. lutr). 

d-lygi, f. slander^ calumny. 

d-lykt, f. issue, decision. 

dlyktar-dminning, f. fnal admoni- 
tion ; -domr, m. /Inal judgement ; 
-orS, n. the last word, peroration ; 
-vitni, n. conclusive testimony. 

d-lyktan, f. co7tclusion,fitial decision, 

a-laBgja, a. indecl. in heat (of a 

dmatligr, dm^ttigr, a. loathsome ^ 
unpleasant, piteous. 

a-minna (-ta, -tr), v. to admonish ; 
A-minning, f. (i) admonition, warn- 
ing; the act of reminding one (of 
something) ; (2) recollection (d. allra 

aminningar-maSr, m. adjnonisher^ 
reminder ; -orS, n. pi. admofiition^ 
exhortation ; -vi6ur,f. pi. ad?nonitory 
or warning verses. 

a-mot, n. confluence of (two or more) 
rivers (uppi hja amoti). 

d-munr, a. like (a. e-m). 

amu-s6tt, f. erysipelas. 

d-maBla (-ta, -t), v. to blame {fk, e-m 
fyrir e-t). 

a-maslandi (pi. -endr), m. reprover. 

a-maeli, n. blame, reproof, reproach ; 
leggja e-m e-t til amselis, to refroach 
one for, or with, a thirig. 

amsBlis-laust, adv. without re- 
proach ; -orS, n. reproof', -samr, a. 
bringing reproach, shartieful ; -verSr, 
a. blame-worthy. 

an, prep, without', (i) with gen.; 
t)ess mattu Gaular ilia ^n vera, they 
could not well do withotct it', an 
allrar vaegSar, without ajiy mercy ; 
(2j with dat. ; rln e-s ri.b\, without 
[against) his will', dn aflati, in- 
cessantly, (3) with ace; i.n alia 
flser3, zuithout any deceit', dn leyfi, 
without leave. 

d-nafnaSr, a. renowned, famous. 

^-nau(5, f. ( I ) oppression, cofistraint ; 
(2) bondage \ (3) straits , hardship 
(also in pi.). 

dnau^ar-ok. n. yoke of bondage ; 
-vist, f. life of oppression or bo?idage. 

d-naucSga (a5), v. (i) to rediice to 
bondage, to enslave {i.. e-m) ; (2) to 

oppress \ A-nautSigr, a. oppressed^ 
enslaved; d-nau?5r, m. =^naud. 

d-nefna (-da, -dr), v. to name, 
appoint [i.. dag til orrustu). 

d-netja (a5), v. to entangle as in a 
net (a. e-n e-u) ; refl., anetjast e-u, 
to be e-i tangled in. 

d-neyt5a (-dda, -ddr), v. to force, 
subject by force. 

dning, f. resting, baiting', cf. 'asja'. 

d-nyt, f. e7ve's 7nilk, = 2e.x-ny\.. 

d-nyja la^), v. to renew. 

d-noegja, v. = noegja ; lat sdr e-t d., 
to be content, rest satisfied, with. 

ar, n. {\) year', at ari, next year ', 
telja d,rum, to count time by years ; 
(2) plenty, abundance, fruiifulness 
(J)a var ar um oil lond) ; (3) the name 
of the Rune A. 

ar, f. oar', draga skip d drum, to 
pull the boat with oars ; f)ungr undir 
drum, heavy to pull ; draga arar um 
e-t, to contend for ; koma eigi ar sinni 
fyrir bor3, to be under restraint. 

dr, n. first begintiing ; ar var alda, 
in times of yore ; at morgins dri, um 
morguninn iar = aria um morguninn, 
early in the morning. 

dr, adv. (l) anciently, of yore ; (2) 
early (ar um morguninn). 

dra-burv5r, m. the movement of the 
oars ; koma (raSast) undir -bur6 e-s, 
to become dependent on one ; vera 
undir -burSi e-s, to be under one's 
protection ; -gangr, m. splashing of 
oars', -glam, n. = -gangr; -lag, n. 
ti7ne in rowing', kunna aralag, to be 
arte to handle an oar. 

dr-dll, m. river-clumnel. 

ar-angr (-r3), m. (i ) season, ^ixi^xh ; 
(2) produce of the earth, 

drar-hluinr, m. oar-handle ; -hlutr, 
m. piece of ajt oar ; -stubbi, m. 
stump of an ocr ; -tre, n. wood for 
making oars. 

d-ra3, f. assault, attack,'=a.h\a.up, 

ara-tal, n. munber of years ; fimtugr 
at -tall, fifty years of age ; -tala, f. 
(l) = -tal; (2) calculation, recko7iing 
of years. 

dr-bakki. m. bank of a river. 

dr-bot, f. bettering of the season or 




dr-brot, n. inundation of a river ; 
-bru, f . bridge over a river. 

dr-buinn, a. early ready. 

ar-byll, a. dwelling in abundance. 

dr-dagar, m. pi., i -daga, i7i days of 
yore ; -degis, adv. early i?t the day. 

ar-djup, n. pool in a river. 

d-reit5, f. charge of cavalry ^ifivasion 
cf horsemen. 

a-reitingr, m. inducement. 

a-rennil gr, a. easy to face. 

a-reySr, t. a kind of salmo7i. 

dr-eyrr, f. bar^ sand-bank at the 
7?wuth of a river ; -farvegr, m. course 
of a river. 

ar-fertS, f. (i) season (go 5 arfer6) ; (2) 
good luck. 

ar-flj6tr, a. fast^ suift (of a rowing 

ar-gali, m. * the early singer \ the 
cock, chanticleer. 

argalla-lauss, a, free from failure 
of crop, fertile, ar-galli, m. failure 
of crop. 

ar-gangr, m. a year's course, year. 

ar-gljufr, n. pi. steep cli_ffs over- 
hanging a river. 

dr-gu6, m. god of plenty (the god 
Frey) ; -goezka, f. good season. 

dr-hlutr, m, one's portion of a river 
(as regards fishing rights). 

a-ri(5a, f. sjnearing^ rubbing (cf. 

drla, adv. (i) early ; with gen., aria 
dags ; (2) in times of yore. 

ar-langt, adv., -lengis, adv. for a 
year, during a whole year ; -liga, 
adv. (i)=arla; {2) yearly ', -ligr, a. 
(I ) a7tnual, yearly ; (2) early. 

ar-ma^r, m. steward^ esp. of a kings 
or bishop's estates. 

ar-megn, n. 77iain strea77i or curre7it 
of a 7iver. 

dr-menning, f. stewardship. 

drna (aS), v. (i) to earn, gain, get 
(^. e-t) ; (2) a. e-m e-s, to procure a 
thing for one ; d. e-m g6c5s, to pray 
for good to one ; a. e-m ills, to i77ipre- 
cate evil upon^ to curse ; d. e-m lifs, 
to i7itercede for one''s life ; A. e-s vi5 
gufl, to pray to God for a thing. 

drna (at5), v. to go forward, to 
wander (a. urgar brautirj. 

drnat5ar-ma?5r, m. intercessor (esp. 
of Christ and the saints) ; -ort$, n. 
i7itercession (of the saints). 

drnat5r, m. intercession. 

drnan, f. = ^rna6r. 

arnandi (pi. -endr), m. intercessor, 
= arnaSarmaSr. 

ar-6ss, m. 77iouth of a river. 

drr (pi. asrir and arar, ace. dru and 
dra), m. (i) 7nessenger, servant \ (2) 
pi. aiigels (asrir ok hofu6asrir). 

drr, a. early (at arum degi). 

dr-risull, a. given to risi7ig ea7'ly. 

dr-sali. -salr, m. precious hangi7tgs 
of a <^d'^(kult ok blasjur ok ^rsah). 

dr-samr, 3.. fertile (arsamr vetr). 

dr-salnn, pp. early sown. 

dr-skyld, f. yearly rent. 

dr-3traumr, m. curre7it in a river ; 
-strond, f. bank of a river. 

ar-s8Bli, f. the fact of havi7ig 
Prosperous seasons (during one's 
reign) ; -ssbII, a. happy i7i having 
good seaso7is. 

dr-tal. n. reckoning by years ; 
-tekja, f. yearly rent ; -.i5,f. anniver- 
sary of a 771 an' s death. 

drtioar-dagr, m. = arti5; -skrd, f. 

d-runi, m. attack, -^ixis,. 

ar-vaS, of a river. 

dr-vakr, a. early awake ^ early 
risi7tg (arvakr ok osvefnugr). 

dr-vegr. m. = artarvegr. 

dr-vsBnligr, -vaenn, a. pro77iising a 
good seaso7i. 

ar-v6xtr, m. the rising or swelling 
of a river. 

drsBtSa-mikilL a. dari7igy e?iterpris- 
ing (cf. araeSis-mikill). 

a-raeSi, n. (i) attack ; veita e-m a., 
to attack ; (2) C07!rage,dari7ig, pluck. 

d-rse5iligr, a. (i) likely, probable; 
(2) daring, da7tgerous ; (3) ekki iraeS- 
iligt, 7iot easy to face. 

a-r8Bt5inn, a. dari7ig, e7iterprising, 

draeSis-fullr, a.==ar£e6inn ; -litill, 
a. of S77iall courage ; -mikill, a. 
dari72g ; -raun, f. test of courage, 
daring deed', -akortr. m. wa7tt of 
courage ; -snarr, a. of great courage, 

d-saka (at$), v. to accuse, reproach 




(opp. to *afsaka'); A-sakan, f. 
charge^ censure. 

asakanar-efni, n. matter for cen- 
sure ; -or5, n. pi. words of reproach. 

a-sakari, m. accuser^ adversary. 

a-samt, adv. (i) vera a., to be to- 
gether^ esp. of married people ; (2) 
koma d.., to agree ; J^au komu vel a., 
they lii'ed happily together. 

a-sauSr, m. ewe ; coll. ewes. 

a-sdld, n. sprinklmg, fig., of a snow- 

S tor 771. 

d-sdttr, pp. agreed^ having co7ne to 
ter7ns {i.. um e-t). 

as-bru, f, bridge of the Gods, the 

ds-drengr, m. short pillar ; -endi, 
m. the end of a bea77i. 

a-seta, f. (i ) sitting upo7i ; (2) tenure 
of afar77i (aseta a jord). 

d-setning, f. laying on, putting on 
[i.. stolunnar). 

as-garSr, m. the residence of the 
Gods ; -grindr, f. pi. the gate of 

a-3igling, f. saili7ig upon. 

^-sja (gen. d,sjd,rj, f. (i) help, aid, 
protection (bi6ja e-n asj^r) ; (2) 
superi7ttendence, inspection ; (3) ap- 
pearance, shape. 

dsja-ligr, a. handso7ne, pretty ; 
-mal, n. a 7natter worthy of, or re- 
quiring, consideration. 

d-sjdna, f. older form for * ^sj6na *. 

dsjon, f. sup£7-inte7idence, inspection ; 
= asyn. 

a-EJ6na, f. (i) cou7ttena7ice, look ; 
kvenna vaenst baeSi at asjonu 
[appearance) ok vitsmunum ; grepp- 
ligr 1 Asjonu, ugly-looking \ {2) for7n, 
shape (andi drottins i dulu asjonu). 

a-skelling, f. chidi7ig, severe re- 
proofed, 'skella d'). 

a-skeyti, n. attack. 

d-skilnacSr, m. (l) disagree7nent, 
difference ; (2) separation ; i tvennum 

askilnaQi, i7i two different ways. 

d-skoran, f. a pressing request; a 

d-skot, n. shooting at ; svi mikil d., 

at, so hard shooti7ig, that. 

d3-kunnigr, -kunnr, a. akin or re- 
lated to the gods. 

d-akurSr, m. carving, in wood or 
stone (askurSr ok tresmi6i). 

d-skynja, a. indecl.,a. e-rar IJjrottar, 
experie7iced, expert in a7t art ; also 
with dat. ; d-skynjandi, pr. p.= 

d-slatta, f. i7ijury inflicted by some 
one (a. djofuls). 

ds-li$ar, m. pi, cha7npions of the 
Gods ; -megin, n. the divine strength 
of the Gods, esp. used of Thor ; 
-megir, m. pi. the so7is of the Gods ; 
-mo^r, m. divi7ie wrath (s^ hann J)^ 
f>6r { asmoSi). 

d-s6kn, f. { I ) attack, assault ; (2) 
i7i dict7ne7i t, accusatio7i . 

dsoknar-matSr, m. accuser. 

das (gen. ds3 and dsar ; pi. aesir, 
ace. 83si and dsu), m. one of the old 
heathen gods in general, or esp. one 
of the older branch, in opp. to the 
younger ones (the Vanir). 

as3 (gen. dss, pi. aaar),m. (i) a thick 
pole, 77iain bea77i (in a house) ; (2) in 
a ship, yard of a sail (beitiass) ; (3) 
rocky ridge. 

ds-stubbi, m. stu772p of a bea7n. 

dst, f. (i) love, affection ; hafa 6.. i. 
e-m, to feel a love for ; felia a. til e-s 
or \\h e-n, to take a fa7icy to ox for 
one ; (2) pi. astir, love betwee7i maft 
and wo77ian, esp. affection betwee7i 
77ia7t and wife (vel er um astir okkrar, 
sagSi hon). 

d-3tat5a, f. (i) assertion, contention ; 
(2 ) pi. disagree77ien{, discord. 

asta-lauss, a. loveless. 

a3tar-andi, m. spirit of love ; -angr, 
n. grief fro7n love ; -auga, n. lovi7ig 
eye, te7ider look (lita, renna -augum 
til e-s) ; -band, n. tie or band of love ; 
-boSorS, n. C077i7nand7nent of love ; 
-bragcS, n. token of love ; -brimi, 
-bruni, m. fire of love, arde7it love ; 
-drykkr, m. love-potio7t ; -eldr, m.= 
-brimi; -fullr, a. (l) lovi72g', (2) 
e7ia7noured', -fundr, m. affectionate 
77ieeting', -gjof, f. gift of grace', 

-grein, f. kind of affection ; -gySja, 

{.goddess of love (Venus) ; -g0rnmgr, 

m. act of charity ; -harmr, m. grief 
fro7n love ; -hirting, f. chastise77ient 

of love ; -hiti, m. war77ith of love ; 




-hugi, -hugr, m. love, affection ; 
-hygli, f. devotion ; -ilmr, m. sweet- 
ness of love ; -kveSja, f, hearty greet- 
ing \ -kveikja, f. kindler of love \ 
-lauas, a. loveless ; -leysi, n. absence 
of love ; -logi, m. flame of love ; 
-mark, n. token of love ; -or 5, n. pi. 
words of love (maela -orSum til e-s) ; 
-reiSi, f. anger from love ; -samband, 
n. hand of love ; -sigr, m. victory of 
love ; -snesSingr, m. love-feast ; 
-soetleikr, m. sweetness of love ; 
-varkunn, f. compassion ; -verk, n. 
act of charity ; -vel, f. artifice of love 
(b6k -vela, Ars amandi) ; -l)j6nusta, 
f. service of love ; -J)okki, m. love^ 
affection ; -oetSi, n.fury of love. 

ast-blindr, a. blind from love ; 
-bundinn, pp. in bonds of love, 
deeply ena?notired. 

d-stemma, f. damming up of a 

dst-fenginn, pp. (i) love-exciting 
(-fenginn drykkr) ; (2) bound in love 
(-fenginn vi6 Mariu) ; -folginn, pp. 
beloved, dear to one (e-m) ; -fostr. 
n. loving fosterage (leggja -fostr vi6 
e-n ; fcE6a e-n upp -fostri) ; -gjof, f. 
gift of love, grace ; -go^i, or -goSi, 
m. darling] -hollr, a. affectionate 
(e-m) ; -hugacSr, a. dearly loving, 
affectionate ; -hugi, m. affection. 

a-stig, n. treading upon (slett straeti 
til dstigs). 

ast-igr, a. dear, lovely ; pi. contr. 
^stgir, dstgar ; -kynni, n. hearty 
welcome ; -laus3, a. void of love, 
loveless ; -leysi, n. want of love, un- 
kindness ; -menn, m. pi. dearly 
beloved friends ; -rcaBr, f. darling 
maid, sweetheart ; -raS, n. kindly 

d-stri(5ari, m. adversary, tonpter. 

dst-riki, f. affectionate tenderness ; 
hafa -riki af e-m, to be jnuch loved by ; 
-rikr, 2,. f till of love (-rikt hugskot) ; 
-rikr e-m or til e-s, full of love to ; 
-samliga, adv. affectionately ; -sam- 
ligr, a. affectionate ; -samr, di.full of 
love, tenderly disposed towards (vid 
e-n) ; -semd, f. lo7'e, affection. 

astsemdar-fraendsemi, f. affec- 
tionate relationship ; -rd(5, n. kind 

advice ; -verk, n. work of love ; 
-vinatta, f. loving friendship. 

ast-semi, f. = -semd; -saeld, f. 
popularity ; -S8b11, a. beloved by all, 
popular (-sasll e-m or af e-m). 

a-stunda (a$), v. to study, take pains 
with, = stunda ^ e-t ; a-jtundan, f. 
(i) care, painstaking, endeavour', 
(2) strong desire (hafa a. til gu6s) ; (3) 

ast-u5, f. love, affection ; leggja dstu6 
til e-s, to become fond of one. 

astu^ar-fraend&emi, f. affectionate 
ki?iship ; -vinr, m. dear friend. 

ast-ut5igr, a. beloved, dear (-uSigr 
ollu folki) ; -uSigt er me6 J)eim, they 
are on friendly or loving terms ; 
-■uSligr, a. atniable, friendly (vi3 e-n 
or e-m) ; loving. 

dst-vina, f. dear {female) friend; 
-vinatta, f. intimate friefidship ; 
-vinr, m. infi?nate friend; -J)okki, 
m. = astart)okki. 

^^-Yia}Q„i. goddess, the fern, answer- 
ing to ' ass'. 

a-syn, f. (l) countenance, presence 
(kasta e-m hurt fra sinni a.) ; (2) 
appearance, shape (gu5s hold ok bl65 
1 a. brands ok vins) ; (3) viezv, opinion 
(me3 rangri a.) ; (4) cat. pi. used as 
adv., hversu var hann asynum, how 
did he look?; gen. as adv., minna 
asynar, apparently less. 

a-syna (-da, -dr), v. to shew ; 
d-synd, f.= asyn; asyndum = asyn- 
um ; asyndar = asynar ; a-syniligr, 
a. cofispicuous, stately ; a-synis, adv. 
in appearance, to look at (fri3r d.) ; 
a-synt, a. n. to be see?i, visible ; ef 
eigi ver6r a., if no mark (of the blow) 
can be seen ; ^at er d., it is evident. 

d-soekni, f. aggressiveness. 

at, n. (i) the act of eati?ig; eiga dt 
ok drykkju vi3 e-n, to eat and dritik 
with one ; kyr hafnaSi atinu, the cow 
would not eat ; (2) food (at ok 

ara, f. (i) eating; goSr iXM, good 
eating; {1) food, meat; s^ hah hu3 
ok atu, er atti, let the owner (of the 
ox) have the hide and meat. 

a-tak, n. (i) totich, touching; s\i. 
ataks {to the touch) sem skinn ; 




(2) firm hold or grasp ; ^tok ok 
sviptingar, in wrestling. 

a-tala, f. rebuke^ reprimand (veita 
e-m atolur). 

atan, n. eatable things proper food 
(cf. 'uatan'). 

d-tekjur, f. pi. manner of taking a 
thing (f>orsteini ox m66r vi6 atekjur 

a-tekning, f. (i) touching', (2) the 
sense of feeling ; d-tekt, f. (i) = atek- 
jur ; (2) =dtekning (i). 

dt-fdtt, a. n. short of food, 

dt-frekr, a. greedy y voracious ; 

girni, f. greediness of food. 

atjdn, card. numb, eighteen. 

atjandi, ord. numb, eighteenth. 

atjan-sessa, f. a ship having eighteen 
rowing benches. 

a- trots, n., atrotSi, m. treading upon, 
trampling (verda fyrir dtroSa). 

atriinaSar-matSr, m. a believery a 

d-triinatSr, m. belief in (drauma d.) ; 
fom d,., the old {heathen) faith. 

dtt, f. (l) family, race ; (2j quarter, 
direction ; see ' aett '. 

atta, card, numb., eight ; attandi, 
ord. numb, eighth = i.X.l\, attundi. 

dttar-auki, m. increase ofthefajnily ; 
-mot, n. relationship ; -oexling, f. 
propagation of kin. 

dtta-tigir, m. pi., -tiu, card. numb. 

att-bogi, m. lineage,=^ ^\.ihog\. 

dtt-fet5mingr, m. a fneasure of eight 
fathoms {-feSmingr torfs). 

att-hagi, m. one's native place, 
one's home (i atthaga smum). 

att-hjTTndr, a. eight-cornered, 

dtti, ord. numb, the eighth (dtti 
dagr Jola ; vi6 atta mann). 

attj^n, card. numb, eighteen, the 
older form = atjan. 

att-leggr, m. = a£ttleggr ; -lera, a. 
indecl. (regenerate. 

att-m83lt, a. n. name of a metre, a 
verse containing eight lines, each 
being a separate sentence. 

att-nit5jungr, -nic5r, -runnr, m. 
kinsman, descendant. 

att-roetSr, a. (i) eighty years of age ; 

(2) measuring eighty fathoms, in 
height, breadth, or depth. 

dtt-Btafr, m. kins7nan., = ?eX\vs\^\. 

dtt-strendr, a. octagonal. 

dttugandi, ord. numb, eightieth. 

dttungr, m. (i) the eighth part (a. 
manna) ; (2) division of the country 
(in some parts of Norway). 

d,ttungr, m. kinsman, =ceXX.\r\g\. 

dttungs-kirkja, f. a church belong- 
ing to an 'dttungr' (in Norway). 

att-visi, f. genealogical knowledge, 
= cettvisi. 

dtt-aeringr, m. eight-oared boat; 
-aerr, a. of eight oars (skip attaert). 

dtu-{)yfi, n. stolen eatables. 

atolu-lauss, a. undisputed. 

dvalt ( = of allt), adv. always. 

a-vant, a. n. in the phrase, e-s er d., 
is wanted, needed (einnar m^r Freyju 
a. J)ykkir). 

d-vart5r, a. dear, acceptable, only of 
man in relation to the gods (avarSir 
goQunum ; dvarSr Gu5i). 

a-varp, n. calculation (in round 
numbers), opinion, estimate (at avarpi 
flestra manna'. 

d-vaxta (a(S), v. to make fertile or 
productive', a. i€, to put out to 
ijtterest ', refl., avaxtast, to iticrease\ 
avaxtast me6 J)orn ok klungr, to be- 
come overgrown with. 

dvaxta-lauss, a. (i) unproductive; 
(2) fruitless, result less; -ligr, a. 
profitable, useful {(t-m). 

d-vaxtan, f. increase, augmentatioti. 

dvaxtar-samligr, a. profitable ; 
-samr, a. = avaxt-samr ; -timi, m. 
the time of harvest. 

avaxta-samr, a. = avaxtsamr. 

dvaxt-lauss, a. iinfruitful ', -s'am.- 
ligr, a. = avaxtar-samligr ; -sam.r, a. 
profitable, fruitful. 

d-van, f. faint expectation or hint ; 
segja e-m avan e-s, to give one some 
hint of a thing. 

a-veitSr, f. river fishery. 

d-verk, n. (i) bodily injury or 
lesion, wound (veita, bj6c5a, e-m a.) ; 
(2) unlawful use of another majis 
land (as cutting trees in his forest). 

dverka-bot, f. cojnpensation for an 
dverki ; -drep, n. a stroke producing 




^verki ; -mat5r, perpetrator of an 
iverki ; -mal, n. an action concerning 

a-verki, m. = averk. 

6,-vi(5ris, adv. on the weather side of 
(aviSris e-u = a ve6r e-u). 

d-viljaSr, a, inclifted to, with inf. 

d-vinna (see vinna), v. to gain, 
make pro/it. 

d-vinningr. m. (i) attainment', i 
dvinning, at, in order to attain, that ; 
(2) profit, gain. 

d-vinnt, a. n. difficult, toilsome ; J)a 
mun a. um soxin, then those in the 
bow will be hard put to it. 

d-vist, f. abode, residence ; Snorra 
J)6tti betra dvistar i Hlid, Sfiorri 
preferred living at Hillside. 

d-vita, a, indecl., verSa e-s i.., to 
become aware of a thing. 

d-vitall or d-vitull, m. hint, inti- 
mation, ifidication. 

d-viti, a. = a vita. 

d-viga, a. indecl., in phr., verSa 
d. , to lose most people in a combat. 

d-visa (aS), v. to point at, indicate. 

d-visan, f. indication, intitnation. 

d-vit, n. pi. reprifuand, rebuke ; 
berja e-n avitum, to iipbraid one. 

d-vita (ac5), v. to chide, rebuke {i.. e-n 
um e-t). 

dvita-laust, a. n. blameless. 

avitan, f. rebuke, reprimand. 

dvitanar-or$, n. word of blame. 

dvita-orS, n. = avitanaror5 ; -sam- 
ligr, a. blatneable. 

dvit-samligr, a. = dvitasamligr ; 
-samr, a. apt to blame, censorious. 

d-vasni, n. = avdn. 

d-voxtr. m. (i) produce, growth, 
fruit ; (2) interest, rent ; (3) gain. 

d-t)ekkr, a. similar (d,. e-mj. 

d{)ettar-or(S, dt)6ttis-orcS, n. defama- 
tory language, ifivective. 

d-J)jd (see l)jd), v. to oppress. 

d-{)jdn, f. oppression, harsh or 
oppressive rule. 

dJ)janar-ok, n. yoke of tyranny. 

d-J)r8Btni, f. mutual strife. 

d-J)yngd, f. exaction, oppression. 


bat$, n. bath, esp. steam- or vapour- 
bath (fara or ganga til bac;s, koma or 
ba6i, ganga fra ba6i ; taka bad). 

baSast (a$), v. refl., to take a bath, 
to bathe. 

batS-ferS, f. going to the bath (vera 
i -fer6) ; um -ferSir, about the time 
for bathing ; -kapa, f. bathing-cloak ; 
-kona, {.female bathing attenda?it. 

bat5mr, m. (i) t?'ee ; (2) boso7n. 

bat5-stofa, f. bath-roo77i, bathing- 
room ; in later times, sitting-room. 

batSstofu-gluggr, m. opening [win- 
dow) in the roof of a badstofa. 

bagall, m. a bishop's staff, crozier. 

bagal-stafr, m. = bagall. 

baggi, m. pack, bundle. 

baglatSr, a. crooked, deformed. 

bak, n. (i) back (binda bagga i. b. 
s^r) ; fig., bera sok a baki, to be 
guilty ; leggja bleySiorS i. b. e-m, to 
charge one with being a coward \ 

hafa marga vetr i. baki, to be advanced 
i7i years ; sniia baki vi6, to turn the 
back, flee ; ganga a b. heitum, orQum, 
to go back on one's word; (2) =hest- 
bak ; fara a b., to mount ; fara, stiga, 
spretta af baki, to dismou7it ; (3) the 
backside of a tlmtg (cf. handarbak, 
hurSarbak, husbak) ; a baki husunum, 
at the back of the houses ; g0ra e-t a 
baki e-m, i7i one's absetice, behitid 
one's back ; ri5a at baki e-m, behi7id 
hi77i on the sa77ie horse ; berr er hverr 
at baki nema ser broSur eigi, bare is 
one's back without a brother behind 
it ; a bak, {a) behind ; koma a b. e-m, 
to attack in the rear ; {b) after ; a b. 
jolum, after Christ77ias ; hvat sem a 
b. kemr, whatever may co77ie after or 
follow; (c) absol., falla d b. aptr, to 
fall backwards ; brjota ^ b. or6 e-s, 
to refute, make them null and void; 
brjota i. b. Roroverja, to defeat them. 




baka (atS), v. (i) to bake (b. brau5) ; 
(2) to warm and rub the body and 
limbs, at a large fire (see 'bakeldr') ; 
esp. refl., bakast (vi3 eld) ; (3) to mb, 
= strjuka; bakaSi Helgi fotinn, he 
nibbed the [broken) leg. 

bakan, n. baco7i (rare). 

bakara-meistari, m. master-baker ; 
-ofn, m. baker* s oven. 

bakari, m. baker. 

bak-bit, n. backbiting, slander ; 
-bitari, m. backbiter, slanderer ; 
-borSi. m. the larboard side of a ship, 
port, opp. to * stjornborSi ' ; -bijota 
(see brjota), v. to violate, — hr'joiz. i. 
bak ; -byrtSingar, m. pi. the crew on 
the larboard side, opp. to the ' stjorn- 
byrSingar ' ; -byrSr, f. a burden to 
carry on the back. 

bakelda-g0rS, f . the action of making 
a bakeldr, or the rubbing of the back 
at a bakeldr. 

bak-eldr, m. afire at which to bake 
{warm a?td rub) the body and limbs 
(sitja vi6 -elda). 

bak-fall, n. {\) falling backwards, 
esp. in pi., roa -folium, knyja irar 
meQ storum -folium, to take long pulls 
with the oars ; (2) attack in the rear, 
= -slag ; veita e-m -fall, to attack in 
the rear ; -fer$, f. tnounting on horse- 
back ; -ferla (atS), v. to drive back, 
annul, make void] -hlutr, m. the 
hind part, backside ; -hold, n. pi. the 
flesh on the back of cattle ; -hverfast 
(tS), V. refl., to turn one's back upon 
(vi6 e-3) ; -jarl, m. a foe attacking 
in the rear. 

bakka-kolfr, m. a kind of blunt- 
headed arrow ; -stokkar, m. pi. 
stocks on which a ship is built ; setja 
fram af -stokkum, to launch. 

bakki, m. (I) bank (of a river, lake, 
chasm, &c.) ; (2) ridge, bank (hann 
settist undir bakka i hrisrunni) ; 13) 
a mound o?i which the target is set 
up ; setja spdn i bakka, to set up a 
target ; (4) bank of clouds above the 
horizon ; (5) back of a knife or other 
cutting instrument, opp. to '' ^'g%\ 

bak-kl 89(51, n. tapestry ; -lengja, f. 
the back-strip of a hide ; -mdll, 
-mdlugr, a. backbiting, slanderous ; 

-msBla (-ta, -t), v. to backbite (-maela 
e-m) ; -msBlgi, f., -maBli, n. back- 
biting, slander. 

bakmaelis-mat^r, m. cahimniator. 

bak-rauf, f. anus, a nickname ; 
■sdrr, a. having a sore back (of a 


-setja (see setja), v. to 

neglect, omit (-setja at gera e-t) ; 
-skyrta, f. the hind part of a shirt ; 
-slag, n., -sletta, f. attack in the rear, 
= bakfall (2) ; -slettr, m. = baksletta ; 
-stakkr, m. the hind part of a cloak ; 
-stokkar, m. pl. = bakkastokkar. 

bakstr (-rs), m. ( i ) baking', (2) baked 
bread, esp. communion bread; (3) 
poultice, fomentation ; (4) warming, 
rubbing (of the body). 

bakstr-brau^, n. baked bread \ 
-but5kr, m. a box i?i which the cam- 
muni 071 bread was kept ; -eldr, m. (l ) 
= bakel d r ; ( 2 ) fire for m aking bread 
(gera J)eir -elda stora til brauSs) ; 
-bus, n. bakehouse ; -jarn, n. an iron 
plate for baking com7nunion bread ; 
-kona, f. fe77iale baker \ -ofn, m. 
baking-oven ; -sveinn, m. baker boy. 

bak-vana, a. indecl. having a sore 
back (of horses) ; -verkr, m. pain in 
the back ; -verpast (t), v. (i) to turn 
away fr 0771, disregard (vi6 e-t or vi5 
e-m) ; (2) tofiee before one (-verpast 
vid sinum uvinum). 

baldikin, n. baldaquin^ rich 

baldinn, a. untractable, unruly. 

baldrast (at5), v. refl., to crowd 
together in a confused thro7ig. 

baldriSi, m. = ballri3i. 

ball, m. grassy bank. 

ballr, a. da7igerous, dire ; boll rd5, 
fatal sche77ies ; ballir draumar, bad, 
ill-boding drea77is ; boll J^ri, heavy 

ballrast (atS), v. refl., = baldrast. 

ball-riSi, m. poet., ^ bold rider* 
hero (Freyr er beztr allra ballriSa). 

balsamr, m. balsam. 

bana (atS), v. to kill, with dat. 

bana-bl6(S, n. blood shed in slayi7tg\ 
-dagr, m. day of death ; -drykkr, m. 
banefil draicght, poison ; -doegr, n. 
= -dagr; -hogg, n. death-blow (fa 
-hogg ; vard l)at bans -hogg) ; -lag. 




n. stabbing to death ; -ma^r, m. 
killer^ slayer \ -ort$, n. (i) tidings of 
one's death (segja -or6 e-s) ; bera 
-or6 af e-m, to slay one in fight ; (2) 
death ; l^iggia -or3 af e-m, /^ be killed 
by one ; kenna e-m -or6, to charge 
with slaying o?te ; -ratS, n. planning 
a person^ s death ; rdda or veita e-m 
-ra3, to bring about one's death ; -sar, 
n. death-woundy a mortal wound \ 
-skot, n. 7nortal shot ; -sott, f. death- 
sickness^ mortal illness ; -spjot, n., in 
the phrase, berast -spjot eptir, to be 
deadly enemies ; -tilrae^i, n. mortal 
attack (veita e-m -tilrseSi) ; -{)ufa, f. 
a knoll that causes one*s death ; hniga 
vi6 -J)ufu, to die ; drepa fotum vid 
-J)ufu, to stumble against or over a 
fatal knoll. 

band, n. (i) the act of binding or 
settling, opp. to Mausn'; fig., lausn 
ok b. allra vandamala, the decision in 
all difficult cases ; (2 ) band^ cord 
(mj6tt b.) ; (3) in pi., {a) bonds, 
fetters (hafae-n i bondum) ; {b) bond, 
confederacy (ganga i bond ok ei6) ; 
{c) poet., the gods, cf. ' hopt ' ; biota 
bond, to worship the gods ; at mun 
banda, at the will of the gods. 

banda (aS), v. to make a sign by 
waving the hafid \ b. i. moti fenu, to 
drive away the sheep ; with dat., b. 
hondum, to wave the hands. 

banda-maSr, m. confederate, one 
who is in league with others. 

bandingi (-ja), m. prisoner. 

band-vetlingr, m. a kind of glove. 

bang, n. hammering', banga (a$), 
V. to hammer, knock ; b. dyrr or a. 
dyrr, to knock at the door. 

bang-hagr, a. knowitig how to use 
the haimner. 

bani, m. (i) death; M (bi3a, hafa, 
taka) bana, to die ; raSa ser bana, to 
commit suicide ; leiSa e-n til bana, to 
cause one^s death (of an illness) ; 
kominn at bana, sitiking fast ', (2) 
that which causes death, bane ; slayer 
(fjogurra manna b.). 

bann, n. (i) excot7i7nunication, 
anathetna, interdict ; hit meira b , the 
greater exc. ; hit minna b. {the lesser 
exc.) J)at sem forbod er kallat i. 

norroenu ; (2) prohibition, opp. to 
' lof ' (hlySa bo6i ok banni e-s) ; leggja 
b. fyrir e-t, to prohibit. 

banna (atS), v. (ij to forbid, pro- 
hibit (b. e-m e-t ^r with infin.) ; (2) 
to curse (b. e-m) ; refl. bannast urn, to 
swear (to do a thing). 

bannaSar-orS, n. = bannanaror3. 

bannan, f. curse, imprecation. 

bannanar-orS, n. pi. = bannan. 

bann-foera (-Sa, -$r), v. to place 
Ufider the ban. 

banns-atkvastSi, n. sentence of ex- 
co7nmunication ; 'afelli, n., -domr, 
m. = -atkvaec5i. 

bann-setja (see setja), v. (i) to 
place under the ban ; (2) to curse ; 
-setning, f. exco7nmunication ; -sefct- 
liga, adv. wickedly, -aettligr, a. 
execrable, detestable ; -settr, pp. (l) 
placed under the ban ; (2 i acciirsed. 

banns-mal, n. a case liable to ex- 
commu7iication ; -pina, l.punish77tent 
of exco77wiunication ; -spjot, n. spear 
of exco77i77iunication ; -verk, n. an 
act liable to exco77i77iunication. 

bann-syngja (see syngja), v. to 
pro7iounce an anathe77ia agai7ist. 

banns-sok, f. an offe7ice liable to 
exco77im tniica tion. 

ban-ortS, f. = banaorS ; -vaBnligr, 
a. 7nortal, deadly', -vaenn, a. (i) = 
-vsenligr (-vaent sar) ; {1) deadly sick ; 
ok er dro at l)vi at hann var -vsenn, 
when all hope of life was gone. 

barar, f. pi. (i) hand-barrow, 
stretcher (t>. var borinn i borum um 
fjalJit) ; (2) funeral bier carried by 
horses (moeddust hestarnir undir 

baratta, f. (i) co7itest, fighting', (2) 
fight, battle. 

barattu-fullr, a. C077ibative, fo7id of 
fighti7ig ; -macSr, m. warrior ; -samr, 
3.. given to fighti7ig. 

barS, n. (I) beard (rare) ; (2) brim, 
of a hat or helmet ; (3) the beak or 
ar77ied prow of ships (of war), ste7n ; 
roa fyrir b. e-m ( = r6a fyrir stafn e-m), 
to thwart 07ie. 

bartSa, f. a kind of axe. 

bardaga-buinn, pp. ready for 
battle ; -freat, n. delay of battle ; 




-fuUr, a. = -gjarn ; -f^st, f. love of 
combat ; -gjarn, a. eager for combat ; 
-guts, m. god of ba^ttle ; -gytSja, f. 
goddess of battle ; -lau3t, adv. ivithottt 
battle ; -list, f. art of war ; -lykt, f. 
the close of a battle ; -matSr, m. 
warrior ; -atef . n., -stefna, f. a time 
fixed for a battle, 

bardagi, m. (i) beatings thrashing \ 
{2) fight ^ battle (heyja, eiga bardaga 
vi6 e-n) ; (3) calamity^ scourge. 

barS-hvalr, m. a sort of wliale. 

bartSi, m. a sort of ship ^ ''ram* 

barcS-mikill, a, with agreat'ha.r6' (3). 

barir, f. pl. = barar (rare). 

barka-kyli, n. Adam's apple. 

barki, m. windpipe^ weazand. 

barki, m. a sort of small boat^launch. 

bark-lauss, a rvithout bark (borkr). 

barlak, n. barley ^^h^^%. 

barmi, m. poet,, brother. 

barmr, m. bri7n, rim (of a vessel or 
a steel cap). 

barm-tog, n. a rope for hauling the 
nets ashore. 

barn, n. (i) bairn, child \ vera mefi 
barni, to be with child \ ganga me6 
barni, to go with child \ barns 
hafandi or hafandi at barni, with 
child, Pregna7it\ ixi. blautu barni, 
from one' s tender years \ (2) =manns- 
barn ; hvert b., every man, every 
living soul. 

barna (a^), v. to get with child. 

barna-born, n. pi. grafid-children ; 
-eldi, n. procreatio7i of children ; 
-fcBri, n. in the phrase, ekki -fceri, no 
task for children ; -gaman. n. child's 
play ; -karl, m. children's friend. 

barn-aldr, m. = barnsaldr. 

barna-leikr, m. child's play. 
,barn-alinn, pp. 7iative ; -alinn a 
Islandi, a native of Icehuid. 

barna-n^al, n. childish affair \ gera 
e-t at -malum, to treat as a trifle, 
trifle with \ -messa, f. Holy hino- 
cents* Day ; -skap, n. childish tem- 
per ; hafa ekki -skap, to be no baby ; 
-vipr, n. childish trifles, gewgaws ; 
-J)attr, m. the section of law concern- 
ing infants. 

barn-beri, a. with child, pregnant ; 
-burtSr, m. childbirth ; -baarr, a. 

capable of bearing children, opp. to 

' ubyrjj 

■domr, m. childhood ; 

-eign, f. (i) gettifig or havijig chil- 
dren; (2) children, fai) lily (furc5u ilia 
-eign gat Loki) ; -etskja, f. childhood, 
= barnoeska ; -fab'ir, m. a child's 
alleged father ; -f ostr, n. fostering of 
a child (a kind of adoption in olden 
times) ; bj6c3a e-m -fostr, to offer to 
do this for another man ; -fostra, f. 
foster-7?iother ; -fostri, m. foster- 
father; -fulga, f. pay for the main- 
tena?ice of a child; -foeddr, pp.= 
-alinn ; borinn ok -foeddr, born and 
bred ; -foe^i, n. native place, birthplace 
(eiga -foe6i e-s staSar) ; -getnaSr, m. 
( l) procreation of children ; (2) preg- 
nancy (hon hafdi fengit -getnad af 
J)eirra samvistu) ; -goelur, f. pi. 
nursery songs, lullabies. 

barningr, m. thrashi?ig, see Mama- 
barningr '. 

barn-lauss, a childless ; -leikr, m. 
= barnaleikr ; -leysi, n. childlessness ; 
-ligr, a. childish, childlike. 

barns-aldr, m. (time of) childhood 
(nykominn af -aldri) ; -bein, n., in 
the phrase, fra {or af) blautu -beini, 
fro7n childhocd; -full,, ^.{.pregnant ; 
-fylg-ja f. ///<?<3//c'r-^/r/^, = eptirburc3r ; 
-gratr, m. the cryi?ig of a baby ; 
-hufa, f. child's cap. 

barn-skikkja, f. chilifs cloak; 
-skirn, f. christening of an infant ; 
-skirnar-or5, n. pi. words used i7i 
christening, baptis77ial for77tula. 

barn-soLt, f. pains, throes of child- 
birth (taka -sott) ; -acBll, 2.. fortu7iate 
in one's children ; -s8Bng, f. childbed; 
-teitr, a. glad as a child; -ungr, a. 
very yoti7zg, youthftl ; -umagi, m., 
-umeg^, f, (see these words) ; -oeska, 
f. childhood (brad er barnoeska). 

barr, n. (i) acicular leaves, needles 
of the fir or pine (wrongly applied 
by Snorri, who speaks of the 'barr' 
of the ash) ; (2) ba7'ley. 

barr-axla^r, a. high-shouldered, 
with sharp ,pro77ii7ient shotilder bones , 
-hadda^r, a. poet,, barley-haired (of 
the earth). 

Barrey&kr, a. from Barra (in the 




barr-skeptr, a. high-shafted^ of an 
axe (breiSox barrskept). 

barr-vitSr, m. pine-forest ; the wood 
of the fir. 

bar-8mit5, f. (l) thrashing^ floggings 
(2) in ^\.,fght, row. 

barun (pi. barunar), m. baron. 

bar-vi§ri, n. beating stor7n^ violent 
blasts (b. ok regn mikit). 

bassi, m. bear, = \t^x'=\. 

bast, n. (i) bast^ the inner bark of 
the lifne-tree (bleikr sem b.) ; (2) cord 
or string of bast (sd. peir d b. bauga 

basta (ao), v. to bind with a rope of 
bast (ubastadr ok ubundinn). 

bastarSr, m. bastard. 

bastari, m. bastrope-maker. 

bast-bleikr, 2., pale as <^rtj/ ( = bleikr 
sem b.) ; -lina, f. cord of bast ; -taug, 
f. rope or cord of bast ; -vesall, a. = 
-bleikr ; -0x, f. a kind of axe. 

bati, m. i7nprove7?te7Zt, advantage. 

batna (atS), v. (i) to i?nprove, get 
better \ (2) impers., e-m batnar, one 
recovers (after sickness) ; the disease 
is added in gen. (e-m batnar sins 
meins, sjukleika). 

batnaor (gen. -ar), m. improve- 
ment (berja e-n til batnaQar). 

bauga-brot, n. fragments of rings 
('given in payment) ; -tal, n. enumera- 
tion of ''rings'' (baugar), the section 
of law dealing with weregilds. 

baug-bot, f. supplemental payi7ient 
to the ' baugr ' (baugt)ak, Jjveiti) ; 
-broti, m. ^ ring-breaker \ free-handed 
man ; -boetandi (pi. -endr), m. ofie 
who has to pay the weregild (baugr) ; 
-eitSr, m. the oath upon the sacred 
temple ring ; -gildi, n. ( i ) the * were- 
gild^ to be paid to the * agnates ' of the 
slainy opp. to ' nefgildi ', the satne 
amount to be paid to the ^cognates' ; 
(2) agnatic relationship. 

baug-gildingr, m. = next. 

bauggildia-matSr, m., usually pi. 
-menn, agnates who are bound to pay 
or receive the ' bauggildi '. 

baug-gildr, a. payable, fit to pay 
as ' bauggildi ' (-gildr eyrir, -gilt le). 

baugr (-S, -ar), m. (i) ring^ artnlet 
(of gold or silver) worn on the wrist, 

esp. the sacred ring (stallahringr) on 
the altar in heathen temples, cf. 
' baugei6r ' ; (2) in olden times, before 
minted gold or silver came into use, 
such rings were commonly used as a 
medium of payment; hence 'baugr* 
simply means money ; (3) fine of 
varying aniount for ma7i slaughter., 
weregild \ (4) gaff-hookt (5) in the 
phrase, eiga (kost) i. baugi, to have a 
\si7igle) chance left ; ef sa vaeri i 
baugi, if there were 710 other chance ; 
J)u munt eiga slikan i. baugi bratt, 
thou wilt soon have the very sa7ne 
cha7ice or lot (viz. death) ; (6) the 
painted circle on a round shield. 

baug-rygr (-rygjar, -rygir), f. an 
only daiighter e7ititled to receive and 
pay weregild. 

baugs-helgr, f. perso7ial sacredness 
(so that one's death must be atoned 
for by a weregild). 

baug-variSr, pp. adorned with 
ri7tgs \ -J)ak, n. ^ ring-coveri7!g\ 
suppie7nental pay7nent to be added to 
the ' baugr ' (3) ; at -|5aki, fig., in addi- 
tion, to boot] -l)igejandi (-endr), m. 
receiver of weregild. 

bauka (at5), v. to dig^ to ru77i77iage. 

baula, f. coiv ; baulu-fall, n. the 
carcase of a slaughtered cow ; -fotr, 
m. cow* s foot ., a nickname. 

baun (pi. -ir), f. bea7i ; bauna-logr, 
m. bea7t-b7'oth. 

bauta, V. beat, chase ? (svd bautu ver 

bautaSar-, bautar- or bauta- 
steinn, m. sto7ie 7no7iU7ne7it, 7ne7norial 
stone (reisa, setja bautastein). 

baztr, a. superl., = beztr. 

ba^ir (baSar, bssSi, gen. begg'ja), 
a. both (ba6ir tveir). 

bagi, m. poet., adversa7y. 

bagr, a. uneasy, awkwa7'd (verQr 
honum nu bag hondin) ; bagt var 
mjok um vc\?iCQ]2it'g\x, provisions were 
very sca7'ce. 

bagr, m. contest, 7'esistance, in such 
phrases as, brjota bdg vi6 e-n, to con- 
tend agai7ist, ofifer resistance to ; f6r i 
bd!g me6 peim, a conflict arose between 
the77i; they quarrelled. 

bag-rdSr, a. difi[icult to deal with. 




opp. to ' au6-ra(3r ' ; -reBkr, a. dijficiilt 
to drive (of geese). 
bakn, n. beaco?i, signal. 
bdkna (ac5), v. to beckon, make 
signs (t>eir bdknudu vdpnunum til 
{)eirra Hakonar). 
bal. n. (i ) Jire ; sld, b. = drepa eld ; 
(2) /lame, blaze ; gera b., to make a 
blaze ; (3) pyre, funeral pile ; bera 
e-n i,\i.,to carry to the pyre ; stiga a 
b., to mount the Pyre. 
bdl-for, {.funeral. 
balkr, m. (i) partition, balk (b. um 
J)veran hellinn) ; (2) section in a code 
of laws ; (3) body, group, host. 

bara, f. zuave, billow ; vant er at 
sigla milli skers ok baru, between 
Scylla and Charybdis. 
bara (a5), v. to fall and rise in 
waves (vatnit hroerdist mjok ok 
barottr, a. undulated, wavy (hauss- 
inn var allr b. utan sem horpuskel). 

bar-stort, a. n., var -stort, the waves 
ra?i high. 

baru-fall, n. heavy sea ; -skot, n. 
swell; 'StovvoLV.v[\.sfor?n with heavy 
sea', -st6r'= bar-stort. 
basa (a5), v. to drive into a stall, 
with dat. = bassa. 

bas-hella, f. a flag-stone separating 
two stalls in a cowhouse. 

bass^ m. boose or stall in a cow- 
house (binda ku a bas). 
bdaun, m. bassoon (for. word), 
bat-festr, f. a rope by which a boat 
is made fast \ -lauss a. having no 
boat ; -leysi, n. want of a biat ; 
-ma§r, m. boatinan. 

batr (-8, -arj, m. boat ; sja fyrir bati 
sinum, to go one's own course, to mind 
one's own business. 
bdts-borS. n. the side of a boat ; 
-farmr, m. boafs freight ; -haki, m. 
bdt-stafn, m. boafs prow. 
betSja f. poet., bed-fellow, wife. 
bet^-mal, n. pi. bed-talk. 
beSr (-jar -ir), m. bolster, bedding; 
ganga a bc6 e-m, to go to bed with 
one, to mar^y. 
beiSa (-dda, -ddr), v. to ask, beg, 
request ; b. e-n e-s, or b. e-m {/or 

one) e-s ; b. e-s af e-m, to ask a thing 
of or from a person ; b. e-n mals, 
orda, to address one ; with ace, b. 
logbeifling, to make a lawful request ; 
reri., beiSast, to request on one's own 
behalf (b. laga, griSa) ; beiddr. pp 
unwilling, reluctant (b. for ek heiman 
at bifija J)in, Gu6run). 
bei(5ing, f., beitSni, f., beiSsla, f. 
request, de?nand. 
bei$^slu-m.a$r, m. a person asking. 
beimar, m. pi. poet., men, heroes. 
bein, n. (i) bone; lata med beini 
ganga, to deal blows to the very bo?te, 
give no quarter ; hafa b. i hendi, to 
be well off; (2) /^^, = f6tleggr ; (3) pi. 
fnortal remai?is ; bera bein or beinin, 
to be buried (her mun ek b. bera i. 
beina (-da, -dr), v. (i) to stretch 
out, put into motion ; b. Aug, to 
stretch the wings for fight ; b. skri6 
sinn, to cretp, of a serpent ; b. raust- 
ina, to raise the voice, speak aloud ; 
(2) to further, promote; b. for (ferS) 
e-s, to help one forwards ; b. at or til 
me5 e-m, to lend one help, to assist 
one ; b. e-u til e-s, to contribute to a 
thing ; b. at e-u, to lend a hand to ; 
b. fyrir e-m, to support, entertain, 
beina-, gen, pi. from ' bein ' and gen. 
sing, from ' beini '. 

beina-bot, f. accommodation, comfort 
for guests. 
beina-foersla, f. removal of bones 
(from one churchyard to another); 
-hruga, f. heap of bones ; -lag, n. 
burying of one's bones, death. 
beina-spell, n. spoiling the co?nfori 
of guests ; -^urfi, a. in need of 
hospitable treat)nent. 
bein-brjota (see brjota), v. to break 
one's bones ; -brot, n. fracture of a 
bone ; -fastr, a., -fast sar, a wound 
to the bo7ie ; -fiskr, m. a kind of 
fish ; -groinn, pp. grown fast to the 
bone ; -hogg, n. a blow injuring the 
bone (svoSusar ok eigi beinhogg). 
beini, m. (i) help, benefit; (2) esp. 
hospitable eyitertaininent, hospitality 
(vinna, veita e-m beina) ; ganga um 
beina, to wait upon the guests. 
beinir, m.= beini (l). 




"beini-samr, a. ready {willing) to 
help ; -semi, f. readiness to help. 

bein-kntita, f. joint-bone ; -kross, 
m. cross of bo?ie ; -lauss, a. boneless, 
without bones. 

bein-leitSis, adv. straight, directly. 

bein-leiki, m. hospitable treatment, 
hospitality, = bein i (2 ) . 

beinn, a. (1) straight \ bein rds, 
straight course ; beinstr vegr, the 
straightest {shortest) way ; (2) hospit- 
able (bondi var beinn vi3 \>i.) ; gera 
beint vi6 e-n, to treat one kindly. 

-beinn, a. -legged (berbeinn, bare- 
legged', digrbeinn, thick-legged). 

beinn, m. a kind of tree ^ ebony f 

bein-skeyti, f. straight shooting, 
viarksmanship ; -skeytr, a. straight- 
shooting, a good shot. 

beins-litr, m. colour of a bone. 

bein-storr, a. big-boned (ma3r 
mikill ok beinstorr). 

beint, adv. (i) straight, in a straight 
line, straight on ; (2) just (^at kom 
mix b. 1 hug) ; b. sex tigir ski pa, 
precisely sixty ships ; nu b., just now ; 
J)d b., b. i J)essu,y^^-f/ then. 

bein-verkir, m. pi. pain in the legs. 

bein-vitSr, m. holly. 

bein-voxtr, m. bone-growth, size 
of bones (litill beinvoxtum). 

beiska, f. bitterness, sourness. 

beiska (aS), v. to embitter. 

beisk-leikr, m. bitte^'ness, harsh- 
ness \ -liga, adv. bitterly (grd,ta -liga) ; 
-ligr, a. bitterish ; -lunda6r, a. bitter- 
hearted, malevolent. 

beiskr, a. (i) bitter, acrid (b. 
drykkr) ; (2) exasperated, a7igry (hon 
var6 beisk vi6j ; (3) painful^ sore 
(beiskr bruni). 

beit, f. pasturage, pasture. 

beit, f. a plate of metal mounted on 
the brim (of a thing). 

beit, n. poet., ship. 

beita, f. bait, esp. for fish. 

beita (-tta, -ttr), v. (i) to 'cause to 
bite ', graze, with the animals in dat. 
(b. nautum), the pasture in ace. (b. 
haga, land, engi) ; absol. to pasture 
cattle (b. i skogi) ; b. upp land, to 
exhaust by grazing ; b. upp (to con- 
sume) engjum ok heyjum ; (2) to 

handle, use a weapon (b. sverSi) ; 

(3) to hunt or chase (with dogs or 
hawks) ; b. e-n hundum, to set dogs oti 
one ; (4) fig., b. e-n brogSum, lilogum, 
illu, to deal cimningly, tmlawfully, 
badly with one ; recipr., vi6 hofum 
opt brogdum beizt, schemed against 
each other', (5) to harness (a horse, 
&c.) to a vehicle (b. hest fyrir vagn) ; 
beittu enn blakka mar, saddle thy 
black steed ; fig., b. e-n fyrir e-t, to put 
one at the head of', refl., beitast fyrir 
e-t or e-u, to lead the cause ; (6) to 
furnish {a vehicle) with horses (vagn 
at b.) ; (7) to steer or sail near the 
wind, to cruise (beita J)eir 1 brott frd. 
landinu) ; fengu J^eir beitt fyrir Skot- 
land, they weathered S, 

beit-fiskr, m.fsh to be caught with 
bait? (al. ' beinfiskr.') 

beiti, n. pasturage. 

beiti-dss, m. sail-yard. 

beiting, f. (i) grazing; (2) sailing 
by the wifid (cf. J)rd-beiting). 

beitinga-mdl, n. a lawsuit about 
right of grazing or pasturage. 

beittr, a. sharp, keen (of cutting 

beizl, n. bridle ; leggja b. vi5 hest, 
to bridle a horse. 

beizla (at5), v. to bridle, 

beizla. f. = bei6sla. 

beizl-al, f. bridle-rein ; -hringr, m. 
bridle-ring', -tamr, a. used to the 
bridle ; -taumr, m. bridle-rein. 

beizlu-ma(5r, m. = bei5sluma3r. 

bejur, bcBJur, f. pi. fetters, irons 
(foreign word). 

bekkjar-g-jof, f. 'bench-gift'' (a gift 
which the bridegroom oftered to the 
bride at the wedding festival). 

bekhjar-kvern, f. water-mill. 

bekkjast (t), v. refl. /^ strive to get 
a thing (b. til e-s) ; b. til vi6 e-n, to 
pick a quarrel with one. 

bekkju-nautr, m. bench-fellow. 

bekk-klasSi, n. covering of a bench. 

bekkr (gen. -s or -jar, pi. -ir), m. 
bench ; oeBri b., the upper bench (along 
the north side of the hall, looking 
towards the sun) ; uoeQri b., the lower 
(inferior) bench (along the southern 
side) ; breiSa, strd bekki, to cover. 




strew the benches (in preparation for 
a feast or wedding). 

bekkr (gen. -s or -jar, pi. -ir), m. 
beck^ brook (poet.). 

bekk-skrautuSr, m. adorner {orna- 
ment) of the bench (poet.). 

bekri, m. ratn ; brjota bekrann, to 
break one's neck (rare). 

belg-flattr, vs\. flaying or taking off 
the skin of an animal entire (fla 
hafrana -flastti). 

belgja (-5a, -5r), v. to inflate, puff 
out (b. hv^pta, augun). 

belgr (gen. -a or -jar, pi. -ir), m. (i) 
the skifi (of a quadruped) taken off 
whole (cf. kalfsbelgr, kattbelgr, hafr- 
belgr, otrbelgr) ; (2) skin-bag^ skin- 
case (draga belg a or yfir hofuS e-m) ; 
(3) bellows (smidju-belgr). 

belja (aS), v. to bellow (b. sem naut). 

beljan, f. bellozving, lowing. 

bella (bell, ball, — ), v. to hit, hurt, 
with dat. (ball per nu .?) ; ekki vsxi. 
ofeigum b., one not fated to die is 
proof against all shots. 

bella (-da, -t), v. to dare, venture, 
with dat. ; (hverr mun hafa J)essu 
bellt ?) ; to deal in, display (bella 
svikum, lygi, gleSi). 

belli-bragS, n. knavish trick, 

bellinn, a. tricky, trickish. 

bell-visi, f. trickishness. 

belta-drattr, m. a close strtcggle. 

belti, n. belt (cf. gjorS, lindi). 

beltis-puss, m. a pouch attached to 
the belt ; -stat5r, m. waist. 

ben (-jar, -jar), f. (i) mortal wound 
(ben, ef at bana verdr) ; (2) small 
bleeding wound', also of the wound 
produced by letting blood. 

ben, n. wound=hen, f. 

benda (-nda, -ndr), v. to beckon, 
make a sign with the head or hand 
(b. e-m til sin, at fylgja ser) ; with 
ace, b. e-t fyrir, to forebode, betoken. 

benda (-nda, -ndr), v. to bend (b. 
sverd um kne ser) ; b. boga, to bend 
a bow ; b. hofu6it, to bow the head ; 
refl., bendast a um e-t, to dispute, 
contest about. 

benda, f band, tie (cf. hofuSbenda). 

bendi, n. cord. 

bendill, m. small cord, string. 

bending, f. (i) sign, token; gera 
e-m bending, to make a sign to one ; 
(2) foreboding, betokeni?ig (vist era 
J)etta bendingar storra bardaga). 

bendr, pp. bended, bent (skjota af 
bendum boga). 

benja (aS), v. to wound mortally 
(brodur minn hefr pii benjadan). 

benja-lyaing, i. a sort of coroner's 
inquest upon a slain man ; -vattr. m. 
a sort of coroner' s juryman ; -vastti, n. 
the verdict of a benjavattr. 

ben-lauas, a. free fro?n wounds ; 
-logi, m. poet. * wound-flame ', sword ; 
-rogn, n. * wound-drops ' ; -vondr, 
m. poet. ' wound-wand ', sword. 

benzl, n. pi. bent state of a bow ; 
taka boga af benzl um, to unbend it. 

ber (gen. pi. beija), n. berry. 

bera (ber ; bar, barum ; borinn), 
V. I. if) to bear, carry, convey (bar 
B. biskup f borum su5r i Hvamm) ; 
b. (farm) af skipi, to unload a ship ; 
b. (mat) af borSi, to take {the fneat) off 
the table', b. e-t a hesti, to carry on 
horseback ; (2) to wear (b. klaeSi, 
v^pn, koronu) ; b. cegishjalm, to in- 
spire fear arid awe ; (3) /^ bear, pro- 
duce, yield (jorSin berr gras ; tre 
bera aldin, epli) ; (4) to bear, give 
birth to, esp. of sheep and cows ; kyr 
hafdi borit kalf, had calved', absol., 
vdn at hon mundi bera, that the cow 
would calve ; the pp. is used of men ; 
hann haf6i verit blindr borinn, borti 
blind ; verSa borinn i J)enna heim, to 
be born into this world; J)ann soma, 
sem ek em til borinn, born to ; borinn 
e-m, fra e-m (rare), born of', Nott 
var Norvi borin, was the daughter of 
N. ; borinn Sigmundi, son of S. ; (5) 
b. e-n afli, ofrafli, ofrlidi, ofrmagni, 
ofriki, to bear one down, overcome, 
oppress, one by odds or superior force ; 
b. e-n raSum, to overrule one ; b. e-n 
malum, to bear one down {wrong ully) 
ifi a lawsuit', b. e-n sok, to charge 
one with a fault; b. e-n bjori, to 
make drunk with beer', verda br^Sum 
borinn, to be taken by surprise ; 
borinn verkjum, overcome by pains ; 
J)ess er borin van, there is no hope^ 
all hope is gone ; borinn baugum, 




bribed ; cf. bera fe a e-n, to bribe one ; 
(6) to lear^ be capable of bearing (of a 
ship, horse, vehicle) ; t>eir hlodu basQi 
skipin sem bor6 baru, with as much 
as they could carry ; fig., to sustain^ 
support (svd mikill mannfjoldi, at 
landit fekk eigi borit) ; of persons, to 
bear up agaittst^ endure, support 
(grief, sorrow, Sic.) ; absol., bar hann 
drengiliga, he tore it fuanfully ; 
similarly, b. (harm) af se'r, berast vel 
(ilia, litt) af ; bar hon skoruliga af ser, 
she bore up bravely ; hversu berst 
Au6r af um br66urdau6ann, how does 
she bear it ? hon berst af litt, she is 
much cast down ; b. sik vel upp, to 
bear well up against \ (7) b. e-t ^ 
e-n, d hendr e-m, to charge or tax 
one with (eigi erum ver J)ess valdir, 
er l)u berr a oss) ; b. (kvi5) a e-n, to 
give a verdict against, declare guilty 
(i annat sinn peir d, Flosa kvi3- 
inn) ; b. af e-m (kviQinn), to give a 
verdict for ; b. e-t af ser, to deny 
having done a thing ; b. or b. vitni, 
vaetti, to bear witness, testify ; b. or 
b. um e-t, to give a verdict in a case ; 
b. e-n sannan at sok, to prove one 
guilty by evidence ; b. e-n undan sok, 
io acquit ; b, i sundr fraendsemi Jjeirra, 
to prove [by evidence) that they are 
not relations ; b. e-m vel (ilia) soguna, 
to give a favourable {unfavourable) 
account of one ', refl. (pass.), berast, to 
be proved by evidence (t)6tt J)er berist 
l^at faSerni, er J)u segir; ; (8) /^ set 
forth, report, tell ; b. e-mkvefiju (ord, 
orSsending), to bring one a greeting, 
coTHpliments {word, message) ; b. or 
b. fram erindi sin fyrir e-n, to state 
{tell) one's errand or to plead one^s case 
before one ; b. e-m njosn, to apprise 
one ; b. e-t upp, to produce, 7nen- 
iion, tell; b. upp gdtu, to give {pro- 
pound) a riddle ; b. upp erindi sin, to 
state one's errand', b. saman ra6 sin, 
to consult together ; eyddist J3a6 ra6, 
er J)eir baru saman, which they had 
designed ; (9) to keep, hold, bear, of a 
title (b. jarlsnafn, konungsnafn) ; b. 
(eigi) giptu, gaefu, hamingju, au3nu 
til e-s, {not) to have the good fortune 
to do a thing (bar hann enga gcefu til 

at Jjjona {)er) ; b. vit, skyn, kunndttu 
d e-t, to have knowledge of, under- 
standing about ; vel viti borinn, en- 
dowed with a good understanding; 
b. hug, arasSi, {Dor, traust til e-s, to 
have cou7age, confidence to do a thing ; 
b. d,hyggju fyrir e-u, to be co7icerned 
ahoiit ; b. ast, elsku, hatr til e-s, to 
bear affection, love, hatred to', {10) to 
bear off or away, carry off (some 
gain) ; b. sigr af e-m, af e-u, to carry 
off the victory from or in ; hann 
hafSi borit sigr af tveim orustum, he 
had been victorious in two battles ; 
b. hserra (lasgra) hlut, to get the best 
{the worst) of it', b. efra (hasrra) 
skjold, to gai?t the victory ; b. hdtt 
(lagt) hofuSit, to bear the head high 
{low), to be in high {low) spirits ; b. 
halann bratt, lagt, to cock up or let 
fall the tail, to be in high or low 
spirits ; (11) with preps. ; b. af e-m, 
to surpass ; en })6 bar BoUi af, sur- 
passed all the rest ; b. af sdr hogg, 
lag, to ward off, parry a blow or 
thrust', b. eld at, to set fire to-, b. 
fjotur (bond) at e-m, to put fetters 
[bonds) on one', b. vdpn d e-n, to 
attack one with sharp weapofis ; b. a 
or f, to smear, anoint (b. vatn i augu 
ser, b. tjoru i hofu3 ser) ; b. e-t til, to 
apply to, try if it fits (b. til hvern 
lykil af o3rum at portinu) ; b. e-t um, 
to wind round', {)a bar hann pd, festi 
um sik, made it fast roimd his body ; 
b. um me3 e-m, to bear with, have 
patiefice with ; b. ut barn, to expose a 
child', (12) refl., berast mikit (litit) d, 
to bear oneself proudly {hiujibly) ; 
lata af b., to die ; Idta fyrir b. e-s 
staSar, to stay, retnain in a place (for 
shelter) ; b. e-t fyrir, to design a thing 
(barst hann f)at fyrir at sja aldregi 
konur) ; at njosna um, hvat hann 
baerist fyrir, to inquire into what he 
was about ; b. vapn i., to attack one 
another ; b. at or til, to happen ; J)at 
barst at {happened ) 2<.€\n\i\Qx]w sumri ; 
ef svd, harSiiga kann til at b., if that 
misfortu?ie does happen ; b. i moti, to 
happen, occur ; hetir |)etta vel i moti 
borizt, it is a happy coincidence ; b. 
vi9, to bf prevented ; ok ni'j let almit- 




tugr gu5 vi3 b. kirkjubrunann, pre- 
venteci, stopped the burning of the 
churchy Il.impers., denoting a sort 
of passive or involuntary motion ; (i) 
with ace, it bears or carries one to 
a place \ alia berr at sama brunni, all 
come to the same ivell [end) ; bar 
hann (ace.) J)a ofan gegnt Osuri, he 
happened to co>ne down Just opposite 
to O. ; esp. of ships and sailors ; berr 
OSS (ace.) til Islands ec5a annarra 
landa, we drift to Iceland or other 
coimtries \ J)a ^acc.» bar su6r i haf, 
they were carried out southwards ; 
Skarphe5in (ace.) bar nu at t)eim, S, 
cajne suddenly upon them ; ef hann 
(ace.) skyldi bera l^ar at, if he should 
happen to come there ; e-n berr yfir, 
07ie is borne onwards^ of a bird flying, 
a man riding ; hann (ace.) bar skjott 
yfir, it passed quickly (of a flying 
meteor) ; (2) followed by preps. ; 
Gunnar ser, at raucJan kyrtil bar vi5 
glugginn, that a red kirtle passed 
before the window ; hvergi bar skugga 
(ace.) a, there was nowhere a shadow ; 
e-t berr fram (hatt), is pro?ninent \ 
Olafr konungr st63 1 lyptingu ok bar 
hann (ace.) hatt mjok, stood out con- 
spicuously ; e-t berr ^ milli, comes 
between ; leiti (ace.) bar d milli, a 
hill hid the prospect ; fig., e-m berr 
e-t i milli, they are at variance about 
a thing \ mart (ace.) berr mi fyrir 
augu mer, many things come now be- 
fore my eyes ; veiQi (ace.) berr i hendr 
^-m., game falls to one's lot ; e-t berr 
undan, goes amiss^ fails ; b. saman, 
to coincide ; bnr nofn t»eirra saman, 
they had the same na?ne ; fig., with 
dat. ; bar ollum sogum vel saman, 
all the stories agreed well together ; 
fund vim bar saman, we met ; (3) b. 
at, til, vi6, at hendi, til handa, to 
befall, happen, with dat. of the per- 
son ; sva bar at einn vetr, it happened 
one winter', J)6 at J)etta vandraeSi 
(ace.) hafi nu borit oss (dat.) at hendi, 
has befallen us ; bar honum sva til, it 
so befell him ; J^at bar vi6 {it so 
happened), at Hogni kom ; raun (ace.) 
berr d, it is proved by fact \ (4) of 
time, to fall upon ; ef ^ing (ace.) berr 

i. hina helgu viku, tf the parliament 
falls in the holy week ; b. i moti, /^ 
coincide, happen exactly at the same 
time ; (5) denoting cause ; e-t berr 
til, causes a thing-, konungr spurSi, 
hvat til bicri ligledi bans, what was 
the cause of his grief ', aetluSu pat j^a 
allir, at {jat munii til b., that that 
was the reason ; berr e-m nau(5syn til 
e-s, one is obliged to do a thing; (6) 
e-t berr undir ^-n, falls to a person's 
lot ; hon a arf at taka, J)egar er undir 
hana berr, in her turn ; e-t berr fra, 
is surpassing; er sagt, at {)at (ace.) 
basri Ira, hve vel JDeir maeltu, // was 
extraordinary ho7u well they spoke ; 
(7) e-t berr braSum, happe?is of a 
sudden ; e-t berr storu, storum (stoer- 
rum), it amounts to much {more), it 
matters a great deal {more\ it is of 
great {greater) important e; (8) absol. 
or with an adv., vel, ilia, with infin. ; 
e-m berr (vel, ilia) at gera e-t, it be- 
comes, beseeins one [well, ill) to do a 
thing (berr y6r vel, herra, at sja 
sannindi i. J)essu mali) ; used absol., 
berr vel, ilia, it is beseeming, proper, 
ft, or unbeseeming, improper, unfit 
(pat pykkir eigi ilia b., at). 
bera (aS), v. to make bare (hon 
beradi likam sinn). 
bera, f. she-bear,=^\)\m2t.. 
ber-bakt, adv. bare-backed, without 
saddle (riSa -bakt) ; -beinn, a. bare- 
legged; -brynjaSr, a. wearing a coat 
of mail with no garment over it ; 
-dreymr, a. having clear drea7ns as 
to the future. 
ber-tjall, n. bear-skin (ef. 'bera'). 
ber-foettr, a. bar-e-footed, bare- 
legged; berfoettr br66ir, bare-footed 
friar, minorite. 

berg, n. (i) rock, boulder; (2) cliff, 
precipice (framan 1 bergi). 

berg-bui, m. rock-dweller, giant; 
-danir, m. pl. = -buar; -hamarr, m. 
rocky precipice ; -hlitS, f. the side of a 
berg, mountain slope ; -hogg, n. a 
quarrying tool. 

bergi-biti, m. a bit to taste, small 
bit ; -ligr, a. ifiviting to taste. 
berging, f. tasting, taste. 
bergisamligr, a. =bergiligr. 




bergja (-5a, -tJr), v. to taste ^ with 
dat. ; {>6rgunna vildi 0ngum mat b., 
Th. ivoicld taste no food ; b. oivi, to 
taste {drink) ale ; b. dau3a, to taste 
death ; also b. i. e-u (enn hofum vi5 
eigi i. dau3a bergt). 

bergning, f. = berging (rare). 

berg-nos, f. = bergsnos; -rifa, f. 
fissure in a r^^/^, = bjargrifa ; -risi, m. 
hill-giant ; -skor, f. rift in a rocky 
hill, = bjargskora ; -snos, f. a rocky 
projection ; -tollr, m. rock-toll, paid 
for catching fowl thereon ; -vor3r, 
m. a watch or lookout for rocks and 
cliffs (halda bergvorS). 

ber-hofSi, a. indecl. bare-headed \ 
-hogg, n. in the phrase, ganga i {or d) 
-hogg vi6 e-n, to enter into open fight 
with ; Joan gekk i. berhogg at banna 
allar pasr uhcefur, interdicted these 
abuses boldly and openly. 

berill, m. vessel, barrel for fluids 
(mjoSrinn var borinn i berlum). 

berindis, adv. ope7ily (rare). 

berja (ber ; baroa, bortSum ; bartSr, 
baritSr), v. (i) to beat, strike, smite 
(b. e-n) ; hdr sva fagrt sem barit 
gull, as beaten gold ; b. korn af hjilmi, 
to thresh ; b. hu6 af e-m, to scourge 
severely ; b. e-n grjoti, to stone 
(=gryta) ; b. e-n illyrSum, dvitum, to 
abuse, reproach one ; b. i. e-m, to 
attack one with blows, give one a 
thrashing ; b. i. hurS, dyrr, at hurSu, 
at dyruni, to knock, rap at a door', b. 
s^r i. brjost, to smite one' s breast (in 
repentance) ; b. til e-s = b. i. e-m ; b. 
e-n til e-s, to drive one with blows to 
do a thing (verSa barSr til boekr) ; 
(2) with dat,, b. grjoti i andlit e-m, to 
throw stones in one's face ; b, saman 
vapnum, skjoldum, to dash weapons, 
shields agaitist each other ; b. {to 
neglect, slight) gu3s bo6um ; b. e-u 
niSr (opp. to Ijosta e-u upp), to hush 
up ; (3) intrans., hjarta bans barSi 
(beat, throbbed) undir siSunni ; (4) 
impers., skyjagrjoti barSi 1 augu 
J)eim, hailstones dashed in their eyes ; 
l)eim barSi saman, they dashed 
against each other', (5) refl., berjast, 
to fight (vi5 e-n, with or against a 
person : vid ve5r, against bad weather ; 

vid e-m, for a person) ; b. i. e-t, to 
assail, attack (b. a borgina, d gu5s 
lyS) ; pott hann berdist lengi mot 
{offered resistance). 

berja-vin, n. berry-wine. 

berkja (-ta, -t), v. to boast, brag. 

ber-kyrtla?$r, a. wearing the kirtle 
only, without cloak or fnantle ; 
-leggjatSr, -leggr, a. bare- 1 egged; 
-liga, adv. (i) openly, barely; {2) 
quite, altogether (berliga uviljandi) ; 
-ligr, a. open, manifest, clear. 

berlinga-ass, m. pole (-ass digr 
J)rettdn alna langr). 

ber-malugr, a. outspoken ; -maslgi, 
{., -masli, n. pi. outspokenness, frank- 
ness; -msBltr, a. = -malugr. 

bernska, i. childhood (hann var J)d 1 

bernsk-liga, adv. childishly ; -ligr, 
a. childish ; bernskr, a. childish, 

bernsku-aldr, m. years, days, of 
childhood ; -bragS, n. childish trick ; 
-ligr, a. belonging to childhood, 
childish ; -maSr, m. childish person, 
youth ; -rd5, n. childish design. 

berr, a. (l) bare, naked (lik bert ok 
blodugt) ; undir berum himni, in the 
open air ; hvila a berri jorSu, on the 
bare grojind; (2) open, clear, mani- 
fest ; segja e-t berum or3um, in plain 
words ; ver3a berr at e-u, to be con- 
victed of a thing ; gora e-t bert, to 
make known ; gora sik beran i e-u, 
to reveal, show one's mind in a 
thing; voru berastir f Jjvi f^raendir, 
the Th. were most undisguised in it. 

ber-aerkr (-s, -ir), m. ' bear-sark ', 
berserker, a wild warrior of the 
heathen age. 

berserks-gangr, m. fury of the 

bersi, m., see ' bessi '. 

ber-skjalda(5r, a. without a shield ; 
-syndugr, a. guilty of open sin (ber- 
syndugr maor) ; -sogli, f. out- 
spokenness, freedom of speech. 

bert, adv. openly, clearly (maela b.). 

ber-yrSi, n. pl. = bermaeli, bersogli. 

bessi (for ' bersi ', cf. ' bera ', f.), m. 
he-bear, Bruin. 

besti, n. = bast. 




betr, adv. compar., (i) better \ b. 
{)oetti mer, I would rather \ vanu b., 
better than expected \ hafa b., to get 
the better of it ; (2) more ; leggit fram 
b. hit mikla skipit, bring further 
forward \ J)rju hundrud ok Jjrir tigir 
ok sex b., to boot ; ef hann orkar {or 
ma) h.^if he can do more ; ekki m^lttu 
sumir menn b. en fa staSizt, they 
were just able to keep up against him ; 
sva bar, at engi annarra tok b. en i 
6x1 honum, reached higher than to 
his shoulder. 

betra (aS), v. to better^ improve (b. 
iif sitt) ; refl. to become better \ im- 
pers., J)eir sogdu, at konungi betraSist 
mjok, that the king felt i7iuch better. 

betran, f. bettering^ improvement. 

betranligr, a. improvable. 

betr-fetSrungr, m, a man better 
than his father^ — feSr-betrungr. 

betri, a. compar., beztr, superl. 
better^ best\ peim J)6tti betra at, they 
thought it better to ; beztr bondi, an 
excellent farmer \ er mer hefir beztr 
verit, best {kindest) towards me ; 
with gen., me5an bezt er sumars, 
during the best part of the summer. 

beyg-ja (-$a, -5r), v. to bend, bow 
(b. halsinn fyrir e-m) ; b. e-m krok, 
to make it awkward for one. 

beyglast (at5), v. refl. to become bent 
(spjotit beyglaSist). 

beysta (-sta, -str), v. to beat; b. 
korn, to thresh ; b. bakfollum, to pull 
hard at the oars. 

beysti, n. ham, gammon of bacon. 

beytill, m. fescue-grass (?), cf. 

bezt (older 'bazt'), adv., superl. 
to ' vel ', best ; b. buinn, best equipped ; 
b. allra manna, best of all men. 

beztr (older * baztr'), a. superl., see 

biblia, f. the Bible ; also ' biflia '. 

biS, n. pi. waiting, delay ; g65r i 
biSum, patient. 

biSa (ac5), v. to wait ; b. e-s, to 
wait for (t)eir bi3u6u J)eirra). 

biSa, f. awaiting (rare). 

bi^an, f. delay, biding. 

bicS-angr, m. = bi3an, bi6vangr. 

bitSill (pi. bitSlar), m. wooer, suitor. 

bic5ja (biS ; baS, bAc5um. ; be(5inn), 

V. (i) to ask, beg a thing of one (b. 
e-n e-s) ; with infin., to beg one to do 
a thing ; inn bid J)u hann ganga, ask 
him to step in ; with the infin. sign 
' at ', to beg leave ; bifir hann at fara 
norSr i. Halogaland, asked for fur- 
lough to go to H. ; with ' at ' and a 
subj. (biSja viljum ve'r, at J)u ser i 
lifisboninni me6 oss) ; b. e-s, to beg 
for a thijig (b. miskunnar, matar) ; b. 
e-m e-s, to beg for a thing on behalf 
of one; b. e-m lifs, grida, to beg for 
one's life, to sue for quarter for 
another ; b. ser olmusu, to ask for 
alms ; b. (ser) konu, to ask in mar- 
riage ; b. fyrir e-m, to intercede 
{pray) for one ; (2) to pray to God 
(b. til gu5s) ; b. been sina (boenar 
sinnar, been sinni), to say one's 
prayers ; (3) refl., bidjast fyrir, to say 
one's prayers ; b. undan, to excuse 
oneself iirom doing a thing). 

bi(5-leika (a$), v. to wait, stay, 
tarry ( = 'bi5a'). 

bi^-lund, {.forbearance, patience. 

bi5lundar-g6$r, a. patient \ -mdl, 
n. a jnatter that can wait. 

bicS-lyndi, n., -8t611, m. (rare),== 

bicS-stund, f. time passed in wait- 
ing j delay, respite. 

biSstundar-timi, m. = bi5stund, 

biS-vangr, m. = bidangr. 

bifast (S and at5), ,v. refl. (i) to 
shake, tremble (allr Asa salr undir 
bifSist) ; (2) to be moved', vagninn 
bifast hvergi, cannot be tnoved. 

bif-roat, f. poet., mythical name of 
the rainbow. 

bik, n. pitch (svartr sem b. ; biki 
svartari) ; bika (a?5), v. to p-tch. 

bikarr, m. large drinking cupy 
beaker (cf. ' sdttar-bikarr '). 

bikkja, f. bitch (=grey, tik). 

bikkja (-ta, -tr), v. to plunge into 
water ; hann bikkti s^r ut af borQinu, 
hann bikkti i sjoinn, he plunged over- 

bikiju-hvelpr, m. bitch's whelp ; 
-sonr. m. son of a bitch ; -stakkr, m. 
skin of a bitch. 

bil, n. (l) an open space left (b. er 




{)ama) ; (2) J7ioment ; J)at bil, that 
very 7?ionient \ \\)\\ bili, at the same 
moment, just then. 

bila (a6), v. (i) to gh>e way, break, 
crack ; ^i. er skipit hljop af stokku- 
num, ^a bilaSi i skarar nokkurar, some 
of the seams gave way ; (2) with dat., 
flestum bilar ara^Qit, most people lose 
hea?-t\ with intin., f>6rr vill fyrir 
engan mun b. at koma til einvigis, 
Th. will by ?to means fail to meet ; 
(3) impers., hug ok arisSi mun mik 
aldregi b., I shall never be wanting 
ifi courage and pluck. 

bil-bugr, xa. failing of heart, giving 
way ; lata engan -bug ^ ser sja, to 
show no sign of fear, stand frm. 

bilt, a. n., only in the phrase, e-m 
ver6r b., one is startled, alarmed ; 
f>6r (dat.) varS b. einu sinni {for once 
Thor's heart failed him) at sla hann 
me6 hamrinum. 

bimbult a. n., in the phrase, e-m 
er b., one feels uneasy (kerling fser 
ekki sofnat um nottina, sva var 
henni bimbult). 

binda (bind ; batt, biindum ; 
bundinn), v. (i) to bind, tie, fistefi, 
tie up ; b. best, hund, to tie up a 
horse, a dog ; b. sko, J)vengi, to tie 
shoes, thongs ; b. stein vi6 hals e-m, 
to fasten a stone to one's neck ; b. 
fyrir augu e-m, to bliiidfold one ; (2) 
to bind in parcels, to pack up (b. 
varning til skips) ; b. hey a best, to 
truss hay on a horse's back ; b. korn, 
to tie up sheaves of corfi ; b. klyf, to 
tie up a pack ; (3) b. e-t um e-t, to 
biftd roiaid; hann batt silkirasmu um 
fot ser, he bound a strip of silk round 
his leg ; b. um e-t, to put a bandage 
on ; batt Yngvildr um fot honum, 
bound t(p his (wounded) leg; b. um 
sar, to bind up a wound; fig., hefir 
margr hlotit um s^rt at b. fyrir mer, 
mafiy a man has had wounds to tie up 
by 7ny 7neans (i.e. inflicted by me) ; 
l)ykkir mer bezt um heilt at b., to 
bifui a soimd limb, to keep safe and 
sound; b. sar = b. um sar; b. bond 
e-s, to bifid his hafid; (4) to make, 
form, contract, enter into (b. samfelag, 
vindttu, tengdir, hjuskap) ; b. ssett 

ok friS, to make a recoticiliation and 
peace ; b. raQ, to resolve ; absol, with 
intm., to fix, engage (bundu J)eir f>6rir 
at hittast a akveSnum staQ) ; (5) refl., 
to bind or engage oneself; em ek J)6 
eigi J)ess buinn, nema fieiri bindist, 
unless more persoJis bind themselves, 
enter the leagtie ; b. d, hendi (hondum ) 
e-m, to bind oneself to serve another 
(b. a hendi konungum) ; b. fyrir e-u, 
to put oneself at the head of an under- 
taking; b. ( = binda sik) 1 e-u,/^ engage 
i?i a tiling (b. i heitum) ; b. i banns 
atkvaeSi, to bring on oneself the 
sentence of excommti7iication ; with 
gen. (b. e-s = b. af or fra e-u), to 
ref-ain fro7n a thi7ig ; eigi bazt hann 
ferligra or6a, he did not refrain fro7n 
bad words. 

bindandi, f.=bindendi. 

bindandis-timi, m. ti7ne of absti- 

bindendi, f. and n. absti7ience (b. 
matar ok drykkjar ok margra annara 

bindendis-kraptr, m. virtue of 
absti7ie7ice ; -laus 5, a. licentious ; 
-lif, n. life of abstinence ; -maSr, m. 
a7i ascetic. 

bing-r, m. bed, bolster (statt upp ur 

birgSir, f. pi. sto7'es, pro'i'isions, 

birgiligr, a. serviceable, useftil. 

birgja (-^a, -t5r). v., b. e-n at e-u, 
to furnish, provide one wit/i a thi7tg 
(mivilek b.bu {)itt atmdlnytuisumar). 

birgr, a. wellfurnished, provided 
(at e-u) with a thing (b. at kosti). 

birki-, in compds., birch-. 

birkinn, a. bi7-chen ; only in ' birkinn 
vi6r ' = birki vi6r. 

birki-raptr, m. birch-rajter ; -vit5r, 
m. birch-wood. 

birkja (-ta, -tr), v. to bark, strip 
off the bark from a tree (b. vi6). 

birkja, f. bircJi-juice. 

birna, f. s]ie-bear,=^h^r2L. 

birta (-r.a, -rtr), v. (i) to brighten, 
light up, illu77iinate ; var birt allt 
hlyrit {the bow of the vessel was 7nade 
bright) bcecJi hvitum stein i ok rau3- 
um ; stjornur birta nattina, light up 
the night ; b. blinda, to make tht 




blind see ; b. hjortu var, to enlighten 
our hearts ; b. rceSu, to elucidate^ 
make it clearer \ impers., veSrit (ace 
birtir, it clears tip ; J)okunni (dat 
birtir, the fog lifts ; (2) to reveal^ 
jnanifesty show (skjott mun ek b. mitt 
skaplyndi) ; with dat., b. ast sinni, to 
vianifest 07ie's love ; refl., birtast, to 
appear (birtist J)a skacJi J)eirra) ; 
dagrinn birtist, the day dawns ; b. 
e-m, to appear to one. 

birta, f. (i) brightness, jair com- 
plexion ; (2) = birti. 

birtari, m. revealer. 

birti, n. brightness, light. 

birting, f. ( i) brightness ; (2) revela- 
tion ; birtingar ti6, the Epiphany. 

birtingr, m. a kind of Jish, sea- 
trout [1). 

biskup (-S, -ar), m. (i) bishop ; (2) 
the Jewish high-p7'iest. 

biskupa (a5), v. to cofifinn (b. 
born), = ferma. 

biskupa-fundr, m., -mot, n. synod 
if bishops. 

biskupan, f. confir7nation, = itrmmg. 

biskupa-J)ing, n. council of bishops. 

biskup-domr, m. = biskupsdomr ; 
-liga, adv. episcopally ; -ligr, a. 
episcopal; biskupligt embastti, the 
office of bishop. 

biskups-buningr, m. bishop's robes ; 
-bur, n. bishofs larder ; -domr, m. 
(i) dignity or rank of a bishop ; (2) 
the period during which a bishop 
holds office, episcopate (i -domi e-s) ; 
(3) episcopal see, bishopric ; -dottir, 
f. bishop's daughter ; -doemi, n. = 
-domr (3); -efni, n. bishop-elect', 
-fraendi, m. relative of a bishop ; 
-garSr, m. bishop's manor ; -gisting, 
f. ; -herbergi, n. pi. bishop's apart- 
ments ; -kpr, n., -kosning, f. election 
of a bishop ; -lauss, a. without a 
bishop (landit er -laust) ; -matSr, m. 
one in the service of a bishop ; -mark, 
n. sign of a bishop ; -magr, m. 
brother-in-law of a bishop ; -miessa, 
f. a mass celebrated by a bishop ; 
-mitr, n. bishop's initre ; -nafn, n. 
title of a bishop ; -riki, n. episcopal 
see, bishopric ; -sekt, f. a fine to be 
paid to the bishop ; -skattr, m. a 

duty to be paid to the bishop (in 
Norway) ; -skrut3, n., -skru^i, m. 
bishop" s robes ; -.onr, m. sort of a 
bishop ; -stafr, m. bishop's staff., 
crosier ; -stjorn, f. administration of 
a bishop ; -stoU, m. ( i ) episcopal 
seat', (2) bishopric, -sysla, f. (i) = 
-stjorn ; (2) province of a bishop, 
diocese ; -tign f. dignity or rank of a 
bishop ; -tiund, f. the tithe to be paid 
to the bishop (in Iceland) ; -vatn, 
n. water consecrated by the bishop 
Gtid7nund', -veldi, n. episcopal 
power ; -vigsla, f. consecration of a 

bismara-pund, n. a certain weight. 

bismari, m. steel-yard (maslir ok 
pundari ok bismari). 

bisund, f. a gold coin, besant (foreign 

bit, n. (i) bite (at tonnunum er 
bitsins van) ; (2) sharpness, edge (of 
cutting instruments) ; (3) pasture= 
beit (Norse). 

bita (ac5), v. (i) to cut into bits ; (2) 
b. lit (utbita), with dat., to extend, 
distend, stretch out. 

bit-bein, n. bone of contention (hafa 
riki pessi lengi at ofund orSit ok 
-beinum) ; -hundr, m. snappish dog. 

biti, m. (i) bit, mouthful', biSja 
bitum, to go begging', (2) eye tooth 
(upp eru komnir bitar ok jaxlar) ; (3) 
cross-beam, cross-girder. 

bitill, m. = bitull. 

bitlaSr, pp. bitted, bridled; cf. 

bitlingr, m. bit, morsel; stela bit- 
lingum, to steal trifles. 

bitr (ace. bitran), a. (i) biting, 
snapping (b. naSra) ; (2) cutti7ig, 
sharp (bitrt sverS) ; (3) painful, bitter 
(b. tregi) ; -leikr, m. bitterness ; -ligr, 
a. sharp, keen (-ligt sverd). 

bit-s6tt, f. disease (of cattle, sheep) 
from vermin. 

bituU, m. the bit of a bridle. 

bit5a (bi5 ; bei3, biSum ; becSit), 
V. (i) to abide, wait for, with gen, 
bid J)u mm her, wait for me here ; 
t)eir bi6u byrjar, they waited for 
favourable wind ; b. sinnar stundar, 
to bide one's time ; b. e-s or stad 




(t)a5an, heSan), to stand waiting in 
the same place {there ^ here) ; var eigi 
langt at b., at (// was ?iot long before) 
sannaSist saga abota mins ; (2) to 
suffer, undergo, sustain, with ace, b. 
bana (dauda, hel), ska6a, to suffer 
death, loss ; b. dmaeli, to be blamed', 
b. osigr, to be defeated', b. enga ro, 
to feel no peace, be uneasy ; b. bot 
(boetr) e-s, to recover, ove?'Come', (3) 
e-t bi5r e-s, is in store for one, awaits 
one (fagnaSu, vin minn, ])vi at J)in 
bi6r eilifr fagnaSr) ; (4) impers., e-t 
(ace.) biSr, there is, there is to be had, 
with a preceding negative ; hvarki 
bi6r J)ar bdru ne vinds blae, there is 
felt neither wave nor breath of air ; 
varla bei6 braud e6r foeSu, was 
scarcely to be had. 

biSandi, f. biding, waiting, delay. 

bic5endr, m. pi. those who wait ; b. 
eigu byr, get a fair wind. 

bildottr, a. spotted on the cheeks (of 
a sheep). 

bildr, m. an instrument for letting 
blood, lancet (orit var sem bilds spor 
vaeri, a scar as fr07n ah.). 

bild-6r, f. a kind of arrow. 

biliii, n. Itixury ,=hy\ifi. 

bita (bit ; beit, bitum ; bitinn), v. 
{i) to bite with the teeth (hundr bitr 
mann ; E. beit skard or horninu) ; b. 
gras, to graze, also absol. (naut bitu 
a velli) ; b. af e-m eyrun, to bite off 
his ears ; b. e-t 1 sundr, to bite asun- 
der or through ; b. a vorrinni, kamp- 
inum, to bite the lip, the beard; 
impers., of fish, to bite, take the bait 
(bitr vel a um daginn) ; (2) of sharp 
instruments, weapons ; t>eir er eigi 
bitu jam, those whom iron could not 
bite ; sverdit beit eigi, did not cut ; 
e-m bitr, one*s weapon (scythe) cuts 
well (allt bitu honum annan veg 
vapnin) ; fig., beit l)etta ra3, was 
effective ; (3) of a ship, to go near the 
wind; skip, er ver koUum b. allra 
skipa bezt, the best sailer ; impers., 
beit ]3eim eigi fyrir Reykjanes, they 
could not clear or weather Reykjaness ; 
(4) fig., to bite, sting, htirt (t)ik skulu 
allir eiSar b., J)eir er Helga hafdir 
unna) ; sekt. sok bitr e-n, one is con- 

victed or found guilty ; J)au mdl, sem 
sekt bitr, matters liable to punish- 
me?it ; b. i. e-n, to affect, make an 
impression on one ; J)etta let Kjartan 
d sik b., K. took this to heart ; lata 
e-t eigi d sik b., to be proof against, 
to be unaffected by a thing; (5) e-t 
bitr fyrir, is decisive, decides or settles 
the jnatter, esp. so as to render it 
impossible ; b. e-m at fullu, to prove 
fatal to (hafa mik mi at fullu bitit 
bans ra3) ; (6) refl., bi'tast (of horses), 
to bite, in fighting (var honum mikil 
forvitni, hve bitast vildi hestrinn) ; 
to bite one another (bitast sem hundar 
eSa hestar). 

lb j alia, f. bell (hann vig6i klukkur ok 

bjannak, n. benediction (from Irish 

bjarg, n. (i) rock, boulder '^ (2) 
precipice, cliff (by the sea). 

bjarga (berg ; barg, burgum ; 
borginn), v. (i) to help, save, with 
dat. ; nema f>. byrgi honum, unless 
Th. helped him ; sa er olduni bergr, 
ivho saves mankind (viz. against the 
giants, i.e. Thor) ; gu6s son er ollum 
heimi barg, who saved the whole 
world ; impers., e-m er borgit, one is 
saved, comes S(fe and sound otit of 
danger (brutu skip sitt ok tyndu fe 
ollu, en monnum var6 borgit flestum) ; 
b. skipshofn, to rescue the ship- 
wrecked ; b. skipi, to haul a ship out 
of the reach of the tide ; b. hval, to 
secure a dead whale (by dragging it 
ashore) ; b. konum, to help labouring 
women (cf. 'bjargriinar') ; b. kum, to 
attend cows calvifig; b. nam, to 
render the last service to dead bodies 
(cf. 'nabjargir') ; b. sok, mali, to 
succeed in winning a case, a suit ; 
(2) refl., bjargast, to keep up the 
heart, esp. against cold or hunger ; 
Oddr bargst vel "k fjallinu (in a snow 
storm) ; b. sjalfr, to gain one's bread; 
b. d sinar hendr, to support oneself 
with one's own hands ; b. uti, to find 
one's food {graze) in the field (of 
cattle) ; Snorri go6i fann, at nafni 
bans bargst litt vi3 ostinn, that he 
got on slowly with eating the cheese ; 




verSi pir nii at b. vi6 slilct sem til er, 
j'02/ must now put up with what you 
can get, 

bjarga (aS), v. (rare), = preceding 
(bjargat mun malinu verfia). 

bjargar-vist, f. a situation which 
yields food and clothing. 

bjarg-aurar, m. pi. 7neans enough 
for support. 

bjarg-gengr, a. clever at climbing 
on fowling cliffs (cf. *ganga 1 bjarg'). 

bjarg-hagr, a. a dexterous carpenter 
or smith for household work. 

bjarg-hogg, n. itistrument for hew- 
ing steps ifi a rock. 

bjarg-kostr, m. means of support', 
-kviSr, m. verdict of acquittal \ 
-leysi, n. starvation, destitution ; 
-ra5, n. (i) means of salvatio?t ; (2) 
advice given to an outlaw with intent 
to save his life. 

bjarg-rifa, f. rift in a rock,= 

bjarg-runar, f. pi. runes for helping 
women in labour \ -rygr (rygjar, 
-rygir), f. midwife. 

bjarg-skora, f. rift in a rocky hill, 
= bergskor. 

bjargs-maSr, m. a self- supporting 

bjarg-snos, f. = bergsnos; -steinn, 
m. boulder, crag. 

bjarg- vel, adv. well enough. 

bjarg-vasttr, f. helping sprite^ good 

bjarkan, n. the runic letter B, 

bjarkeyjar-r6ttr, m. town-law, 

Bjarmar, m. pL, name of a people 

or tribe of the Russian empire, the 

PerfHs of the present day. 

bjarnar-bass, m. = bjarnbiss ; 

-hamr, m. the hide, shape of a bear ; 

-hi6, n. a black bear's lair', -hold, n. 

bear*s flesh ; -hrammr, m. bear's 
paw ; -slatr, n. meat of a slaughtered 

bjarn-bdss, m. a pit for catching 

bears ; -dyr, -dyri, n. bear ; -eggjan, 

f. brutal provocation ; -feldr, m. 

bear-skin cloak ; -fell, n. bear's fell, 

bear's skin ; -gjold, n. pi. reiuard for 

killing a bear ; -hunn, m. bear'^s cub ; 

-igull, m. a kind of sea-urchin ; 

-olpa, f.=bjarnskinns61pa ; -skinn, 
n. bearskin. 
bjarnskinns-olpa, f. a bearskin 

bjarn-staka, f. bearskin ; -svit5a, f. 
large knife for killing bears ; -veit5ar, 
f. pi. bear-hunting (fara d, -veifiar) ; 
-ylr, m. bear's warmth, the vital 
wartnth of an ice-bear. 
bjart-eygSr, -eygr, a. bright-eyed \ 
-haddatSr, a. fair-haired ; -leikr, m. 
brightness ; -leitr, a. fair-com- 
plexioned ; -liga, adv. clearly, plain- 
ly ; -litatJr, a. light-coloured. 
bjartr, a. (l) bright, shining (bjart 
ijos, solskin) ; (2) illustrious (me6 
bjortum sigri). 
bjart-viSri, n. clear weather. 
bjdlfi (or bjalbi), ra. fur, skin, esp. 
in compds., hreinbj^lfi, geitbjalfi. 
bjdlki, m. balk, beam. 
bj6t$, n. (i) S7nall table; (2) small 

bjoSa (by 5 ; bau5, bu^um ; bo^- 
inn), V. (i) tc offer', l)eir hofSu bo6it 
honum laun, they had offered him 
rewards ; t>. bau6 at gefa {offered to 
give) Gunnlaugi hestinn ; b. grid, to 
offer pardo?i ; b. e-t til lifs s6r, as a 
ransom for one's life ; b. e-t fram, to 
proffer, produce (b. fram vitni) ; b. 
e-t upp, af hendi, to give up, leave 
off', fa bySr hann upp \iorxi\\, gives 
up the horn, will not drink more ; b. 
e-t undan e-m, to offer to take a thing 
off ones hands (er J)d kostr at b. 
undan peim manni varSveizluna 
fjarins) ; b. e-t vi6, to make a bid\ 
b, vi6 tvenn ver6, to bid double ; refl., 
bjodast, to ojer oneself, voltmteer 
one's service ; f^oroddr bauzt {offered 
himself) til J)eirrar farar ; (2) to do a 
thing to one, in a bad sense ; b. e-m 
ofrid, to wage war against one ; b. 
e-m ojofnuS, ofriki, to treat uftfiirlyy 
oppress ; b. e-m ogn, to affright, 
terrify ; b. e-m rangt, to treat one 
unjustly, (3) to bid, invite (b. e-m 
til sin or heim) ; b. monnum til bo6s, 
to bid guests to a banquet, weddi^ig; 
(4) to bid, order', sem log bu6u, as 
the law prescribed', b. e-m erendi, to 
commit a thing to one's charge ; b. 




e-m varnad a e-u, to forbid ; b. e-m 
af landi, to order ofte out of the land ; 
b. e-m af embaetti, to depose one ; b. 
ut liQi, skipum,/^ levy troops^ ships\ b. 
e-m um, to delegate to one, to commit 
to one's charge ({)eiin manni er biskup 
hefir um boOit at nefna vatta) ; (5) /^ 
proclaim, announce ; b. tru (kristni), 
to proclaim, preach a religion {the 
Christian faith) ; b. messudag, to 
proclaim a holy day ; (6) of a mental 
state, to have presenfifnent of; e-m 
by6r e-t f hug (skap), one has a fore- 
boding, presefi time fit of] mer by6r 
e-t fyrir, I forebode ; mer by6r hugr 
vi3 e-u, / abhor, dislike ; impers., 
mer by3r ivallt hita (ace), er ek kem 
1 peirra flokk, / feel uneasy when- 
ever . . . ; mer bau6 otta, / felt a 
fear; baud t^eim mikla Jjekt [they felt 
much pleasure), er J)eir sa likit ; ef 
y8r by6r sv^ vi6 at horfa, when you 
are in such a frame of mind', (7) 
bySr e-m, it beseems, becomes 07ie ; 
sem konungsbarni bySr, as befits a 
princess ; eptir ftat for vigsla fram 
eptir J)vi sem bydr, as it is due, 
or proper. 

bjor-blandaSr, pp. mixed with beer. 

bjorr, m. beer (ol heitir med monn- 
um, en me3 Asum b.). 

bjorr (-3, -ar), m. (i) triangular 
cut off piece of skin (bjorar J)eir, er 
menn sni3a or skom sinum fyrir tam 
e6a heel) ; (2) tria?igular strip of 
land, = geiri (b. Id. onuminn fyrir 
austan Fijot) ; (3) fro7it wall, party 
wall ; engi var bjorrmn milH husanna, 
there was no partition between the 
houses ; (4) a sort of tapestry of tri- 
angular shape (var stofan vel tjoldud 
ok settir upp bjorar). 

bjorr (-S, -ar), m. beaver, esp. the 
beaver^ s skin (b. ok safaH). 

bjor-reifr, a. cheerful from beer- 
drinking ; -sala, f . vending of beer ; 
-salr, m. beer-hall. 

bjor-skinn, n. beaver skin ; -skinn- 
feldr, m. cloak made of beaver skin. 

bjor-tunna, f. barrel of beer; -veig, 
f. beer ; -verpill, m. beer-cask. 

bjuga (pi. bjiigu), n. sausage (cf. 

bjug-leikr, m. crookedness \ -leitr, 
a. of crooked cotintettance ; -nefjaSr, 
a. hook-nosed, = rveS}6]\\%x. 

bjugr, a. bowed, hooked, crooked, 
bent ; hann var b. i. baki, he sat bent 
or bowed [from age) on horseback ; 
hvdrt er y6r t>ykkir bjugt e8a beint, 
whether it seerns to you crooked or 
straight, whether you like it or not. 

bjorg (gen. bjargar, pi. bjargir), 
f. (i) help, deliverafice, out of ?ieed or 
danger, esp. help (food, shelter, 
transport) given to an outlaw (veita 
e-m b., einnar nsetr b.) ; logmaet b., 
lawful point of defence (in pleading 
in the Court) ; (2) fneans of subsis- 
tence, stores, provisions (fjogurra 
missera b.). 

bjork (gen. bjarkar), f. birch, birch- 

bjorn (gen. bjarnar, pi. bimir, ace. 
bjornu), m. bear (hvitabjorn, the 
white bear ; hiSbjorn, skogbjorn, 
ur6bjorn, viSbjorn, the black bear). 

blat5, n. (i) leaf of a plant; (2) leaf 
in a book ; (3) blade of a knife (knifs- 
blad), of an oar (ararblaS) ; (4) skirt 
of a kirtle, shirt, cloak (kyrtilblaS, 
skyrtublad, feldarblaS). 

bla$ra (acS), v. (i) to flutter to and 
fro, as a leaf in the wind (sa l^eir, at 
tungan blaSraSi) ; (2) with dat., to 
move (the tongue) to and fro (hann 
blaSraSi tungunni ok leita6i vi6 at 
masla) ; to wag the tail (b. halanum) ; 
(3) absol., to utter inarticulately 
(blaSrar ok bendir hann) ; with ace. 
(blaSrandi ])essi or8). 

blac5ra, f. bladder ; blain. 

blak, n. slap (with the open hand). 

blaka (at$ and -ta), v. (i) to flutter, 
wave (of the leaves of a tree) ; (2) 
with dat., b. vasngjunum, to flap the 
wings ; (3) with ace, b. e-n, to give 
one a slap. 

blaka, f. (i) veil (cf. 'silkiblaka '); 

blakk-fjallr, a. with black hide 
(bimir blakkfjallir). 

blakkr, a. black, dun-coloured 
(beittu, SigurSr, enn blakka mar). 

blakkr, m. poet, a dun-coloured 




blakra (a5), v. to flutter with the 

bland, n. (i) mixture ; i b. vi3 e-n, 
in company with ; i b. me6 e-m, 
among \ (2) sexual intercourse (hafa 
konu 1 b. = til la^^s vi3 sik). 

blanda (blend ; bl6tt, bl6ndum ; 
blandinn), v. to blend, mix, e-t e-u, 
with a thing (b. mjo6, drykk, eitri) ; 
b. e-t saman, to mix together (b. 
saman hvitt ok rautt) ; more common, 
b. e-u vi3 e-t ; b. vatni vi6 vin, to 
mix wine with water ; b. motuneyti 
(dat.) vi3 e-n, to eat together with 
one ; refl., bland ast vi6 e-n, to have 
intercourse with one, esp. of sexual 
intercourse (blandast vi3 konur af 
heiSnum f)j63um). 

blanda (aS), v. = prec. 

blanda, f. mixture of two fluids (for 
fyrst or bl65, si6an blanda), esp, sour 
whey ?nixed with water. 

blandan, f. 7nixing, blending. 

blandinn, pp. (cf. ' blanda *, v.) 
7nixed\ Helgi var b. mjok, had a 
mixed creed; hon er blandin mjok, 
she is a womari of mixed report. 

blauSast (at$), v. refl., = bley6ast. 

blaut5-huga5r, a. = blauthugaSr ; 
-liga, adv. cowardly. 

blaucSr, a. ( i ) weak, cowardly ; bid 
nu, ef J)u ert eigi b., if thou art not a 
coward; {2) feminine, opp, to ' hvatr', 
but only used of animals, dogs, cats, 
fishes ; hafit nu hendr i. hundinum, 
{)6tt b. se, take the dog, though it be 
a bitch, 

blaut-bam, n., in the phrase, ixi. 
-barns beini = fra blautu barns beini, 
see ' blauti ' ; -fiskr, m. fresh fish ; 
-holdr. a. having soft, stnooth flesh 
(masrin var vasn ok -hold) ; -hugaSr, 
a. faint - hearted (opposed to ' har3- 
hugaSr ') ; -klsBddr, pp. clothed in soft 
raiment (e6a vildut J)er sja -klaeddan 

mann ?) ; -leikr, m. softness ; -lendr, 

a. soft, moist-soiled; -liga, adv. 

efleminately (klaeddr -liga) ; -ligr, a. 

soft, voluptuous (blautligir kossar) ; 

blautlig kvas6i, amorous ditties. 

blautr, a. (i) soft (b. sem silki- 

raema) ; b. fiskr, fresh fish, opp. to 

* hardr fiskr ' ; fra blautu barns bemi. 

from very babyhood; (2) efifeminate, 
timorous, weak (far er gamall harSr, 
ef hann er 1 bernsku b.) ; (3) wet, 
soaked (t)ar voru vellir blautir, {)vi at 
regn hotdu verit). 
bla-ber, n. blaeberry, bilberry ; 
-brunaSr, a. bluish brown ; -djup, 
n. the blue deep sea ; -eygtSr. -eygr, 
a. blue-eyed; -fastr, a. quite i?n- 
movable ; -fainn, -far, a. with a 
bluish polish ; -feldr, m. cloak of blue 
fur ; -flekkottr, a. speckled with 
blue ; -hvitr, a. bluish white ; -kdpa, 
f. bhie cloak ; -kinn, f. blue cheek ; 
-klaeddr, pp. dressed in blue ; -leitr, 

a. blue-faced, black-faced ; -lendingr, 
m. Ethiopian ; -lenzkr, a. Ethiopian, 

from BMland, Ethiopia ; -maSr, m. 
a black man, negro. 

bldman, f. the livid colour of bruise. 

bla-mengdr, -mengjacSr, a. blue- 
mi?igled; -merktr, pp. 7narked with 

blami, m. lividness, ^hMxmxi. 

blana (aS), v. to become blue or livid 
(t)rutna ok b. 1 andliti). 

blar, a. (i) blue, livid (b. ok bl66- 
ugr) ; (2) black (b. sem kol) ; falda 
bid,, to wrap the head in black. 

bla-rendr, a. blue-striped (-rendar 

blasa (blees ; bl6s, bl^sum ; bids- 
inn), v.{i) to blow, of the wind ; blds- 
andi byrr, a spanking breeze; (2) to 
blow with the 7noiith (hann bles 1' 
kross yfir drykk sinum) ; to pant 
(hestrinn tok at frysa ok b.) ; b. vi6, 
to draw a deep breath, to sigh (jarl 
bles t)a vi6 mcec^iliga) ; fig., b. moti 
e-m, to be u7ifavourably disposed 
towards 07ie; (3) with dat., to set in 
7notion by blowing or breathing ; bles 
mcediliga ondinni, breathed hard; 

b. e-m e-u i brjost, to inspire, suggest 
a thing to one (gu6 bles henni t)vi i 
brjost) ; b. eldi, eitri, of serpents ; 

(4) to blow with a 7nusical instru- 
7nent ; b. Iu6ri, horni, to blow the 
tru??ipet, horn ; b. Ii6i {troops) til 
landgongu ; b. til stefnu, to a 7neet- 
ing ; b. herbldstr, to sound an alarm ; 

(5) to 7tielt,cast (b. gullmalm, rau6a) ; 
yxn tveir or eiri blasnir {cast) ; (6) to 




blow up, inflate (sem belgr bMsinn) ; 
(7) impers., bles upp fotinn, kviSinn, 
the legy belly, swelled up ; of land, to 
be laid bare, stripped of the turf (hafSi 
bMsit hauginn ok \k silfrit bert). 

bldsari, m. blower of a trumpet or 

bl^-silfr, n. bad silver, opp. to 
* skirt silfr'. 

blasinn, pp. (i) inflated (belgr b.) ; 
(2) swollen (syndist iotrinn b.) ; (3) 
stripped oj turf, baie^ barren (mel- 
torfa blasin mjok). 

bld-stafaSr, a. blue-striped (segl 

blastr (gen, bldatrar and bldstar, 
dat. blaB3tri and blaBSti), m. (i) 
blast, blowing of the wind', (2) blow- 
ing of an animal, hissing of a serpent 
(heyrdi blast drekanna) ; (3) breath- 
ing, breath (malit g0rist af blsestri- 
num) ; (4) blast of a trumpet-, (5) 
blowing of a bellows ; (6) swelling of 
the body or a limb, mortification. 

blastr-belgr, m. bellows ; -horn, n. 
trumpet, horn ; -jd-rn, n. blast iron 
(cast, not wrought) ; -pipa, f. flute ; 
-samr, a. windy ; -svalr, a. cold- 

bla-svartr, a. raven-black ; -tonn, 
f. blue-black tooth, a nickname. 

bletSgi or blegtSi, m. wedge, plug, 

bleSja (ble§, bladda, bladdr), v. 
{\) to pick off (leaves or fruit) ; fig., 
to kill off one by one (b. hirfiina or b. 
hirSina af) ; (2) to tear asunder (b. 
klasSi sin) ; (3) /^ cover ^ as with a 
leaf (b. ^sjonuna). 

bleik-alottr, 2.. fawn-coloured with 
a dark stripe down the back (-dlottr 
hestr) ; -h.t.\:v, 2,. fair-hair ed\ -hvitr, 

a. yellowish white. 

bleikja (-ta, -tr), v. to bleach (b. 
lerept) ; b. hadda sina, to wash the 
hair (said of women). 

bleikja, f. chalk or white clay. 

bleikr, a. pale, whitish ; bleikt hdr, 
fair hair ; b. a hd.r, fair-haired ; 

b. {wan, pallid) ok bloSlauss ; b. sem 
ndr, deadly pale ; b. sem bast, pale 
as bast. 

blek, n. ink ; -horn, n. inkstand. 
blekki-liga, adv. delusively ; -ligr. 

a. delusive (blekkilig er J)essa heims 

blekking, f. delusion, fraud. 

blelckinga-macSr, m. deceiver. 

blekkingar-andi, m. lyitig spii^it. 

blekkja (-ta -<r), v. to impose upon, 
deceive-, refl., blekkjast, to be dis- 

blek-akortr, m. lack of ink. 

blendingr, m. {i) blending, mixture', 
(2) a being half man and half giant 
(b. en ekki fullkomit troll). 

blesottr, a. having a blaze or white 
mark on the forehead (b. hestr). 

blest-msBltr, bleatr, a. lisping. 

bletsa (atS), v. = bleza. 

bleySa, f. <:ra7/if;z, = bley3ima6r. 

bley^a (-dda, -ddr), v. to dishearten, 
humble (ef J)u bleySir hjarta J)itt) ; 
refl., bleySast, to lose heart or courage 
( = ver5a blauSr). 

bleySi, f. cowardice', -macSr, m. 
coward', -mannligr, a. cowardly, 
craven ; -mark, n. inark of cowardice', 
-orS, n. charge of cowardice ; leggja 
-ord at baki e-m, to charge one with 
being a coward {\A2L\xhx) ; bera bleydi- 
ord fyrir e-m, to be called a coward 
by one, 

bleyta, f. mud, mire, 

bleyta (-tta, -ttr), v. to make softj 
moisten (b. hu5) ; b. hjarta, skaphofn 
e-s, to soften one's heart, temper. 

bleza (ac5), v. to bless (blezaSi gu6 
l)a hinn sjaunda daginn) ; also with 
dat. (gu6 blezadi basdi fuglum ok 

blezatSar-fullr, a. rich in blessing, 

blezan, f. blessing, benediction. 

blezanar-andi, m. spirit of blessing ; 
-orS, n. pi. words of blessing. 

bliat or bliaz, n. a kijid of costly 
stiiff (for. word). 

bilk, n. {i) gleam, sheen ; (2) bleach- 
ing (liggja a bliki) ; (3) vizor of a 

blika (at5), v. to glea?n, twinkle (of 

blik-hvitr, a. white-glea??ting (of a 

blikna (atS), v. to grow {turn) pale 
or pallid (b. af hraszlu, hugleysi). 

bliknan, f. growing pale. 




blikra (a5), v. impers., e-m blikrar, 
one feels uneasy or anxious. 

blinda (a(5), v. to blind, deprive of 
sight (drottinn blindaSi augu J)eirra) ; 
hann blind a r sjalfan sik allra sann- 
inda, he blinds hiinself to all truth. 

blindi, f. blindness. 

blindingr, m. hidden j) eg, dowel. 

blind-leiki. -leikr, m. bli?idness. 

blindr, a. blind', b. baSum augum, 
blind of both eyes ; hann hafdi verit 
b. borinn, bor?t blind', with gen., b. 
ens sanna um e-t, blind as to the 
truth or reality about a thing ; e-m 
er e-t blint, it is obscure, hidden to 
one ; Einarr let ser J)at blint vera, E. 
professed ignorance about it. 

bliSa, f. friendlifiess, gentleness ; 
hofst t)a enn at nyju b. {frie7tdly 
relations) me3 peim magum. 

bli^a (-dda, -ddr), v. = bli6ka. 

bliSast (a(5), v. refl., = bli6kast. 

bliSindi, n. pi. comforts, delights. 

billing, f. e7itice7nent, allureinent. 

blioka (a^), v. to soften, mitigate 
(b. e-n me6 gjofum) ; refl., blidkast, 
to grow mild ; b. e-m, to i?tsi?iuate 
oneself into one's favour. 

bli^kan, f. caressi?ig, caresses. 

bliS-latr, a. displaying friendliness 
or kind?iess ; -leikr, m. (i) friendli- 
ness, gentleness ', (2) mildness, balmi- 
ness (-leikr loptsins) ; -leitr, a. of 
mild countenafice ; -liga, adv. kindly, 
with kindness (taka, fagna e-m -ligaj ; 
-ligr, a. (i) gentle, friendly (-ligr f 
yfirbragSi) ; (2) delightful ; -lund- 
a^r, a. 01 gentle disposition ; -laeti, 
n. caressing', -msBli, n. pi. fair 
words, blandishments ; -maBltr, a. 
affable, bland. 

blitSr, a. {i) gentle, friendly (vera b. 
ok pekkr vi3 menn) ; (2) pleasant, 
agreeable ; t)at er J)er blidara, that 
pleases you better ; (3) mild, balmy 

(blitt ve6r). 

bli5skapar-ort5, n. frieiidly word. 
bli5-skapr (-ar), m. friendliness, 

kindness ; caresses (eiga -skap me6 

blitSu-bragt5. n. friendly mien ( = 

blitt yfirbragS) ; caressing ; -fullr, 

a. friendly. 

blitS-viSri, n. inild weather ', -yrSi, 
n. pl., = b!i3masli. 

bligja (-^a, -t), v. to gaze (bligja 
blikja (blik ; bleik, bliku ; — ), v. 
an obsolete verb, = blika. 
blistra, f. the mouthpiece of bellows. 
blistra (aS), v. to whistle ; b. i spor 
e-m or e-s, to whistle after one who 
has run aivay. 
blistran, f. whistli7ig (with the 
blota-mat5r, m. effe77iinate person. 
blotna (a$), v. to become soft or 
7noist ; fig., to give way, yield (b. vi6 
e-t, fyrir e-m). 
bl65, n. (i) blood', rann honum 
mjok b., he lost 77iuch blood; nema 
(taka) e-m b., to bleed one ; vekja 
e-m b., to draw blood of 07ie ; ganga 
bl66i, to have a he77wrrhage or 
dysentery ; blanda bl66i saman, to 
enter into foster-brothership by 77iix- 
ing blood together', (2) offspring, 
bloS-band, n. bandage to stop bleed- 
i7ig, esp. pi. (-bond) ; -bogi, m. gush 
or jet of blood ; -bolli, m. = bl6tbolli ; 
-drefjar, f. pi. spatteri7ig of blood', 
-dreif, f. sprinkli7ig {streak) of blood; 
-drekkr, m. one who drinks blood; 
-drif, n. floivi7ig of blood ; -dropi, m. 
drop of blood; -drykkja. f. dri7ik of 
blood ; -drog, n. pi., = -dreif ; -fall, 
n. he77iorrhage. 
bloSfalls-sott, f. the bloody flux, 
bloS-flekkr, m. fleck or stain of 
blood ; -fors, m. gush of blood ; -fullr, 
3.. full of blood. 
bloSga (aS), v. to fnake bloody, 
to S7?iear with blood; refl., bl63gast, 
to beco7ne bloody. 
bloS-kyll, m. blood-bag; fig., blood- 
sucker ; -lauss, a. bloodless ; -Idt, n. 
(i) loss of blood; (2) blood-letting, 
bleedi7ig ; -latinn, pp. {that has been) 
bled ; -lifr, f . clotted blood ; -ligr, a. 
bloody; -IcBkr, m. stream of blood; 
-maokr, m. maggot bred in putrefy- 
ing blood ; -nsBtr, f. pi. ' blood-nights \ 
in the prov., * bloS-nastr eru hverjum 
brddastar,* referring to the fierce 




desire to revenge a homicide newly 
committed ; -ormr, m. poet. ' blood- 
serpe?it\ sivord\ -rauor, a. blood- 
red'^ -rds, f. he7nQrrhage ; -refill, m. 
point of a sword \ -reic5r, a. very 
wrathful ( = dreyrrauSr af reidi) ; 
-reitr, m. field of blood ; -rekinn, 
pp. stained with blood ; -risa, a. 
indecl. bruised and bloody (blar ok 
bloSrisa) ; -segi or -sigi, m. clot of 
blood ; -sjukr, a. dysenteric. 

blotSs-litr, m. colour of blood. 

bl6'5-s6tt, f. dysentery \ -spyja, f. 
spitting of blood. 

blo^s-teigr, m. = bl66reitr. 

bloS-stjarna, f. the bloody star, 

Venus ; -stokkinn, pp. bespattered 
with blood \ -storkinn, a. stiff with 
gore, gory ; -straumr, m. stream of 

blocSs-uthelling, f. shedding of 

bl6t5-tj crn, f. pool of blood. 

blo^ugr (ace. blo^gan), a. bloody. 

bl65-vaka, f. drawing of blood (svd, 
hart, at -vaka yr6i) ; cf. ' vekja e-m 
bloQ'; -varmr. a. warm-blooded', 
-8Br, f. a ewe fit for slaughter ; -orn, 
m. * blood eagle ', in the phrase, rista 
-orn a baki e-m, a cruel method of 
putting captured enemies to death in 
the heathen times ; -px, f. ' bloody 
axe% a nickname. 

b46m, n. bloom, blossom, flower-, 
fig., i cesku blomi, in the flower of 

bloma-kinn, f. ' red cheek \ a nick- 
name ; -ligr, a. blooming, shinifjg; 
-mikill, a. rich-blossoming. 

blomandi, pr. p. bloo7ning, flourish- 
ing i^.^to^). 

bloma-samligr, a, = bl6ma1igr. 

blom-berandi, pr. p., -beranligr, a. 
bloom-bearing, flourishing. 

blomga (aS), v. to fertilize ; refl., 
blomgast, to blossom, bloom ; fig., to 
thrive, flourish, prosper (rdttir sidir 
skyldu b. fagrliga um norSrlond) ; 
blomga^r, pp. which has blossoms 
upon it ; blomgan, f. the fact of 
bloo7?iing or flflurishing ; blomgandi, 
pr. p., blomganligr, a. bloo77iing^ 

blomi, m. = bl6m ; fig., standa (vera) 
me6 bloma, miklum bloma, to thrive., 
prosper, flourish ; i bloma aldrs sins, 
in the flower of his age. 

blomstr (-ra), m. = blom (allan 
akrsins b.). 

bl6ra-ma$r, m. a person to put the 
bhune upo7i. 

blot, n. (i) sacrifice, sacrificial feast 
or banquet (efna, efla b.) ; (2) idol- 
worship in general; (3) /^6'/, = bloeti 
(oil b. braut hann ni6r) ; (4) swearing, 

biota (bloet; blet, bl6tum ; blo- 
tinn), V. (i) to worship, to worship 
with sac7'ifice, with ace. of that which 
is worshipped ; b. hof, lund, fors, heiSit 
go3, dlfa, heiSnar vasttir, lifandi 
menn, to worship tej7iple, grove, 
waterfall, &^c. ; very rare with dat. 
(b. go3um) ; (2) to sacrifice, with dat. 
of the object sacrificed (b. monnum 
ok fe) ; absol., b. til fridar, sigrs, 
langlifis, ars, byrjar, to 7nake a sacri- 
fice for peace, victory, long life, good 
season, fair wi7id. 

biota (aS), V. (i )= biota (bloet, &c.) ; 
(2) to curse, with dat. = ' banna'(bi6 
pu. fyr J)eim, er per biota) ; absol., 
to swear ; refl., blotast, to go about 

blotan, f. (i) sacrificifig ', (2) curs- 
ing, swearing. 

blot-auSigr, a. rich in sacrifices 
(-auSigt hof) ; -biskup, m. heathc7t 
priest', -belli, m. sacrificial bowl', 
-domr, m. idolatry ; -drykkja, f. 
sacrificial feast ; -fe, n. sacred or 
accursed goods ; -girni, f. inclination 
for idolatry ; -go$i, m. heathen sacri- 
/icing priest; -grof, f. sacrificial pit ; 
-gut5, n. heathen god', -gyt5ja, f. 
heathen pr'iestess ; -haugr, m. sacri- 
ficial mound or cairn ; -hof, n. 
heathert terriple ; -hus, n. heathen 
house of worship ; -hof t$ingi, m. 
heathen chief; -horgr, m. storie altar 
for sacrifice ; -kalfr, m. a calf wor- 
shipped with sacrifices ; -kennimatSr, 
m. heathen priest ; -klaaSi, n. pi. gar- 
ments worn at sacrifices ; -kona, f. 
idolatress ; -koppr, m. = -bolli ; 
-liindr, m. sacred grove, heathen 




place of sacrifice ; -m.a(5r, m. heathen 
worsliipper, idolater-^ -matr, 
eateii at the sacrificial feasts. 

blotna^r, m. sacrificing to heathen 
gods, idolatry . 

blot-naut, x\. {\) an ox worshipped 
as a7i idol ; (2) a bull to be sacrificed ; 
-neyti, n. (rare) = -naut ; -risi, m. a 
giant zvorshipped as afi idol. 

blotskapar-timi, m. the time of 

blot-skapr (-ar), m. (l) heathen 
worship, idolatry ; (2) things belong- 
ing to worship ; (3) sacrifice; -skogr, 
m. sacred or sacrificial forest ; 
-spann, m. chip jised in divinatio?i\ 
fella -span, to consult the gods ; 
-staSr, m. a place of heathen sacri- 
fice ; -stallr, m. heatheti or sacrificial 
altar ; -tre, n. sacred tree ; -stopuU, 
m. a pillar on which an idol stands ; 
-trygill, m. small sacrificial trough 
(trog) ; -veizla, f. sacrificial banquet; 
-vi^r, m. = -lundr; -villa, f. heathen- 
ish or idolatrous heresy ; -vcllr, m. 
heathen sacrificial field. 

blunda (a^j, v. /^ shut the eyes (b. 
b^6um augum). 

blundr, m. dozing, slufnber (occurs 
as a nickname). 

blund-skaka (a^), v. to blink with 
the eyes ; -stafir, m. pi. soporifei^ous 
runes ; bregSa -stofum, to break the 

blygS, f. shame ; blygtSa (acS), v. to 
put to shame, seduce. 

blyg(5ar-lauss, a. blameless. 

blys, n. torch. 

bly, n. lead {sQVk.\2i sem b.) ; -band, 
n. leaden band; -kleppr, m. plu?n- 
met ; -ligr, a. leaden ; -skeyti, n. 
leaden 7nissile ; -stejrptr, pp. cast in 
lead ; -stika, f. leadeii candlestick ; 
-stokkr, m. leaden box ; -J)ekja (see 
l)ekja), V. to roof with lead; -J)uiigi, 
m. leaden weight. 

blffija, f. ( \) fine coloured cloth (hon 
hafSi knytt um sik blaeju ok voru i 

mork blaj ; (2) cover of a bed; koma 

undir eina blasju, to be married; (3) 

burial sheet (svipti hon blaeju af 

SigurSi) : (4) cover of an altar table. 

blaeju-endi, m. the end ^"a 'blaeja'; 

-horn, n. corner of a h. ; -hvalr, m. 

a k.nd of whale. 

blsBr, m. gentle breeze, puff of air ; 
kenna h\c&{tofeel a draught) a and- 
liti ser. 

bloecSa (-dda, -tt), V. /^(^/-f^*^; bloed- 
du nasar bans, he was bleeding at 
the 72ose ; impers., e-m bloeSir, one 
bleeds or loses blood (engum bloeddi 
bans manna). 

bloesma, a. indecl. at heat (of ewes 
and goats). 

bloeti, n. a thing worshipped, idol. 

blo5ru-s6tt, f. stone m the bladder. 

blcskra (a(5), v. to blink with the 
eyes, to fiinch (hann bloskradi ekki) ; 
also impers., e-m bloskrar. 

boc5, n. (i) bid, offer; bjoda b. fyrir 
e-n, to make bids or offers for one ; 
hvat er i bo6i, what is the offer ; eiga 
b. a J6r3, to have the right of being 
offered a7i estate, before it is sold to 
a7iother; (2) banquet, weddi7ig feast; 
hafa e-n i bo6i sinu, to entertai7i one 
at 07te's feast ; foru J)eir allir til bo6s- 
ins, to the wedding feast; i-^) bidding, 
order, C077i7na7td7ne7it ; ganga undir 
b. e-s, to sub77tit to one's bidding ; 
eptir bodi e-s, at or by one's order \ 
(4) 7nessage ; gera e-m b., to send to 
07ie, send one word; a su77i77io7is , a 
sig7i or toke7i of su7?mwns, being an 
arrow, axe or the like to call people to 
battle or council (hefja bo6). 

bo^a (aS), V. (i) to an7iou7ice, pro- 
claim ; b. kristni, to preach Chris- 
tia7iity ; b. helga tru, to p7 0clai7n the 
holy faith ; (2) to bid, order, with 
dat., konungr bo6a6i honum a sinn 
fund or til sin, the king bade hi7n 
come to hi7n ; b. e-m saman, to call 
together, to su7?t7non ; {3) to bode, 
signi/y (hvat J)etta mundi b.). 

bo$a-fall, n. dash of a breaker 
(bodij on a reef or shoal. 

bo5an, f. an7iounce7nent, preaching, 
proclai7ning (bo6an nafns bans) ; 
hati3 drottinligrar boSanar, the feast 
of the A7tnunciation. 

boSanar-nott, f., -nott saellar gu6s 
moSur Marie, the night before the 
Annunciation of the Virgin Mary; 
-tits, f. ti7ne of announce7nent. 




bot5arl, m. prod aimer, announcer. 

boSa-slotS, f. the surf of breakers 
(cf. ' bo6i ' 2). 

bot5-burSr, m. carrying of the 
message arrow (cf. ' bo6 ' 4) ; -fall, n. 
neglect to send on the bo5 (4) ; -fasta, 
f. a fast ordered by the canonical law ; 
-fer$, f. ///<? course of a bo5 (4) ; 
-greizla, f. =bo5burSr. 

bot5i, m. (i) aimouncer^ messenger 
(cf. 'sendiboSi, fyrirbo6i ') ; (2) a 
breaker (on hidden rocks). 

bo(5inn, pp. (cf. ' bj66a'), vera b. ok 
buinn til e-s, to be ready and williiig 
to do a thing. 

botS-leggja (see lep:gja), v. = log- 
bj65a; -leiS, f. = -fer5; -ligr, a.// 
to be offered ; -ortS. n. order, bidding, 
Comma7idment (gu6s -or6). 

bo(5or6a-breytni, f. alteration of 
an ordinance-, -brot, n. breach 
{^neglect) of an order \ -maSr, m. 
public officer. 

bo^-reizla, f. = bo3greizla ; -rifr, a. 
ready to make an offer. 

boSs-folk, n.^//'fj/^, = bo3smenn. 

bo^-skapr (-ar), m. bidding, order ; 
-skopti, m. = -slotti; -skurSr, m. 
message, siunmofis to a meeting; 
-sletta, f., -slotti, m. intruder at a 
feast, uninvited guest \ -sl6t5, f.«= 

bocSs-ma^r, m. guest at a feast. 

botS-scBmiligr, 3.. ft for wearing at 
a feast (-scemilig klseSi). 

boga-hals, m. the tip of a bow 
(bogi), where the string is fastened ; 
-mynd, f. form of a bow ; -skot, n. 
bow-shot, shooting with a bow ; 
-strengr, m. bow-string; -vapn, n. 
bow (used as a weapon). 

bogi, m. (l) bow; skjota af boga, to 
shoot with a bow (cf. ^Imbogi, hand- 
bogi, hornbogi, Msbogi, ybogi) ; (2) 
arch (of a bridge), vault ; fig., bera 
mal or boga, to disentattgle a case ; 
{'i) gush, jet (cf. 'bl65bogi'). 

boginn, pp. (from a lost strong 
verb, bjuga), bowed, bent, curved; 
b. af elli, bent with age. 

bog-limir, m. pi. ' curved limbs ', 
arms and legs ; -mat5r, m. bowma7i, 
a/r>^^r ; -mannliga, adv. bow?nanlike. 

bogmanns-merki, n. the zodiacal 
sign Sagittaj'tus. 

bogna (aS), v.{i) to becojne curved, 
to bend ; (2) to give way, yield (b. vi3, 
b. fyrir e-u). 

bogra (a8), v. to creep along bowed 
or stooping; J)^ boru bograr hann 
inn, he creeps iti through that hole ; 
b. fyrir e-m, to bow before one. 

bog-sty rkr, a. strong at the bow ; 
-sveigir, m. bow-swayer, archer (cf. 
' sveigja boga'). 

bokki, m. '' buck'' , fellow ; Hottr 
heiti ek, b. sasll, my dear fellow ! \ 
stoerri bokkar, bigger meJt. 

bokkr, m. = bukkr. 

bola (acS), v. to cut to pieces (b. f 
sundr, brytja ok bola). 

bol-tiinligr, a. agile of body. 

Bolgara-land, n. Bulgaria. 

Bolgarar, m. pi. the Bulgarians. 

bol-hlif, f. covering for the body, 

boli, m. *^/^//, = gra6ungr. 

bol-jarn, n. = bol0x. 

bol-klflB^i, n. pi. body-garments. 

boUi, m. (l) small vessel, bowl; (2) 
a measure=\ askr. 

bolr, m. = bulr; (i) the bole or 
trunk of a tree ; (2) the trunk of the 
body ; ganga mi Hi bols ok hofuSs a 
e-m, to pass between one's trmik and 
head, to slay one. 

bols-voxtr, m. = bolv6xtr. 

bolungr, m. = bulungr. 

bol-v^xtr, m. the growth, form of 
the body (far J^u af klseSum ok vil ek 
sja -voxt ])inn). 

bol-0x, f. wood-axe. 

bops, n. bu7np, thump (mikit fall, 
svd at b. kvaS i skrokkinum). 

bora, f. bo7'e, hole ; bora (a^), v. to 
bore, to bore holes in ; b. rauf, to bore 
a hole ; refl., borast fram, to push 
one's way through a crowd. 

borS, n. (i) board, plank; (2) the 
side of a ship (hl63u skipin sem b. 
baru) ; bord a stjorn = stjornborSi ; 
hlaupa (steypast, detta) fyrir b., over- 
board; mikill borSi, prop. = bor8h^r, 
borSmikill, of a ship floating high 
out of the sea, fig., proud of mind 
( = skapst6rr) ; bera e-n (hlut e-s, 
mal e-s) fyrir borS, to neglect, slight 




7ftg; verSa (allr) fyrir bor3 borinn, 
;er5a allr fyrir borSi, to be {quite) 
thrown overboard^ i. e. slighted ; 
^anga at bor6i vi5 e-n, to submit^ 
Held to, to come to terms with one\ 
;-n brestr d borSi, one fails, is 
beaten ; i. annat bord, 07i the other 
hand; otherwise, else ; Jjykkir vera 
iai3r a annat b., a hard one to pull 
igainst; (3) the inner margin of a 
vessel between the rim and the liquid 
er nu gott berandi b. a horninu) ; (4) 
hoard, table (used for meals) ; fara, 
janga, koma til borSs or undir b., to 
ro, come to table ; setjast yfir b., 
indir b., to sit down at table ; sitja 
^fir b. or bor3um, to sit at table ; 
risa (standa upp) fra bordi, to rise 
^rom table', ry(5ja b., to clear the 
table ; J)j6na fyrir borSum, to wait at 
'able ; setja e-m b., to set a table 
before one ; bor6 eru uppi or upp 
:ekin, the tables are set up ; but * boro 
2ru upp tekin* may also mean the 
tables are rejnoved, = hor6 eru ofan ; 
[4) board, food, maintenance at table 
(veita, halda e-m b.) ; (5) chess- 
hoard', bjoda e-m undir b., to invite 
one to play at chess. 
bortSa (atS), v. (i) to sit down at 
table ; {2) to set a table, serve up (b. 
fyrir l^urftugum). 

borSa-hriS, f. the time that a 
meal lasts ; -munr, m. difference in 
the height of ships ; -stund, f. = 
•hri3 ; -viti, n. table-sconce. 
boro-buna^r, m. table-service 
(cloth, dishes, &:c.) ; -diskr, m. dish, 
plate ; -dukr, m. table-cloth ; -fastr, 
a. maintained at one's table ; -fjol, 
f. thin board', -foeri, n. in the phrase, 
taka ser -foeri = ganga 0rna sinna (?) ; 
•hald, n. taking food, maintenance 
at table ; -hdr, a. rising high out of 
the sea (of a ship) ; -bus, n, a roo7n 
where the plate is kept ; -hsBtJ, f. 
the height oj a ship out of the water. 
bort5i, m. textile fabric, tapestry 
'tjalda holl, kirkju, borSa) ; sM 
Dor8a, rekja borda, to weave ; sitja 
/i3 borfia, to sit weaving ; byrda e-t 
i borSa, to ornament tapestry with 
igures woven in it. 

bort5-ker, n. a cup used at table ; 
-kista, f. a box for keeping the table- 
service ; -klerkr, m. cletical atteU" 
dant at table ; -knifr, m. table-knife ; 
-IsBgr, a., (viSr, timber) fit for cutting 
into planks ; -mat5r, m. table-com- 
panion ', -mikill, a. = -har ; -munr, 
m. = borSamunr ; -prestr, m. a priest 
who says grace at a bishops table ; 
-prySi, f. ornaments of a table ; 
-salmr, m. * board-psahn ', grace ; 
-skutill, m. a small movable table, 
esp. for a single person. 

borSs-tilganga, f. going to table (at 
mealtimes i. 

borS-stokkr, m. gunwale. 

borS-sveinn, m. attendaftt at 
table, waiter', -tafl, n. chess-board \ 
-veggr, m. a plank wall ; -vegr, m. 
= -stokkr; -vers, n. verse of grace 
(cf. bor5-sa]mr) ; -vi(5r, m. boards, 
planks ; -J)ak, n. covering of planks ; 
-l)aki5r, pp. covered, lined with 
planks ; -^ili, n. the bulwarks of a 

borg (-ar, -ir), f. (i) a small dome- 
shaped hill', (2) stronghold, fortifica- 
tion, castle', {'^) fortified town, city. 

borga (ac5), v. to be a surety, 
guarantee, for* b. e-m e-t, to 
guarantee something to one ; b. fyrir 
e-n, to beco7ne bound for, to be security 
for (anza ek litt, pott t)u j^tir at luka, 
ef engi borgar fyrir J)ik). 

borgan, f. guarantee, surety, 
security ; ganga i b. fyrir e-n = borga 
fyrir e-n. 

borganar-maSr, m. a guaratitee, 
a surety. 

borgar-armr, m. arm, wing of a 
fort ; -au?5n, f. destruction of a castle 
or fortified town ; -gata, f. a road 
leading to a borg ; -greifi, m. burg- 
grave, governor of a town ; -g0rt5, 
f. building of a fort', -lilit5, n. gate 
of a fort ; -hreysi, n. ruins of a fort ; 
-hofSingi, m. leading citizen. 

borgari, m. inhabitant of a borg, 

borgar-klettr, m. a rock on which a 
fort is built ; -kona, f . townswoman ; 
-lit5, n. garrison ; -lim, n. lime for 
building a fort ; -lytSr, m. townsfolk ; 




-maSr, m. {\) gar ris oner ; (2) towns- 
man^ citizen ; (3) fellow- citizen 
(-maSr engla) ; -mugr, m. the mob of 
a city ; -murr, m. city-wall ; -port, 
n.=-hli6; -sitSr, m. city-manners ^ 
urbanity \ -snii5, f. building oj a 
fort or town ; -stat5r, m. site of a 
town ; -veggr, m. wall of a fort or 

borga-skipan, f. a list of cities. 

borg-firzkr, a. belonging to the 
district Borgar-fjordr, in the west of 

borg-hlicS, f. = borgarhli5. 

borgin-orSr, a. cautious in words, 

borgit, pp. n., from bjarga ; e-m er 
b., one is safe ; era hera at borgnara 
|)6tt hoena beri skjold, a hare is none 
the better off though a hen shield 

borg-stat5r, m. = borgarsta3r. 

borg- veggr, m. = borgarveggr. 

botn (gen. botns or botz, pi. bot- 
nar), m. botto7n (of a vessel, of a 
haycock, of the sea) ; (2) the head of 
a bay, firth, lake, valley (fjardar-, 
vatns-, dals-botn). 

botn-hola, f. pit, in the phrase, 
vera kominn i -holu, to have got into 
a scrape. 

boandi, m., see * buandi '. 

bofi, m. knave, rogue, used as a 

bogr (gen. bogar, dat. boegi ; pi. 
bcBgir, ace. bogu), m. shoulder (of 
an animal!. 

bok (gen. bokar and boekr ; pi. 
boekr), f. (i) beech, beech-tree \ (2) 
poet, textile fabric with figures woven 
in it (boekr t)inar enar blahvitu) ; (3) 
book ; lesa d. b., to read a book ; rita 
i. b., setja i. boekr, to set down in 
writing, to put on record; kunna 
(festa) e-t utan bokar, to know {to 
get) by heart ; heilog b., the divine 
book, the Bible ; (4) the Gospel (vinna 
ei3 at bok; cf. ' bokar-eiSr') ; (5) 
Latin ; kenna e-m a bok, to teach 
one Latin ; nema i. b., to learn 
Latin ; setja e-n til bokar, to put one 
to school (in order to make him 
priest) ; hann heitir d b. {in Latui) 

Jaskonius ; svd segir (er sagt) i. 
bokum {in Latin books) ; (6) law» 
book, code of law (logbok, Jonsbok). 

boka (atSj, v. to affirm by oath on 
the book {Gospel) ; bokaSr eidr— 

boka-fullting, n. help derived fro^n 
books ; -gprS, writing {transcription) 
of books ; -kis a, f. book-box ; -Ian, 
n. lending of books ; -leaning, f., 
-lestr, m. reading of {Latin) books ; 
-list, f. book-lore. 

b6kar-blat5, n. leaf of a book; 
-eiv5r, m. oath upon the Gospel', 
-ei(5stafr, m. wording of a b6karei6r ; 
-gprS, f. book-writing ; -lag, n. 
lavjful price fixed ifi the code ; 
-skeyting, f. conveyance of an estate 
by help of the law-book ; -tak, n. the 
touching the Gosfel (in taking an 
oath) ; -verS, n. the frice of a book ; 
-vitni, n. evidence confirfned by a 
bokareiSr ( = b6kat vitni;. 

boka-skilningr, m. book-learning. 

boka-stoll, m. a reading desk, 

bok-fell, n. parchment, vellum ; 
-fr6t5r, a. book-learned ; -froecSi, f. 
book-knowledge, book-lore, learning', 
-lauss, a. bookless, unscholarly, 
-laust, adv. by heart (allar ritningar 
helgar man hann -laust) ; -lestr, m. 
= b6kalestr; -ligr, a. literary, 
-ligar listir, the liberal arts ; -list, 
f. bock-lore, learning', -laarcSr, pp. 
book- learned', -mal, n. (i) book lan- 
guage, learned language, Latin (d 
bok nam ek aldri, ok eigi heyrSa ek 
fra -mdli sagt) ; (2) the canon law ; 
blot pau, sem fyrirboSin eru at -mali, 
in the canon of the church ; (3 ) the 
Julian Calendar ; at -mali, according 
to the calendar ; -manac5r, m. 
calendar month, opp. to the I eel. 
months ; -nam, n. book-traifiing, 
study (vera at -nami, setja e-n til 
-nams) ; -neemi, n. = -nam; -runar, 
f. pi. runes engraved on beech-wood', 
-saga, f. written narrative ; -setja 
(see setja), v. to commit to writing ; 
-skygn, a. seeing well enough to read 
a book ; -speki, f. bouk-ivisdom, book- 
k noivledge ; -stafr, m. character^ 




letter \ -Swgn, f. = -saga; -tal, n.= 
-m^l 3 ; -vit, n. learnings eiudition ; 
-vlss, a. = -l2er3r. 
bol, n. (i) lair or lying place (of 
beasts and cattle) ; (2) couch^ bed 
(toku sumir heyhjilma nokkura ok 
gerdu s^r af b.); {t,) farm, esp. in 
Norway, = b61sta6r, boer, jor6. 
bola, f. (i ) the boss of a shield) (2) 
blai7i, botch. 
bol-festa, f. estate held by a lease, 
bolginn, a. swollen ; b. brasQi, b. 
af reiSi, swollen with anger. 
bolgna (a$), v. to swell, become 

bolna-aott, f. (i) disease 0/ blains 
or boils ; (2) smallpox. 
bolsta^ar-gprtS, f. the building of a 
b61-stac5r, m. (i) abode, homestead 
(hon i. J)ar -staSi mikla) ; {2) farm. 
bolstr (gen. bolstrs, pi. bolstrar), 
m. bolster, pillow (hniga vi3 bolstri). 
bon, f. request, petition, — been, 
bonar-ma^r, m. beggar-man. 
bonda-bani, m. slayer of a wofnan's 
husband; -dottir, f. daughter of a 
bondi ; -eitSr, m. a bondi's oath of 
allegiance; -far, a hondi's ferry-boat ; 
-fe, n. district fund; -folk, n. 
peasantry, fanners ; -fylking, f. host 
of peasants ; -herr, m. ar7ny of 
peasants ; -hlutr, m. one fourth of 
the tithe to be distributed a7nong the 
peasants ; -kirkja, f. the church 
belongijig to the bondi in Thing- 
valla ; -kirkjugartSr, m. the church- 
yard belongitig to the -kirkja ; -lauss, 
2i. husbandless, widowed; -liS, n.= 
-herr ; -mugr, m. crowd, host of 
peasants ; -nafn, n. the name, title of 
bondi ; -r6ttr, m. the right of a 
bondi; -3afnat5r, m. = b6nda-mugr ; 
-skapr, m. the estate of the boendr, 
opp. to the clergy ; -son, m. son of a 
bondi ; -tala, f., vera i -tolu, to be 
coimted among boendr; -ungi, m. 
young farmer ; -val, n. the elite of 
boendr ; var J)i gott -val, there were 
choice boendr to be found ; -aett, f. a 
bondi's extraction (hann er -settar). 
bondi (pi. boendr, gen. bonda), m. 

(i) husbandman^ farmer, peasant 
(dottir eins litils bonda) ; a yeofnan, 
franklin, landowner (hinir stoerri 
boendr) ; (2) master, head of a house- 
hold ( = husb6ndi) ; (3) husband (nu 
er b. daudr, en kona lifir eptir). 

bon-hus, n. = boenhus (rare) ; -leit5, 
^' begging path ; fara -leid, to go 
begging from house to house ; -or5, 
n. (l) request, petition; (2) wooing, 
courtship ; hefja, vekja -or6, to make 
a proposal. 

bonorcSs-fertS, -for, f. wooing 
journey ; fara -for, to go a-wooing ; 
-mdl, n. the business of wooing. 

bon-riki, n. importunity or per- 
sistence in begging. 

bot (pi. boetr, also poet, botir), f. 
(l) bettering^ cure, re?nedy ; fa b. 
sinna meina, to get cure for one's 
evils; rd.5a e-u b., rd6a e-s boetr, to 
remedy, retrieve ; vinna e-m b., to 
relieve one (in sickness) ; bi6a e-s b., 
to get over, recover (a loss, misfor- 
tune) ; bera e-t til bota, to amend; 
J)6tti mikilla bota dvant, at, much 
seemed wanting that ; e-t berr til 
bota (impers.), it is a comfort, satis- 
faction ; {2) atonemetit, coinpensatiofi, 
esp. pl. = mannboetr, 7£/,?r<?^^/^; soetar 
syndir verSa at sarum botum, sweet 
sins are turned to sore penance ; (3) 
patch (svort bot var i. milium herSa 

bota-lauss, a. without redress or 
compensation (hafa six -laust ; vigin 
voru -laus) ; -matSr, m. a person who 
has to receive ' boetr ' for hurt and 
damage suffered (opp. to ubotamaSr) ; 
-verSr, a. worth redress. 

boti, m. boot (for wearing). 

bot-lausliga, adv. i?'reparably ; 
-lauss, a. irreparable ; -sama (aS), 
V. to repair (-saina um bu6ir, hus) ; 
-J)arfa, a. indecl. needing ' boetr ' or 

braga (a6), v. to flicker, flash (of 
the northern lights). 

bragar-fuU, n. toast, esp. at a 
funeral banquet ; -laun, n. pi. gift 
for a poefn. 

bragS, n. Ci) sudden or brisk move* 
ment ; ?nome7it; bragds, af bragdi,^!/ 





once\ af {or i) skommu bragSi, 
shortly^ quickly ^ in a short time ; (2) 
fig., in many phrases, ver3a fyrri 
(skjotari) at bragdi, to make the first 
move, to be beforehand with (peir 
hafa orSit fyrri at bragSi at stefna en 
ver) ; vera i bragdi med e-m, skerast 
f b. med e-m, to lend one a helping 
hand ; taka e-t bragSs or til bragSs, 
to take some step (to get out of diffi- 
culties) ; uviturligt b., a foolish step ; 
liheyriligt b., an mtheard-of proceed- 
ing; gerSist par at svd mikit b., at, 
/■/ went so far that ; li'tit b. mun J)^ 
at {it must be very slight), ef pu finnr 
ekki ; (3) trick, scheme, device, chiefly 
in pi. ; beita e-n brogdum, hafa 
brogQ vi6 e-n, to deal cunningly 
with, impose upon ; ferr at fornum 
brogdum, in the old way ; bua yfir 
brogSum, to b?ood over wiles ; leika 
e-m b., to play or serve one a trick ; 
hefir hann miklu brag6i i. oss komit, 
he has played a bad trick upon us ; 
(4) countenaftce, look, expression ; 
J)annig ertu i bragSi sem, thou lookest 
as if; me6 betra bragSi, in a better 
mood; bleydimannligr i bragSi, 
having the look oj a coward; Sturla 
ger6i t)at b. d {made as if), at hann 
hef6i fundit Pal prest ; (5) em- 
broidered figure (hekla saumuS 611 

brag^a (aS), v. (l) to move, stir 
(J)at bragSar allt, sem kvikt er) ; (2) 
to flicker, fiash (of light). 

bragtSa-drykkr, m. poisoned dri?ik. 

bra?(^a-karl, m. sly fellow. 

bragS-alr, m. twirling awT, a 
kind of fi e-drill ; bragSals-eldr, m. 
/ire produced by a bragSalr. 

bragc5-illr, a. ill-looking; -ligr, a. 
expedient, suitable ; -mikill, a. 
expressive-looking; -samr, a. crafty ; 
-visi, f. craft, subtlety ; -visliga, 
adv. cunningly ; -visligr, a. cunning. 

bragnar, m. pi. poet, heroes, me7i. 

bragr, m. (i) /(5'<?/ry, = skaldskapr ; 
(2) the best, foremost (Asa bragr = 
Thor ; bragr kvenna) ; most eloquent. 

brak, n. creaking noise, crack. 

braka (ac5), v. to creak, crack 
(brakaSi mjok i skipinu). 

brakan, f. creaking, cracking, 
brakki, m., braknn, m. inter^ 

mediary, broker, 

branda-dyrr, f. pi. main entrance, 
front door, so called because of the 
* brandar ' {ships' beaks) fixed as 
ornaments over or beside it. 

brand-gds, f. common sheldrake. 

brand-kroasi, m. the natne give7t to 
a brandkrossottr uxi. 

brand-krossottr, a. brindled brown 
with a white cross on the forehead. 

brandr (-s, -ar), m. (i) brand, fire- 
brand (brandr af brandi brennr) ; (2) 
ship*s beak { = sviri) ; fellr brattr 
breki brondum hasri, the waves 
break high above M^' brandar'; (3) 
ships' beaks put tcp as ornainents over 
or at each side of the chief entrance of 
dwellings (brandana af knerrinum let 
hann setja yfir utidyrr sinar) ; (4) the 
blade of a sword (brast sver6it undir 
hjaltinu ok for brandrinn grenjandi 
niSr i ^na). 

brand-reitS, f. gridiron, brander 
(steikja i. -raid). 

brand-0x, f. a sort of axe. 

branga, f (Hamdismal 20) ? 

brasta (at5), v. to bluster, swagger 
(l)eir brasta allmikit). 

bratt-gengni, f. skill in climbing; 
-gengr, a. skilful in climbing ; -leitr, 
a. with prominefit forehead; -lendi, 
n. steep ground. 

brattr, a. (i) steep; brott brekka, a 
steep slope; brattar b^rur, high waves ; 
bera bratt halann, to carry the tail 
high ; reynt hefi ek fyrr brattara. / 
Jiave been in a worse plight ; (2) 
sudden, — hri-hx (brott fyrirastlan). 

bratt-s'^einn, m. sto7ie cohwtn. 

brauS, n. bread; hleifr brau6s, a 
loaf of bread. 

brau6-bakstr, m. bread-baking; 
-diskr, m. bread-plate ; -gprS, f. bread- 
7naking\ -hleifr, m. a loaf of bread; 
-jam, n. girdle, griddle (for baking 
bread) ; -kass, m. bread-basket ; 
-laupr, m., -meiss, m. bread-box; 
-moli, m. cru7nb of bread; -ofn, 
m. bread-oven ; -skifa, f. slice of 
b7-ead; -sufl, n. whatever is eaten 
with bread. 




braut (pi. brautir), f. (i) road (cut 
through rocks, forests, &c.) ; rySja b., 
to cut a road\ (2) as adv. away, 
either with or without the prep. ' a ' or 
' i ' (fara, ganga, komast b. or a b., 
brautu ; vera a b. or brautu ; kasta 
e-u i b., hverfa i b., vera i b. or 
brautu) Cf. brott, hurt. 

braut- in compds., see * brott '. 

brauta-mot, n. vieetmg of roads. 

brautar-gengi, n. help, furtherance. 

brautingi (-ja), m. a wayfarer \ 
tramp, beggar ; bra6 eru brautingja 
erendi, the wanderer's errand is 

bra (gen. brdr, pi. brdr), f. eyelash. 

brac5, f. meat, raw flesh ; varmar 
braSir, the corpses of the newly slain. 

brdcS, n. pitch. 

brdS, f. haste^ only used in adverb, 
phrases, i b., soon, shortly ,=\ixi.h\\g?i ; 
bse6i i b. ok lengSar, now and ever. 

brd(5a-bugr, m., in the phrase, gera 
-bug at e-u, to hasten to do a thing, 
do it without delay ; -fangs, adv. at 
t?«^<?, = bra5fengis. 

braSa-hola, f. a hole where the wild 
beasts carry their prey (braS). 

brd^a-hriS, f. sudden storm. 

bra(5a-lauss, a. without prey 
(haukar braQalausir). 

br^San, adv. soon, shortly, = hrin. 

bra(5a-s6tt, f. sudden illness, plague\ 
-J)eyr, m. sudden thaw. 

brdS-daut5i, m. sudden death ; 
-dauc5r, a., in the phrase, verSa 
-daudr, to die suddenly ; -endis, adv. 
of a sudden ; -fara, a. indecl., ver5a 
-fara, to travel in haste ; -feginn, a. 

exceeding glad; -feigligr, a. rushing 

to death ; -fengis, adv. suddenly, at 

once ; -fengr, a. quick to act, prompt ; 

-getSr, a. hot-tempered, hasty (-ge6 er 

bernskan) ; -gerr, a. matured early 

in life, precocious', -gerviligr, a. of 

early promise ; -hsettligr, a. jnost 

dangerous ; -kallaSr, pp., verSa 

•kaliaSr, to die suddenly ; -kjorit, pp. 

a. hastily chosen; -komliga=brad- 

iga: -la, adv. = br^31iga. 
braS-lauss, a. not pitched. 
bra(5-latinn,pp. = braddauSr ; -latr, 

I. eager J impatient; -liga, adv. 

hastily, at once; -liga er, as soon as\ 
-ligr, a. sudden (-ligr dau3i); -litit, 
pp. n., gera -iitit i. e-t, to look hastily 
at a thing; -lyndi, n. hot temper^ 
hastiness; -lyndr, a. hot-tempered^ 
hasty ; -IsBti, n. impatience ; -meelt, 
pp. n. hastily spoken, 

bra^na (aS), v. to melt, of snow, &c. 

braS-orSr, a. hasty of speech. 

br^^r (neut. bratt), a. (i) sudden 
(b. bani) ; (2) hasty, hot-tempered; 
J)u hefir verit helzti b. {too eager, too 
rash) 1 J)essu mali. 

brat5-rd(Sinn, pp. hastily or 7-ashly 
decided ; -reitSr, a. very wrathful ; 
-raetSi, n. rashness ; -sjukr, a. taken 
suddenly ill ; -skapat5r, a. of hasty 
disposition ( = skapbra5r) ; -skeyti, 
n. hastiness, rashness; -skeytiligr, 
a. rash ; -skeyttr, a. heedless, rash ; 
-synn, a. seen at a glance. 

bra(5um, adv. soon, shortly. 

bra^ung, f. haste; braSungar jDarf 
v\6,one must make haste ; af braSungu, 
in a hurry. 

brat5-t)roskatSr, pp. early ?natured 
or grown-up. 

bra-hvitr, a. with white eyelashes. 

brass, m. cook? (toku J)eir bras 
Buc31a ok brugSu til knifi). 

brdtt, adv. soon ; b. er, as soon as. 

bret5a-fonn, f. a great heap or 
drifted mass of snow. 

br6f, n. letter, writte?i deed. 

br6fa (atS;, v. to give an ac county to 
write (b. af e-u). 

br6fa-b6k, f. register-book ; -brot, 
n. breach of ordinances ; -g0rtS, f. 
letter-writing ; -maSr, m. letter- 
carrier, public courier ; -sveinn, m. 

br6f-laust, adv. without a written 

bregma (bregcS ; bra, brug(5um ; 
brugtSinn), V. with dat. (l) to cause 
to move {quickly) ; b. sverSi, knifi, to 
draw a sword, knife ; b. fingri, hendi 
i e-t, to put {thrust) the finger, hand, 
into ; hon bra harinu undir b^lti ser, 
she put {fastened) her hair tmder her 

belt; b. kaQli um e-t, to pass a rope 

rou7id a thing ; b. augum sundr, to 

open the eyes ; b. e-m a eintal, to take 




one apart ; b. ser sjukum, to feign 
illness \ (2) to deviate frojny disre- 
gard (ver hofum brugoit af rdfium 
pinum) ; (3) to alter, change \ b. lit, 
litum, to change colour, to turn pale ; 
b. e-m 1 e-s liki, to turn 07ie (by spell) 
into a7tother shape (pii bratt J)dr i 
merar liki) ; (4) to heak up, leave off, 
give up ; b. tjoldum, to strike the 
tents ; b. samvist, to leave off living 
together ; b. radahag, to break off an 
engage?7tent {wedding) ; b. bo6i, to 
counter7nand a feast ; b. syslu, to 
leave off wo7'king ; b. svefni, blundi, 
to awake ; b. tali, to break off talking ; 
b. orrustu, kaupi, to break off a battle, 
bargain', (5) to break (b. trunaSi, 
heiti, sdttmali) ; (6) b. e-m e-u, to 
upbraid, reproach one with a thing 
(Kalfr bri, m^r J)vi i dag) ; (7) with 
preps., b. e-m a loft, to lift one aloft ; 
b. e-u d., to give out, prete7id (hann 
brd i. ]3vi, at hann mimdi ri6a vestr 
til MidfjarSar) ; absol., b. ^ e-t, to 
begin {sudde7tly) doi7ig a thing ; b. d 
leik, to begin playing or sporting', 
Kimbi brd i. gaman, took it playfully, 
laughed at it ; J)eir brugSu a glimu ok 
d glens, they started wrestli7ig and 
playi7tg; hestrinn hri. i. leik, broke 
into play, ran away, hond bregSr d 
venju, is ready for its old work ; J)d 
brd Ingimundr til utanferSar, /. sta7'ted 
to go abroad ; b. e-u undan, to put it 
out of the way, to hide it ; b. upp 
hendi, hondum, to hold up the hand ; 
b. e-u vi6, to ward off with (b. vi5 
skildi) ; ?ig.,to put forth as an exa77ipie, 
to praise, wonder at (J)mum drengskap 
skal ek vi6 b.) ; absol., b. vi6, to start 
off, set about a thing without delay ; 
brd, hann vi6 skjott ok for, he started 
off" at once a7id we7it', (8) refl., breg- 
6ast, to fail, co/ne to naught (J)at mun 
eigi b.) ; b. e-m, to deceive, disappoi7it 
one (Gunnar kvaSst aldri skyldu b. 
Nj^li ne sonum hans) ; J)eim brdst 
frumhlaupit, they failed in the 
onslaught ; b. brogoum, to play one 
another tricks', b. orSum, brigzlum, 
to upbraid one a7iother ; b. vi6, to 
make a sudden motion with the body 
(Hrutrbrast skjott vifi undan hogginuj ; 

b. vi3 fast, to turn sharply ; b. i. beina 
vi6 e-n, to show hospitality towards ; 
b. rei6r vi6 e-t, to get angry at', b. 
ukunnr vi5 e-t, to be startled at the 
novelty of a thi7ig ; (9) impers., e-u 
breg6r, it ceases, fails ; sva hart, at 
nyt bregSi {to drive the ewes) so fast 
that they fail to give 77iilk ; veSrattu 
brd eigi, there was no change in the 
weather; of a sudden appearance, 
klaQa bra a hvarmana, the eye-lids 
bega7i to itch ; J)a bra Ijoma af Loga- 
fjollum, the7i f 7-0771 L. there burst 
flashes of light ; Ijosi bregdr fyrir, a 
light passes before the eye ; with 
preps., bregSr af vexti hans fr^ oQrum 
selum, his shape differs fr077i that of 
other seals ; e-m bregSr i brun, one is 
a77iazed, startled (nu bregSr monnum 
1 brun mjok) ; e-m bregSr til e-s, one 
person takes after, rese77ibles another ; 
en l)vi bregSr mer til foreldris mins, 
in that I a7n like 7ny father ; J)at er 
maelt, at fjordungi breg6i til fostrs, 
the fostering 77iakes the fourth part of 
a man ; e-m bregSr vi3 e-t = e-m 
bregdr i brun ; brd, J)eim mjok vid, er 
J)eir sa hann inn ganga, // startled 
the7n much when they saw hi77i co7ne 
in ; en 1)6 brd fostru Melkorku mest 
vi5 J)essi tiSindi, this news most 
affected MJs nurse. 

breic5a (-dda, -ddr), v. to spread', 
b. bor3, to lay the cloth on the table ; 
b. faSm, to stretch out the arms ; b. 
ut, to lay out for dryt7tg, as hay ; b. 
ut hendr, to stretch out the hands ; b. 
e-t yfir e-n, to cover one with a thing, 
chiefly of the bed-clothes. 

breidd, f. breadth. 

breicS-doelskr, a. from Broaddale ; 
BreiS-firSiDgr, m. a man fro7n 
Broadfirth ; breiS-firzkr, a. belong- 
ing to Broadfirth, 

brei(5ka (at5), v. to grow b7-oad, to 

breitS-laginn, a. broadish ; -leikr, 
m. broad7iess, breadth ; -leitr, a. 

breiSr (neut. breitt), a. broad; i. 
breiSan, in breadth, — i. breidd ; standa 
breitt, to spread over a wide space ; 
sitja breitt, with the legs wide apart. 




breitS-skeggr, a. broad-bearded^ as 
a nickname ; -vaxinn, pp. broad- 
framed^ stout y square-built ; -0x, f. 
axe with a broad blade. 

brek, n. claim^ demand (eru Bryn- 
hildar brek of mikil). 

breka (atS), v. to keep asking (l^tum 
barn hafa pat er brekar). 
brek-boo, n. fraudulent bidding. 
breki, m. poet, breaker. 
brekka, f. slope ; leiSa Israel i brekku 
(viz. pingbrekku), to proclaim a 
bondstnan free. 

brekku-brun, f. the edge of a slope ; 
-megin, n. (i) strength to clinib a 
hill ; (2) the steepest part of a slope ; 
-munr, m. difference in height. 
brek-laust, adv. without fraud \ 
-ra5, n. pi. an attempt at fraudulent 
acquisition ; -sekt, {.fraudulent out- 
lawry (in order to disable one from 
pleading his case) ; -visi, f. ifnpor- 
tunity, importunate solicitation. 
brenna (brenn ; brann, brunnum ; 
brunninn), v. (i) to burn with a 
flame (logi, Ijos, eldr, kerti brennr) ; 
(2) to be constc?ned by fire (a Flugu- 
myri brann fe mikit) ; nu breSr 
(= brennr) viSara en hann vildi, the 
fire spreads wider than he wished ; b. 
inni, to perish by fire ; b. upp, to be 
burnt up (d, peiri natt brann upp allt 
Danavirki) ; hlutr e-s brennr vi3, one 
gets the worst of it ; brann JDratt 
{)eirra hlutr vi5, it soon grew too hot 
for them ; rautt mun fyrir b., mun 
nokkut fyrir b., things will brighten 
up or i7)iprove. 
brenna (-da, -dr), v. (i) to burn (b. 
b^l) ; (2) to destroy by fire (b. boe, 
hof, skip at koldum kolum) ; b. e-n 
inni, to burn one to death i?i his 
house ; b. e-t upp, to burn up ; (3) to 
cauterize (as a surgical operation) ; 
b. e-n vi6 bolvi, to burn one to cure 
his malady ; b. e-m dila, to burn 
spots on one's back ; fig. to brand 
one's back ; b. e-m illan dila, to inflict 
a severe injury upon one ; (4) /^ pro- 
duce by burning (b. e-t til lims) ; b. 
kol, to burn wood for charcoal \ b. 
salt, to produce salt by burning 
(sea-weed j ; (S) to purify (silver or 

gold) by burnings brent silfr, pure 
silver (eyrir brendr, mork brend). 

brenna, f. the burning of a house or 
person (J)a er b. var d Flugumyri ; 
Njdls brenna). 


brenni-steinn, m. = brennusteinn. 

brennu-matSr, m. incendiary ; -mdl, 
n. action for fire ; -saga, f. the story 
of the burning (of Njal) ; -statSr, m. 
the place where a fire has been ; 
-steinn, m. brijnstone, sulphur. 

brennusteins-logi, m. sulphur 
flame ; -vatn, n. sulphur well ; -pefr, 
m. smell of brimstoncy sulphureous 

brennu-sumar, n. summer of fires ; 
-vargr, m. an outlawed ince?iaiary. 

breota (brest ; brast, brustum ; 
brostinn), v. (i) to burst, to be rent 
(steinninn brast) ; J)d brast i sundr 
j6r6in {the earth burst) undir hesti 
hans ; (2) to break, S7iap, with a noise 
(brast i sundr boginn); (3) to crash, 
of the sound alone ; J)d brast strengr, 
then twanged the bowstring', (4) to 
burst forth (skriSa brast) ; eldrbrestr 
upp, fire b7'eaks out ; bl66 brestr ut, 
blood bursts out ; {l) to rise, begin ; 
flotti brestr, the rajiks break i7i flight ; 
bardagi brestr, the battle b7'eaks out, 
begins ; (6) impers., e-n brestr e-t, 
one lacks, falls short of (eigi brestr 
mik drseSi) ; ef oss brestr i. borSi, if 
we fall sho7't, get the worst of it ; 
pat mun aldri b. [it will never fail), at. 

brestr (-s, -ir), m. (i) crash (var6 
par vid har b.) ; (2) chink, crack 
(b. hafSi verit a hringnum) ; berja i 
brestina, to cry off a bargain ; (3) 
want, loss (hvart ilbati eSr b. i var6). 

Bretar, m. pi. the Welsh. 

Bretland, n. Wales; sySraBretland, 

bretta (-tta, -ttr), v. to turn up- 
wards (b. hala sinn). 

breysk-leikr, m. infr77iity, weak- 
ness (likamsins -leikr) ; -ligr, a./r«z7, 
weak (mannsins -lig nattura), 

breyskr, a. (i) brittle (b. leirpottr) ; 
(2) weak, infir77i. 

breyta (-tta, -ttr\ v. (i) to change^ 
alter (b. atrunafii) ; refl., breytast ; 




hafa l)au eigi breyzt siSan, they have 
not cha7iged since \ (2) to vary; b. 
hattum, to vary the 7netre\ b. haii 
sinu, to dress one's hair\ rettr ok 
breyttr, plain and artificial ; (3) 
absol. to coftduct oneself, do^ act ; 
munum vi3 bddir i brott komast, ef 
vi6 breytum svd^, if %ve do so ; b. eptir 
e-m, to iinitate ; b. til e-s, to attempt. 

breyti-liga, adv. strangely; -ligr, 
a. strange ; breyting, f. change. 

breytinn, a. (i) variable; b. i 
buningi, fashionable in dress ; (2) 
courteous^ attentive (b. 1 oUum at- 
vikum vi5 konurnar). 

breytni, f. change ; gera b. i. um e-t, 
/(? make an alteration in a thing; b. i 

brezka, f. M-? Welsh language, 

brezkr, a. Welsh. 

brigS, f. (i) rz^/^/ to reclaim (chiefly 
of landed property) ; fyrnist "^i. eigi 
brigSin, then the right of reclamation 
•will not be lost; (2) n. pi. change 
(engi brigS mun ek her d gera) ; 
kaupa e-t i b. viQ annan mann, to 
purchase a thing already bought by 

brigtSa (-t5a, -Sr), v. (i) to try to 
recover (lost property) by lawful pro- 
cedure (b. land, fe) ; (2) with dat. to 
annul, make void (b. kaupi, domi, 
sdttmali) ; b. e-m frelsi, to revoke 
one's liberty. 

brigcSar-matSr, m. reclaiiner of lost 

brigt5i, n. pi. (i) = brigS, f. ; (2) = 
brigS, n. pi. (gera b. d e-u). 

brigt5i-ligr, a. (i) variable ; (2) cor- 
ruptible, perishable (-ligr likami). 

brigtS-kaup, n. void bargaifi ; -liga, 
adv. variably; -ligr, a. = brig6iligr ; 
-lyndi, n. fickle-mindedness ; -lyndr, 
2L. fickle-minded ; -meBli, n. breach of 

brigSr, a. fickle, faithless. 

brig^-raeSi, n. fickleness, cunning. 

brigSull, a. variable^ inconstant, 

brigzl, n. = brigzli. 

brigzla (a(5), v. to upbraid (e-m e-u 
or e-t) one with a thing ; at honum s^ 
\v\ brigzlat, that it be thrown in his 

brigzla-lauss, a. blameless. 

brigzlan, f. reproach, blame, 

brigzlanar-hlatr, m. reproachful or 
scornful laughter. 

brigzli, n. reproach, blame ; foera 
e-m e-t 1 b., hafa e-m e-t at brigzlum, to 
upbraid one with a thing, to throw a 
thing in one's teeth ; eilift b., ever- 
lasting reproach. 

brim, n. surf {^Q.r ok b.). 

brim-dyr, n. poet, ship ; -gangr, 
m. dashing of the surf. 

brimill, m, a big sort of seal, male 
seal; also as a nickname. 

brim-lauBS, a. surf-less, calm; 
-leysa, f. calm {smooth) sea ; -leysi, 
n.»=-leysa ; -orri, m. a kind of duck ; 
-runar, f. pi. poet, ^surf-curbing' 
runes ; -sorfinri, pp. surf-worn 
(-sorfit grjot) ; -stormr, m. surf- 
raising gale; -svin, n. poet, ship, 
vessel; -tog, n. a rope to tug a boat 
through the surf. 

bringa, f. (i) chest (hdrit tok ofan a 
bringuna) ; e-m skytr [or slccr) skelk 
i bringu, one gets frightened ; (2) 
brisket (of an animal). 

bring-spalir, f. pi. = -spelir (ace. 
-spolu), m. pi. the ' breast-rails ', the 
lower part of the chest (bar sverSit at 
kviSnum fyrir neSan bringspolu). 

bringu-bein, n. the breast-bone; 
-breiSr, a. broad-chested; -sdr, n. 
a wound in the chest ; -teinar, m. pi. 
= bringspelir. 

brik (-ar, pi. brikr), f. (i) thin 
board; (2) low wooden screen; (3) 
short bench, near the door. 

brikar-buningr, m , -klaBtJi, n. 
covering for an altar-screen. 

brimi, m. poet. fire. 

brimir (gen. -is), m. poet, sword. 

bijd (bij^t5a, bijdt), v. to sparkle^ 
flicker, gleam. 

bijandi, f. or r\. flickering, gleam. 

brjosk, n. cartilage (sem brjosk vasri 
J)ar, sem bein skyldu vera). 

bijost, n. (i) the front of the chest, 
breast (hyl vel b. pitt) ; (2) woman's 
breast ; foeSa barn i. brjosti, to feed a 
child at the breast; (3) fig. the seat 
of the afl^ections and emotions, mind, 
heart, feeling, disposition ; mun hann 




vera J)r^lyndr i skapi sem faSir 
bans, en hafa b. verra, a harder heart ; 
mun hann optar m^r i brjosti [in my 
tnind) en J)er ; (4) the froftt (of a 
wave or a battalion'; (5) breast- 
work, protection (hann er sjdlfr b. ok 
hlifiskjoldr kristni sinnar) ; vera b. 
fyrir e-m, to be ones defender, to 
shield one; (6) vinna ei6 lyrir brjost 
e-s, on one^s behalf. 

bijost-afl, n. strength of chest ; 
-bam, n. a child at the breast, 
stcckling \ -bjorg, f. breast-plate; 
-bragtS, n. compassion ; -bunac5r, m. 
breast ornament, brooch ; -drekkr, 
m. j«t-/^//>z^, = spendrekkr ; -fastligr, 
a. faithful ; -fastr, a. fxed in the 
heart; -festa (-sta, -str), v., -festa 
sdr e-t, to impress on one's mind; 
-friSr, m. peace of mind; -gj6rt$, f. 
saddle-girth ; -goeSi, f. compassion ; 
-heill, a. having a sound chest ; 
-kaldr, a. hostile ; -kirk j a, f. the 
heart ; -kringla, f. brooch ; -leysi, 
n. feebleness of tnind; -megin, n. 
strength of mind or heart ; -mikill, 
a. broad-chested ; -moeSi, f. shortness 
of breathy weariness ; -reic5r, a. en- 
raged; -reip, n. breast-rope, girdle; 
-samligr, a. = -fastligr; -stofa, f. 
front-room ; -sullr, m. a boil in the 
lungs ; -svit5i, m. heart-burn ; -vit, 
n. mother-wit ; -vitra, f. = -vit ; -I)ili, 
n. front wall, party wall,=^\i]6x\l\\\ ; 
-J)iingt, a. n., e-m er -J)ungt, suffers 
from difficult breathing. 

brjota (bryt ; braut, brutum ; 
brotinn), v. (i) to break ; b. fot sinn, 
to bi'eak one's leg; b. tennr or hofdi 
manns, to break the teeth out of the 
head ; b. mann um stein, to break a 
man on a stone ; b. e-n i hjoli, to 
break on the wheel ; {2) to break ofen 
(b. baug, bur) ; (3) to destroy, de- 
molish (b. hof, skurSgoQ, kastala) ; b. 
skip, to break one^s ship, be ship- 
wrecked; (4) to break, violate, trans- 
gress (b. heit, log) ; en {)dr konungr 
brutud log d Agli, you broke the law 
in EgiVs case; (5) to force, compel 
(b. menn til kristni) ; b. e-n til 
hlySni, to force to submission ; (6) 
in various fig. phrases ; b. odd af 

oflasti sinu, to break the point ozone's 
pride, to /nanble oneself; b. straum 
fyrir e-m, to break the stream before 
one, to bear the brunt of battle ; (7) 
with preps., b. af bruna, to break off 
the bridge; b. af vi6 e-n, to wrong 
one ; b. a bak, to force or drive back 
(b. fylking d bak) ; to neglect, disre- 
gard (b. a bak rad e-s) ; b. niSr, to 
demolish, break down (b. nifir hus) ; 
b. ni6r blotskap, villu, to put down, 
abolish ; b. sik ni6r vi3 jordu, to bow 
dozun to the earth ; b. saman, to fold 
(b. saman skikkju) ; to unite (b. saman 
et forna logmal ok nyja) ; b. sundr, 
1 sundr, to break asunder (b. sundr 
silfrker) ; to unfold (clothes) ; b. 
(land, t)j66) undir sik, /^ subdue; b. 
upp, to break up (Jjeir brutu upp 
t)ilit) ; to forxe or break open (b. upp 
hur6, bur, kirkju, bref) ; to uttpack 
(b. upp gersemar sinar) ; b. upp 
vistir, to bri7ig out the victuals (for the 
mess) ; b. upp vapn, to get out the 
weapons^ prepare for battle ; (8) refl., 
brjotast a e-t, to break in upon ; 
Onundr brauzt i. hurdina, tried to 
break in the door ; b. d milli, /<? break 
out between ; b. fram, to break forth ; 
b. 1 haug, to break into a cairn ; b. 1 
e-u, to exert oneself in a thifig ; t)essi 
ma6r bryzt i miklu ofrefli, struggles 
against great odds ; b. um, to 7nake 
a hard struggle (bjom brauzt um i 
vok I ; b. vi6 e-t, to fight or struggle 
hard against ; b. vi6 ofrefli, to fght 
agai?ist odds ; b, vi6 borgarg0r6ina, 
to exert oneself in making the burg ; 
b. vi6 e-u, to struggle against (b. vid 
forlogunum, gsefu sinnij ; (9) impers. 
in a passive sense ; skipit (ace.) 
braut i spin, the ship was broken to 
pieces ; pa braut kirkju (ace), the 
church was blown dowfi ; strauminn 
braut d oxlinni, the current broke 
against his shoulder. 

brjotr, m. 07te that breaks, destroyer. 

brodda (acS), v. to prick, goad^ 
incite (broddadr af ohreinsan), 

brodd-hogg, n. a blow from a pike. 

broddr, (i) spike; (2) a kind of 
shaft = broddor ; (3) sting (of an 
insect); (4 prick^goad; (5) the front 




of a column or body of men^ opp. to 
* hali ', the rear (b. fylkingar) ; (6) vera 
1 broddi lifsins, to be in the prime of 

brodd-skot, n. a shot with a shaft 
(broddr) ; -spjot, n. a kind of pike 
(the blade ending in a four-edged 
point) ; -stafr, m., -stdng, f. a 
{mountaineer's) staff, pole, with an 
iron spike ; -or, f. a shaft with four- 
edged point ,—hroddr 2. 

brokkari, m. cart-horse, trotter. 

brokunar-matSr, m. an inter- 
mediary, a broker, = hra.kki, 

brosa (-ta, -at), v. to smile; b. at 
e-u, to smile at; b. vi6, to smile in 
reply (GuQrun leit vi5 honum ok 
brosti vi6). 

brosa, f. smile (svara me3 brosu). 

brosan, f. smiling, stnile. 

broa-leitr, a. with smiling face ; 
-ligr, a. ridiculous. 

brosma, f. a fish of the cod-kind. 

brot, n. ( I ) breaking (cf. * skipbrot ') ; 
sigla til brots, to run ashore under 
full sail ; (2) fragment^ broken piece ; 
{^fracture (bein-brot) ; (4) a shallow 
place in a river or a firth ; (5) lever; 
(6) spasm, convulsion ; falla i brot, to 
have an epileptic fit. 

brota-silfr, n. old silver broken to 
be recast. 

brot-fall, n. epileptic fit; -fallinn, 
pp. epileptic, affected with epilepsy, 

brotfalla-sott, f. epileptic disease. 

brot-feldr, a. = -fallinn ; -geiri, m. 
an angular strip of land. 

broti, m. heap of trees Jelled in a 
wood (^ella brota). 

brot-ligr, a. guilty of an offence. 

brotna (atS), to break, be broken ; 
skip brotnar i spdn, the ship is broken 
to pieces. 

brotning, f. breaking. 

brott, adv. away, ^=braut, burt ; 
also i. b., i b. (fara b. or i. b., hlaupast 
iih.or{ b.). 

brott-buinn, a. ready to start; 
-buningr, m. preparations for de- 

brottfarar-leyfi, n. leave to go 
away ; -61, n. parting banquet, 

brott-fert5, f. departure. 

brottfert5ar-61, n. = brottfararol. 

brott-flutning, f. carrying off; 
-fiisliga, adv. with eagerness to 
depart ; -fuss, a. eager to depart ; 
-fl^si, f. eagerness to get away; 
-foersla, f. transportation ; -for, f. = 
-ferd ; -ganga, f. departure ; -hald, 
n. going away (skip var buit til 
-halds) ; -hlaup, n. running away ; 
-hvarf, n. disappearance ; -hofn, f. 
takifig off; -kvama, f. coining away ; 
-laga, f. retreat (after a sea-battle), 
opp. to * atlaga ' ; -reit5, f . riding away ; 
-rekstr, m. driving away, expulsion ; 
-sending, f. sending away ; -sigling, 
f . sailitig away ; -snit5ning, f . cutting 
away or off; -songr, m. divine 
se7-vice performed elsewhere than at 
the parish church ; -taka, f., -tek- 
ning, f. taking away^ removal ; 
-tcekiligr, a. removable. 

brottu, adv., d b., i b., aw^j = braut, 
brott (er \€x vorum brottu ; meSan 
jarl vasri i brottu). 

brott-varp, n. throwing away ; 
-vist, f. absence ; -visan, f. dismissal. 

br6t5erni, n. brotherhood. 

bro^ir (gen., dat., and ace. brotJur, 
pi. braet5r), m. (i) brother; {2) friar. 

brocSur-arfr, m. a brother's inheri- 
tance ; -bani, m. the slayer of a 
brother ; -baugr, m. were gild due to 
the brother; -blotS, n. a brother's 
blood ; -bcBtr, f . pi. weregild for a 
brother; -dautJi, m. a brother's 
death ; -deild, f. = -hluti ; -dottir, f. 
a brother's daughter, niece ; -drdp, n. 
the slaying of a brother ; -gildr, a. 
equal in right to a brother; -gjold, 
n. pl. = -boetr ; -hefnd, f. revenge for 
the slaying of a brother ; -hluti, m. 
the share (as to weregild or inheri- 
tance) of a brother; -kona, f ., -kvdn, 
f. a brother's wife ; -leikr, 7n. brother- 
hood; -ligr, a. brotherly , fraternal 
(broSurlig ast). 

br6t5ursonar-baugr, m. weregild 
for a brother's son. 

broSur-sonr, m. a brother's son, 

brok (-ar, pi. broekr), f. (i) one leg 

of a pair of breeches (ok let hann leika 

laust kndit i brokinni) ; (2) breeches 




(but the pi. ' broekr ' is more common ) ; 
vera i brokum, to wear breeches ; 
gyrflr { broekr, with breeches girt 
over one's underclothing. 

broka-belti, m. breech-belt \ -va5- 
mdl, n. cloth {wadmal) for breeches. 

brok-lauss, a. breechless ; -lindi, m. 
waist-belt= brokabelti. 

brugSinn, pp. (see * bregma') ac- 
customed to, versed in (b. vi5 e-t). 

brugtSning, f. breach^ violation^ 
alteration (for the worse). 

brugg, n. (i) brewing ; (2) machina- 
tion, schemins[. 

brugga (at$), v. (i) to brew ; (2) to 
concoct, scheme ; b. or b. saman svik, 
to concoct a fraud; b. e-m bana, to 
scheme his death ; (3) to break (b. sdtt- 
mdli vi6 e-n). 

brugginn, pp. brewed (b. mjoSr). 

bruggu-kanna, f. brewing can ; 
-ketill, m. brewing kettle. 

briillaup, n. = brudlaup, bruQkaup. 

brum, n. (i) btid\ {2) point of time 
(i Jjetta brum). 

brumr, m. = brum (1 1)enna brum). 

bruna (at$), v. to advance with 
great speed, to rush (b. fram). 

bnina-domr, m. a sentence to be 
burnt ; -flekkr, m. burnt spot ; 
-hraun, n. burnt lava-field \ -vegr, 
m. the torrid zone ; -J)efr, m. smell of 
burning', -old, f. the burning age, 
the {heathen) time when the dead were 
burnt (opp. to * haugs-old '). 

brund-tit5, f . the time when the ewes 
are * bloesma *. 

bruni, m. burning, heat, fire ; fig. 
bursting passion (b. ofundar, losta- 
girndar, heilagrar truar). 

briinn-loekr, m. brooklet coming 
from a well \ -migi, m. defiler of 
wells, fox. 

brunnr, m. (i) spring \ (2) well. 

bmnns-miinni, m. the mouth or 

opening of a well. 

brunn-vaka, f. an instrument to get 

at water tinder ice or snow ; -vatn, n. 

spring-water ; -vigsla, f . consecration 

of a well. 

brii (-ar, pi. -ar, -r, bryr), f. bridge. 

brua (at5), v. to bridge over (bruat 

var yfir dikit). 

bruar-fundr, m. the battle of the 
Bridge ; -gprtS, f. bridge-making ; 
-spor^r, m. head or end of a bridge. 

brutSa, f. (i ) doll^ puppet', (2) chair- 
post ; i. brudum stolsins var skorinn 
f>6rr, Thor was carved on the chair- 

brutSar-bekkr, m. the bride's bench ; 
-eftii, n. a bride to be, bride- elect ; 
-fatSmr, m. a bride's embrace ; -hus, 
n. bride's chamber', -lin, n. bride's 
veil ; -stoll, m. brides chair. 

brut5-bekkr, m. = bru3arbekkr ; -f6, 
n. bride s fee or gift ; -fercS, -for, f. 
bride's journey ; -gumi, m. bride- 
groom ; -hus, n. bride's chamber ; 
-hvila, f. bridal bed] -kaup, n. 
wedding feast, bridal (at bj63a mon- 
num til -kaups) ; -kaupligr, a. per- 
taining to a wedding feast (-kaupligr 

brutSkaupa-fertJ, f. = bnidferd; 
-g0rt5, f . holding a wedding ; -niat5r, 
m. wedding guest ; -veizla, f. wedding 

brutS-kona, f. bridesmaid; -laup, 
n. wedding, wedding feast ; drekka, 
gera -laup, to hold a wedding ; gera 
-laup til konu, to wed', riSa -laup, to 
fix the wedding day. 

bru5laups-dagr, m. wedding day\ 
-fer^, f. = bru6fer6; -klaetSi, n. pi. 
wedding garment ; -kostr, m. the 
cost of a wedding ; -stefna, f. wedding 
meeting ; -veizla, f . wedding feast ; 
-vitni, n. marriage-witness. 

bruS-maSr, m. bridegroom's man^ 
bridesman'^ -messa, f. marriage- 

brut5r (gen. -ar, dat. and ace. -i, pi. 
-ir), {.{i) bride (konur skipuSu pall, ok 
var brufirin dopr) ; (2) esp. pi. brides- 
maids =hr\x6\ion\iv ', sat t^orhalla milli 
bru6a, 7^h. was seated among the 
bridesmaids = milli bruSkvenna. 

bru(5-3t611, m. bride's chair or seaty 
= brLi3arst6ll. 

bruk, n. a heap (briikum in heaps) ; 
esp. a heap of seaweed (= I)ara- 

brun (pi. brynn), f. (i) brow, the 
projecting edge of a cliff or hill (cf. 
fjalls-, he;dar-, is-brunj ; (2j eye- 




brow ; Mta sig^a brynn i. nef, fyrir 

br^r, ofan fyrir augiin, setja si3a b., 

hieypa brunum, to knit the brows ; 

lypta brunum, hefja upp brun, to lift 

the eyebrows^ become chee7-ful, brighten 

up\ also impers., h(fr e-m upp b., 

one brightens up ; lypti J)d mjok brun- 
um manna, their faces brightened iif ; 

e-m breg6r i b., one is amazed. 
briin (pi. brunir), f. a kind of stuff. 
brunac5r, a. dark-coloured, brown. 
briina-mikill, a. heavy-browed ; 

-sit5r, a. having overhanging brows ; 

-skurtSr, m. cutting the hair straight 

across the brows. 
brunar-bein, n. pi. the bone of the 

eye- brow. 

brun-ass, m. ridge-pole^ ridge-piece. 

brun-hvitr, a. white-browed. 

brun-modlottr, a. of mouse-grey 
colour ivith a black stripe down the 
back (of a horse). 

brunn, a. ( i) brown ; (2) of polished 
metal, bright (beit brun ^Z%). 

briinn, m. black horse. 

brun-siSr, a. = bninasi3r ; -skarpr, 
a. light in the head ; -voir, -volvi, 
-olvi, ?i. frowning. 

brusi, m. buck, he-goat. 

brii-steinn, m. pavement. 

brydda (-dda, -ddr), v. (i) to prick, 
goad', (2) to rough-shoe (aka jo 
obryddum i. isi hdlum) ; (3) to show 
the point (bryddu upp 6r J)okunni 
kollarnir) ; (4) impers., af J)essi gorS 
herra p^fans bryddi {arose) sv^ mikla 
sty rj old, at. 

brydding, f. bordering, edging. 

bry^ja, f. a sort of trough. 

bryggja, f. {i)gangboard, gangway ; 
skjota bryggjum, to shoot out the 
gangway, (2) landing-stage^ pier, 
quay (lagu langskip konungs me6 
endilongum bryggjum) ; (3) rarely, 
bridge, =hr\\. 

bryggju-biitS, f. storehouse on a 
pier ; -ker, n. a tub at a pier ? ; -laBgi, 
n. landing-stage ; -mangari, m. shop- 
keeper at a landing-pier \ -sporSr, 
m. the head of a pier. 

brsma (acS), v. = bruna. 

bryn-brcBkr, f. pi. war-breeches ; 
-glofi, m. war-glove, gauntlet] 

-hattr, m., -hetta, f. war-hood \ 
-hosa, f. war-hose, greave; -hottr^ 
m. = -haur, -hetta. 
brynja, f. coat of mail. 
bryrja (at5), v. to cover or arm with 
a coat of mail ; brynjadr, wearing a 
coat of mail, 7nailclad. 

brynju-bitr, m. ' mail-biter \ s^vord ; 
-bond, n. pi. cords to fasten the coat 
ofinail ; -hattr, m., -hetta, f. = bryn- 
hattr, brynhetta ; -halsbj rg, f. the 
neckpiece of a hauberk ; -hringr, m. a 
ring of a coat of mail (hringabrynja); 
-lauss, a. without a coat of mail, 
unprotected', -meistari, m. maker of 
coats of mail] -rokkr, m. milita?y 
tunic (worn over the coat of mail). 
bryn-klungr, m. a sort of weapon 
used in defending a besieged castle ; 
-knifr, m. war-knife', -kolla, f. 
a mail-cap (worn under the helmet). 
brjTQna (-ta, -t), v. to water, give 
water to (b. nautum). 
brjm-stakkr, m. mail-jacket ; 
-stuka, f. mail-sleeve ; -troll, n. a sort 
of halberd ; -t)mg, n. fight, co7nbat 
(poet.) ; -{)vari, m. a sort of halberd 
( = bryn-troll). 

bryti (gen. brytja or bryta), m. 
bailiff, under-steward ', konungs b., a 

steward on royal estates. 
brytja (a^), v. to chop (b. mat) ; b. 

116 hei6ingja, to put to the sword-, b. 

niSr, to cut down. 
brytjan, f. chopping. 
bryt-skalm, f. chopper (kallar hann 

I)at sverd brytsk^lm sina). 
bryna (-da, -dr), v. (i) to whet, 

sharpen (b. Ijd, knif, sverS) ; (2) bryna 

upp ski pi, to drag a boat or ship half 

ashore, put it on the ' edge ' of the sea- 

board', (3) to egg on ; b. hug e-s, to 

bryni, n. (i) whetstone ; (2) spices 

(ekki hafa ^eir salt vi6 mat ok ekki 

bryning, f. (i) whetting, sharpening, 

(2) fig. eggitig on, incitement. 
bryn-ligr, a. = brynn ; er -hgt um 

e-t, it is promising, likely. 
brynn, a. prompt, ready, ef bryn 

fefong laegi fyrir, ready means ; bryn 

sok, jitsty cogent cause ; bryn vorn, a 




clear case for defence \ b. byrr, straight, 
fair wind. 
brynn, f. pi., from *brun'; -brynn, 

a. -drotued (lett-brynn, pung-brynn). 
brsDt5a (-dda, -ddr), v. (i) to melt 

(b. jokul, snjo, is) ; (2) to tar, pitch 
(b. skip). 

braB^a (-dda, -ddr), v. to htirry, 
make haste (nu seinkaQa ek, en {)u 
braeddir heldr). 

brseSi, f. anger, passion ; maela e-t 
{ b., in a passion. 

braeSi-ligr, a. meltable, fusible. 

braBSi-maBli, n. pi. angry langtcage. 

braekta (at5), v. to bleat (b. sem geit). 

broetSra-born, n. pi. first cousins 
(agnate) ; -doetr, f. pi. nieces (of 
brothers) ; -eign, f. property of 
brothers \ -garSr, m. monastery, = 
k6rsbroe3ragarc5r ; -lag, n. {l) fellow- 
ship as of brethren, = fostbrceQralag 
(sverjast i -lag) ; (2) brotherhood, 
religious fraterftity. 

broet5ralags-bief, n. letter of {reli- 
gious) fraternity. 

brcfitSra-niai k, n. tJie constellation 
Gemini ; -partr, m. = broSurdeild ; 
-samnat^r, m. assembly {union) of 
brothers ; -skdli, m. apartinent for 
friars ; -skipti. n. division of inheri- 
tance among brothers ; -synir, m. pi. 
brothers' sonsj cousins. 

brcet5runga, {.female first cousin. 

broetSrungr, m. male first cousin 
(agnate); also = broe5runga ; hon var 

b. {she was first cousin) Asnyjar. 
broe^rungs-barn, n. child of a first 

cousin ; -baugr, m. share of weregild 
due to a first cousin. 

broeklingar, m. pi. * breechlings \ a 
nickname of the Irish. 

brogc^ottr, a. crafty, cunning. 

brogSu-liga, adv. cumtingly, slyly 
(blekkja, svikja e-n -liga) ; -ligr, a. 
crafty, sly. 

brolta (-Ita, -It), v. to toss or 
tumble about. 

brL B*^u-liga, adv. boastingly ; Idta 
-liga, to brag. 

buSka-gros, n. pi. kerbs kept in a 
box (for use in medicine). 

bu^kr, m. small box (originally a box 
to keep herbs and balsams in). 

buSlungr, m. poet, kifig. 

buffeit, n. buffet (sld e-m b.). 

buffeita (-tta, - tr), v. to buffet, 

buga (a(5), V. to bow, bend. 

bugr, m. bend, curve ; the bight 
(inside) of a ring (1 bug hringinum) ; 
of the bent fingers (b. fingranna) ; the 
concave side of the sails (sa af landi i 
bug allra seglanna) ; a curve, dis- 
order, of a line of men or ships (rdtta 
t)ann bug, er a var or3inn flotanum) ; 
aka e-m i. bug, aka bug a e-m, to 
make 07ie give way, repel. 

bug-stafr, m. crooked stick. 

bukka-skinn, n. the skin of he- 
goats; -vara, f. = -skinn. 

bukkr, m. (i) buck, he-goat; (2) 
battering ram. 

bukk-skinn, n. the skin of a he- 
goat (cf. * bukka-skinn 'j. 

bukl, n. the boss of a shield. 

buklara-bola, f. = bukl; -fetill, m. 
strap of a buckler. 

buklari, m. buckler, shield. 

bukram, biikran, r\.=^btickram. 

bula (a(5), v. to cut throiigh, = ho\2i. 

bulr, m. = bolr. 

bulungr, m.pile of logs, firewood. 

bul-px, f. = bol-0x. 

bumba, f. dru77i (berja i. bumbur). 

bundin, n. sheaf [of corn). 

bunki, m. ;^^rt/,/z7^, = bulki (rare). 

bur^a-munr, m. difierence of birfh. 

burtSar-dagr, m. birthday ; -rua'Sr, 
m. bearer, carrier ; -sveinn, m. 
errand-boy ; -tit5, f., -timi, m. birth- 

burdeigja (aS), v. to capriole, of a 
horse (for. word). 

burtSr (-ar, -ir), m. (i) carriage, 
bearing, of the limbs or body (b. lik- 
amans birtir hugskotsins r^6) ; (2) 
birth {{xi. Krists burfii) ; of domestic 
animals, lambing, calving (Jjser kyr, 
er bezt buast til burSar) ; (3) fetus, 
the thing bor?i. offspriftg (fill gengr 
tvo ix me6 burSinum ; hinn haesti b. 
varr drottinn J. Kr.) ; (4) pi., burSir, 
bi7'th, extractioji ; hei5inn at burSum, 
heathen by birth ; bur6ir ok astt, birth 
and ki.7iship. 

burSiigr, a. of high birth. 

burgeiss, m. burgess. 




buris, m. borax (for. word). 

burr (-ar, -ir), m. poet. son. 

burst or bust, f. {i) bristle, bristles ; 
draga b. or nefi e-m, to draw a bristle 
out of one's nose, to cheat one ; (2) 
gablehead or ridge of a house. 

bursta-kollr, m. bristle-scalp, an 
assumed name. 

burstar-hdr, n. bristly hair. 

bursti, m. bristly hair. 

burst-igull, m. hedge-hog. 

burt, adv. = brott. 

burt, f., in the phrase, rida a b., to 
ride a tilt. 

burt-buningr, m. preparation to 
leave a place (vera i -buningi). 

burt-reiS, f . riding a tilt. 

burtreic5ar-raaSr, m. titter ; -vdpn, 
n. tilt-weapon. 

burt-stong, f. a lance for tilting. 

busil-kinna, f. a woman with fat or 
chuhby cheeks. 

busl, n. bustle, cojnmotion {^i. vdru 
go6in i busli miklu). 

buss, m. box, boxwood. 

bust, f. (i) bnstle^^hnrst ; (2) a kind 

busti, m.= bursti. 

buza, f . a sort of tnerchant-ship. 

bu, n. (i) household, farfning ; l)at 
er bu, er maSr hefir malnytan smala, 
it is ' bu ', if a man has a milking 
stock ; g0ra, setja, reisa bu, to set up 
a home for oneself', bregQa bui, to 
give up farming ; eiga bu vi5 e-n, to 
share a household with one ; fara bui, 
to remove one's household ; vera fyrir 
bui, to manage a household ; bua bui 
sinu, to have one's own household', 
bua umeg5ar-bui, to have many de- 
pendants (unable to work) ; (2) the 
stock of a farmstead (sumir Mgu liti i. 
fjollum me6 bu sin) ; drepa ni3r bu, 
hoggva bu, to kill or destroy one^s 
stock ; (3) housekeeping; fd til busins, 
to procure necessaries for the main- 
tenance of the household', einskis 
J)urfti i bu at bi5ja, there was plenty 
of everything', (4) farm, estate', 
fara milli bua sinna, to go from 
one estate to another', eiga bu, to 
own an estate; (5) home, house 
(reid Hrutr heim til bus sins) ; vera 

at or i. biii me6 e-m, to live at one's 
bua (by ; bj6, bjoggum or bjugg- 
um ; buinn), v. (i) to prepare, 
make ready ; b. skip i for, to make a 
ship ready for a voyage ; b. fer8 sina, 
to make ready for a journey {voyage) ; 
b. veizlu, to prepare {make prepara- 
tions) for a feast', b. m^l a hendr 
e-m, to take out a sumfnofis against 
one, begin a lawsuit; (2) to dress, 
attire, adorn, ornament; bjo hon 
hana sem hon kunni bezt, she dressed 
her as well as she could; sd, J)eir 
konur vel bunar, well dressed; b. be6, 
rekkju, to make a bed; b. ondvegi, 
hus, to make a high seat, adorn a 
house (for a feast) ; 611 umgjordin var 
buin gulli ok silfri, adorned {mounted) 
with gold a7id silver; vapn buit 
mjok, tnuch ornamented; (3) to fix 
one's abode in a place, = hygg]2i (J)egar 
munu jotnar AsgarS b.) ; (4) to deal 
with, to treat; |)eir bjuggu bui sem 
J)eim likaSi, they treated it as they 
liked, viz. recklessly ; Haraldr bjo 
heldr usparliga kornum Sveins, used 
S.'s stores rather unsparingly ; {^) to 
live, dwell (b. i tjoldum) ; peir bjuggu 
J)ar um nottina, they stayed there 
during the night; sd ma6r bjo a 
skipi {had his berth) nasst Haraldi ; 

(6) to have a household (cattle, sheep, 
and milk) ; me6an J)u vilt b., as long 
as thou wilt keep house; b. a or at, 
with the name of the place added in 
dat., to live at or in (hann bjo a 
Velli ; Gunnar bjo at HliSarenda) ; 

(7) to be, — vera (skip J)au oil, er i. 
vatni bua) ; b. 1 skapi, brjosti e-m, to 
be, dwell in one's 7nind (eigi byr {)er 
litit i skapi) ; synandi j)d hjartaliga 
gleSi, er i brjosti byr, that fills the 
breast; {Z) to behave, conduct oneself 
(bjuggu J)eir J)ar fremr ufrifiliga) ; 
(9) with preps., b. af e-u, to lose ; lata 
e-n af baugum b., to let him be de- 
prived of his riches ; b. at e-u, to 
treat, = h. e-u (cf. 4) ; peir hofSu spurt 
hvern veg fjorolfr hafSi buit at her- 
bergjum Jjeirra, how Th. had treated 
their premises ; b. e-t fyrir, to prepare 
(t)eir hlutir, er gu6 hefir fyrir buit 




sinum dstvinum) ; b. fyrir, to be 
present (hann setlar, at Sell)6rir 
muni fyrir b. i hverju holti) ; b. hja 
konu, to lie with a woman ; b. i e-u, 
to be at the bottom o/, = h. undir e-u 
(en i JDessu vinattumerki bjuggu enn 
fleiri h.utir) ; b. me6 e-m or e-rri, to 
cohabit with ; b. meS konu, to lie 
with ; b. saman, to live together (as 
husband and wife, as friends) ; to 
have a common household (ef menn 
bua samanj ; b. e-t til, to prepare^ 
take the preparatory steps iJi a case 
(b. sok, mal, vigsmal til, cf. l) ; b, til 
veizlu, to prepare for a feast ; b. til 
sey6is, to get the /ire ready for cook- 
ings b. til vetrsetu, to make prepara- 
tions for a winter abode ; b. um e-n, 
to make one's bed (var buit um J^a 
l^orodd a seti ok logSust J)eir til 
svefns) ; t>6r61fr Idt setja upp skip 
sitt ok um b., he had his ship laid tip 
and fenced round ; kva6u nu GuSrunu 
eiga at b. um rau6a skor Bolla, said 
that G. would have to dress B.^s (her 
husband's) bloody head \ b. um and- 
virki, to fetice and thatch hayricks ; 
at b. sva um, at aldri matti vokna, to 
pack it up so that it could not get 
wet ; b. svi. um, at (with subj.), to 
arrange it so, that ; b. eigi uni heilt 
vid e-n, to be plotting something 
against one ; b. um nokkurn skoll, to 
brood over some mischief {deceit) ; b. 
um grun, to be suspicious ; b. um 
hverfan hug, to be fickle-7ninded\ gott 
er um oruggt at b., to be in a safe 
position ; b. undir e-u, to be subject 
to^ suffer, endure (hart mun t)ykkja 
undir at b.) ; eiga undir slikum ofsa 
at b., to have to put up with such 
insolence ; to be the {hidden) reason 
off to be at the bottom of (J)at bjo J)ar 
undir, at hann vildi taka rikit undir 
sik) ; \>€r vitiS g0rst, hvat y6r byr 
undir {what reason yott have) at girn- 
ast ema utlenda mey ; b. e-n veg 
vi3 e-n, to behave or act so and so 
towards one ; sart byr t)ii nu vi6 mik, 
{>6ra, thou treatest me sorely ; b. vi6 
e-t, to enjoy (pu byr vi3 eilifa ast ok 
bi6r eilifra ombuna) ; to submit to, 
put up with ; ok mun eigi vid {)at 

mega b., it will be too hard to bide', 
b. yfir e-u, to hide, conceal ; framhiutr 
ormsins byr yfir eitri, is venomous ; 
litill bukr byr yfir miklu viti, little 
body holds mickle wit ; b. yfir brogS- 
um, flasrS ok velum, to brood over 
tricks, falsehood, and deceit ; (lo) refl., 
buast, to make oneself ready, get 
ready (bjuggust Jjeir at ri(5a austr) ; 
b. ferSar sinnar, /(? make oneself ready 
for a journey ; = b. at fara (b. or 
{^randheimi ; b. ut til Islands, b. i. 
land upp) ; bjuggust J)eir fostbroeSr i 
hernaS, they prepared to go ofi a free- 
booting trip ; b. til bardaga, to make 
on.'self ready for a battle ; b. fyrir, to 
have one's own household ({)at jDing 
skal scekja bondi hverr, er byst fyrir 
ok bondanafn berr) ; b. um ( = biia 
um sik), to make one's ow?t bed, to 
7)iake oneself comfo? table, to encatnp 
(var horS ve5ratta, svd at ekki matti 
uti um buast) ; b. vi6 e-u, to prepare 
for a thiftg (b. vi6 veizlu, bo6i) ; b. 
(vel, kristiliga) \\6 dau6a smum, to 
prepare for one's death ; b. ^ id vetri, 
to provide for the winter ; absol., b. 
vi6, to 7nake preparations (nu rida h^r 
uvinir Jjinir at Jjer ; skaltu sva vi6 
buast, get ready to jneet them). 

bua-gret'ur, f. pi. quarrel between 
neighbours ; -kvit5r, m. verdict of 
neighbours ; -kvotS, f. sujnmoning of 

buandi (pi. buendr), m. = bondi. 

buand-karl, m. farmer (-karl e6a 
J)orpari ) ; -ligr, a. peasant-like, stout ^ 
sturdy, -maSr, m. = b6ndi. 

bua-virSing, f, a fixing compensa- 
tion by verdict of neighbours (buar). 

but5, f. (i) temporary dwelling, 
booth ; farmanna bu5ir, merchants^ 
booths ; esp. of the temporary dwellings 
at the Icelandic parliament ; tjalda 
b., to fit up a booth (with tent-roof 
and hangings); (2) abode, dwelling- 
place ; fara buSum, to change one's 
abode ; hafa hdiSa, kalda b., to have 
a hardf cold abode. 

butS (= buid, buit), used as adv., 
may be ; b. sva se til a^tlat, may be, it 
will co?fie so to happen ; b. eigi hendi 
hann slika ugiptu i annat smn^ may be 




he will not have such misfortune 

biitSar-dvol, f. dwelling in a booth ; 
-dyrr, f. pi. door of a booth ; -gogn, 
n. pi. utensils of a booth ; -hamarr, 
m. a rock upon which a booth is 
erected ; -ketill, m. booth-kettle ; 
-kviSr, m. a sort of verdict given by 
the inmates of a booth ; -li(5, n. the 
imnates of a booth ; -matSr, m. inmate 
of a booth ; -nagli, m. booth-peg ; 
-rum, n. lodging in a booth (bic3ja, 
kveQja e-n -rums) ; -sund, n. passage^ 
lane betiueen two booths ; -topt, f. the 
walls of a (deserted) booth ; -veggr, 
m. the wall of a booth ; -vert5r, m.= 
-vor6r ; -virki, n. a fortification 
round a booth ; -vist, f. lodging in a 
booth (hafa -vist me6 e-m) ; -vcrt5r 
(gen. -var^ar), m. (i) cookings 
cookery ; halda -vorS, to take care of 
the cookefy ; (2) food^ meat ; eigi 
hafSa ek Jjina ve3ra mer til -varSar, 
the rains of thy flock I have not eaten ; 
rd,6a til -varSar, to prepare for a 

bu5-seta, f. living in a cottage. 

butSsetu-mat^r, m. cottager (j^eir eru 
bii6setumenn en eigi boendr). 

butSu-nautr, m. fellow-itimate of 
companion in, a booth. 

bu-far, n. household condition ; 
-f6, n. live stock, esp. the 7nilch 
ki?ie\ -fellir, m. starvation of live 
stock \ -f6nat5r, m.«=-fe; -ferill (pi. 
-ferlar), m. mover of on^s household', 
-ferli, n. chattels belonging to a 
household; fara -ferli sinu, to remove, 
change one's household and home ; 
esp. live stock ; haf3i hann me6 ser 
skuldaliS {dependants, family) ok 
-ferli {live stock) ; -ferski, n. domestic 
or household utensils. 

bu:Qdr-ab3ncgtS, f. responsibility for 
bufe ; -eyrir, m. value in live stock ; 
-foSr, n. food for cattle; -gangr, m. 
= -hagar; -hagar, m. pi. pasture- 
fields on an estate, esp. the home- 
pastures ; -hagr, m. condition of the 
live stock ; -hald, n. keepifig of live 
stock ; -laust, a. n. without live stock 
(bua -laust) ; -leiga, f. rent of live 
stock \ -matr, m. food for cattle^ 

stores of fodder; -vegr, m. cattle- 

bu-foersla, f. removing of one''s 
household; -fong, n. pi. household 
necessaries; -gagn, n. household 
utensil, = h\isga.%xi; -garSr, m. far?n 
(esp. a big one) ; -g0rc$, f. making a 
household in a place ; -hagi, m. 
pasture ; -hlift5, f. a saving of house- 
hold provisions ; -hlutr, m. an im- 
plement of husbandry ; -hofn, f. 
pasture-field; -hogg, n. slaughtering 
of cattle. 

bui, m. (i) dweller, inhabitant, esp. 
in compds. (berg-, hellis-, ein-bui) ; 
helvitis buar, inhabitants of hell; 
himna buar, inhabitants of heave?i, 
angels; (2) neighb our =r\2ihm (Stein- 
olfr b. bans) ; (3) a law term, neigh- 
bour acting as juror ; kveSja bua, to 
summon the neighbours. 

bui-grit5ungr, m. a bull kept at the 
mountain-dairy, opp. to * heima-g ' ; 
-ma(5r, m. neighbour-ma7i. 

buinn, pp. (cf. *bua'), {\) prepared, 
fit, adapted ; ek em gamall ok litt til 
b. at {little fit to) hefna sona minna ; 
(2) b. at G-n, endowed with (at flestum 
ij)r6ttum vel b.) ; (3) ready, willing; 
margir munu bunir at kaupa, ready, 
willing to buy ; engir munu syna sik 
bunari {inore willijig) til liQveizlu ; 
with gen., b. J)eirrar ferSar, ready to 
tnake that journey ; (4) b. til e-s, vi6 
e-u, on the point of; hann var b. til 
falls, he was just about to tumble ; 
var buit vi3 v^5a miklum, there was 
an itnminefit danger; (5) svd, buit, as 
matters stand, thus ; eigi ma hly6a 
sva b., it will not do thus, soiiie thing 
else 7nust be done; stendr nu sva b. 
um hri9, "matters stand thus {un- 
changed) for a while ; J)eir segja 
Eyjolfi til svd buins, they tell Eyolf 
the present state of things ; \>€y skulut 
ganga me3 vapnum, en berjast eigi 
sva buit, not fight as yet ; at svi. 
bunu, as matters stand (hann kvadst 
ekki fysast til Islands at sva bunu) ; 
at present, as yet ({)enna draum 
segjum ver engum at sva bunu) ; vid 
svo buit, thus, things being so (peir 
skildu vid svd buit). 




bii-karl, m. fanner, = buand-karl. 

buk-digr, a. thick-set [in body). 

bu-ketill, m. large kettle ; -koatr, 
m. (i) household provisions^ stores \ 
(2) livelihood^ trade (er t)at biikostr 
})eirra ok skemtan at soekja sjoinn) ; 
-kot, n. small farm ^ cottage. 

bukr (-8, -ar), m. (i) body, trunk, 
esp. the trunk without the head\ (2) 
belly, = 'kv\6r. 

biik-reki, m. skin or leather bag (for 
holding liquids). 

bii-lag, n. joint housekeepings 
-land, n. home land ; -lausa, a. 
having no household ; -leiga, f . rent 
of cattle. 

bulka-brun, f. the edge of the 
' bulki ' ; -stokkar, m. pi. the bulwark 
fencing the ' bulk! ' in the middle of 
the ship. 

bulki, m. cargo (stowed in the 
middle of the ship, cf. fyrir framan or 
aptan biilka) ; binda bulka, to bind 
bulk^ cover in the hold ; leysa (rjiifa, 
brjota) biilka, to break bulk. 

bii-matSr, m. 'i) husbandman, 
farmer (-maSr sadi akr sinn) ; (2) = 
busyslumadr ; -maSr mikill, a skilled, 
stirring husba7id?nafi ; -mis3a, f. loss 
in stock. 

buna(5ar-bdlkr, m. the section of 
law about household matters ; -matSr, 
m. = buma6r; -munr, m. = bunings- 

bunat5r (gen. -ar), m. (i) household, 
housekeeping ; reisa, setja bunaS = 
reisa, gwra bu, to set up a hoicsehold ; 
fara bunaSi sinum = fara buferli, to 
remove one's household', (2) equip- 
ment, ^r<?i'j, = buningr ; (3) prepara- 
tions (for a voyage, freebooting 
expedition, &c.) ; (4) = buningr 4. 

bii-nautn, f., in the phrase, til 
-nautnar,ybr household use. 

biiningr, m. (I) dress, attire, 
apparel', (2) equip?nent of a ship 
(reicJi ok b.) ; (3) the dressing and 
arrajigement of a table ; (4) orna- 
ments (kyrtill meQ buningi). 

bunings-bot, f. improvement in 
dress ; -lauss, a. without orna- 
ments ; -munr, m. difference in 

bu-nyt, f. milk of sheep and cattle ; 
-prestr, m. a priest having a home- 
stead or far7n. 

biir, n. (i) women^s apartment ', (2) 
pantry (bur Jjat er konur hafa 
matrei6u i) ; (3) storehouse. 

bu-rakki, m. farm-dog ; -rd5, n. 
household management \ -ran, n. a 
kind q{ robbery, theft (to the amount 
of three cows at least or three cows' 

bur-brot, n. breaking into a pantry ; 
-dyrr, f. pi. pantry-door ; -hilla, f. 
pa7itry- shelf \ -hringr, m. the door 
fing- of a ' burhurS ' ; -hundr, m. 
watch-dog at a storehouse ; -hurtS, f. 
the door of a ' bur ' ; -hvalr, m. a sort 
of whale, cachalot if). 

bu-risna, f. tnunificent or hospitable 

bur-lykill, m. pantry-key. 

burs-hringr, m. = burhringr ; 
-hurts, f. =burhur3. 

bus-afleifar, f. pi. re^nains of stores ; 
-bublutir, m. pi. implements of hus- 
bandry ; -efni, n. pi. household goods ; 
-far, n. = biifar ; -forraS, n. pi. 
management of hotisehold affairs, = 
bura5 (taka til -forra6a = taka vi5 
buraSum) ; -gagn, n. = biigagn ; 
-g0r(S, f. = bug0rd; -hlutir, m. pl.= 
-buhlutir ; -hoegindi, n. pi. help 
towards keeping a household. 

bu-sifjar, f. pi. relations between 
neighbours ; godar busifjar, good 
neighbourhood', var ilia 1 -sifjum 
f)eirra, they were not on good terms 
as neighbours ; veita e-m {)ungar 
-sifjar, to be a troublesome neighbour 
to one. 

bus-kerfi, n. household ute?isils, — 

bu-skj61a, f. milk-pail; -skorlr, m. 
failure of stores', -skylft, a. n., hafa 
-skylft, to have an expensive hoicse- 

busli^s-mac5r, m. a * bondi ' without 
ho)nestead (cf. slita bui sinu). 

bu-smali, m. cattle, esp. milch cows ; 
-staSr, m. dwelling-place, abode ; taka 
ser -stad, to fix one's abode. 

bua-tilskipan, f. settling of a 




bu-stjorn, f. management of house- 
hold affairs ; -styra, f. a fetnale 

bus-umsvif, n. pi. household cares ; 
-umsyala, f. management of a 'bii'. 

bu-sysla, f. household business. 

busyslu-matJr, m.=buma5r (-maSr 

bii-verk, n. dairy work (milking, 
churning and the like) ; -t)egn, m. 
husbandman (boendr ok -{)egnar) ; 
illr -t^egn, a bad {evil) husbandman. 

byg§, f. (l) colonization (fra Islands 
b.) ; (2) abode ^ habitation ; setja, 
hefja b. sina e-s staSar, to fix one's 
abode in a place ; foera b. sina, to 
refnove\ banna (lofa, leyfa) e-m b., 
to forbid {allow) one to settle in a 
place \ (3) inhabited land or district^ 
opp. to ' ubygSir ', deserts. 

bygtSar-fleygr, -fleyttr, a. rumotired 
through the district ; -lag, n. district, 
neighbourhood \ taka s^r -lag i e-m 
stao, to settle in a place. 

bygSarlags-matJr, m. inhabitant of 
a district. 

bygSar-land, n. land for settling 
on ; taka sdr -land e-s stadar, to settle 
in a place ; -leyfi, n. leave to settle ; 
-ly3r, m., -menn, m. pi. inhabitants 
of a district', -romr, m. rttmour 
going about in the neighbourhood; 
-stefna, f. district-meeting. 

bygtS-fleygr, -fleyttr, a. = bygSar- 

bygg, n. barley ; -brautS, n. barley- 
bread; -hjdlmr, m. barley-rick; 
-hlatSa, f. barley-barn ; -hleifr, m. 
barley-loaf; -bus, n. = -hla6a. 

-byggi (pi. -bygg-jar), m. inhabitant ; 
only in plur. compds. (fram-, aptur-, 
stafn-, Eyr-byggjar). 

byggiligr, a. habitable. 

bygging, f. letti?ig out land for 
rent (b. jarSar). 

byggja (-tSa, -^r), v., older form 
byggva; {\) to settle in a place, as 
colonist ; sumar J)at, er J)eir Ingolfr 
foru at b. Island, when I. went out to 
settle in Iceland; Ingolfr byg5i fyrstr 
landit, was the first settler; absol., 
Helgi bygdi norQr 1 Eyjafirdi, settled 
in E.\ (2) to people (eptir NoafloS 

lifSu dtta menn, er byg6u heiminn) ; 
Island bygSist {was peopled) or Nor- 
vegi ; (3) /^ inhabit, live in a country 
(J)d er landit hafSi sex tigi vetra bygt 
verit) ; l)ess get ek, at menn byggi 
husit, that the house is inhabited ; b. 
boe, to settle on a farm (hann byg5i 
bcE l)ann er f Eyju heitir) ; absol., 
kona, er bygSi {lived) 1 einum afdal ; 
hvar byggir J)u, where dwellest thou?; 
(4) to dwell in, occupy (b. holl, belli) ; 
b. eina saeng, to share the same bed 
(of a married couple ; also absol,, b. 
med e-rri) ; byg6i hann i skipum, he 
dwelt {lived) in ships, 

byggja (-t$a, -Sr), v. (i) to let out 
(konungr md b. almenning hverjum 
sem hann vill) ; nu byggir maSr 
dyrra {lets otit at a higher rent) en 
vandi hefir i. verit ; (2) to lend itioney 
at interest (engi skal b. dautt i€ i. 
leigu) ; Hrutr bygSi allt feit, H. put 
all the money out at interest ; (3) b. 
frasndsemi, sifjar, to enter into a 
marriage with a relation or one allied 
by marriage (in such or such degree) ; 
pat var bannat at b. svi. nlit at 
frsendsemi, intermarriage between so 
near relations was forbidden. 

byggjandi (pi. -jendr), m. an in- 
habitant {horgm ok byggjendrhennar). 

bygg-mjol, n. barley-jneal ; -s^t5, n. 

byggva, v., older form for * byggja *. 

bylgja (gen. pi. bylgna), f. billow. 

"bylgju-fall, n. heavy sea; -gangr, 
m. swell, sea. 

bylgna-gangr, m.=bylgjugangr. 

bylja (bylr, buldi, bulit), v. to 
resound, roar (buldi 1 homrunum). 

byljottr, a. gusty (ve3r nokkut 

bylmingr, m. a sort of bread. 

bylr (pi. -ir, dat. -jum). m. squally 
gust of wind ; J)a er bylirnir komu, 
when the squalls came along. 

byrS, f. birth, descent (rare). 

byrc5a (-rt5a, -rcSr), v. to weave in 

byrca, f. a large box or bin. 

byrSi, n. board {side) of a ship. 

byrcSingr, m. merchant-ship. 

byrSings-mat5r, m. a merchant' 




seaman ; -segl, n. the sail of a byrfi- 

byrtSr (-ar, -ar), f. burden^ load. 

byr-fall, n. dropping of a breeze. 

byrgi, n. enclosure, fence. 

byrging, f. (i) closing, shutting up ; 
(2) close, co7iclusion, end. 

byrgis-kona, f. concubine-, -mat$r, 
m. paramour', -skapr, m. concu- 

byrgja (-t$a, -5r), v. (i) to close, 
shut (b. dyrr e3a vindaugu) ; b. sinn 
munn, to shut the mouth ; b. aptr 
husit, to close the house ; b. e-n inni, 
to shut one iji (i husum) ; fig. /<? out- 
ivit one (b. e-n inni fyrir vitsmuna 
sakir) ; b. e-t fyrir e-m, to exclude 
one from ; b. e-n uti, to shut one out ; 
b. e-t uti, to prevent, prechide (b. uti 
vd6a) ; (2) b. e-t med skommu mdli, 
to comprise it within a small com- 

byrja (a(5), v. (l) to originate (or 
himninum byrjast 611 goezka) ; (2) to 
beget, esp. in pass., byrjast, to be 
begotten (d J)eirri soma nott sem hann 
byrjaSist) ; (3) to enter upon, begin ; 
b. fer6 sina, to begirt one's journey ; 
(4) b. mdl e-s, to -plead {support) one's 
cause (ek skal b. {)itt mal sem ek 
kann) ; b. roe6u, to deliver a speech 
(= flytja rce3ui ; hefir t)u Iram byrjat 
{stated) erendi t)itt. 

byrja (aS), v. impers. with dat. to 
behove, beseem ; sem byrjar {as it 
behoves) hly5num syni ; sem J)eim 
byrjaSi at manntali, ifi due proportion 
to their mtmber. 

byrja (atS), v. impers., e-m byrjar 
vel (ilia), one gets fair {foul) wind 

(byrjaSi t>eim vel um hausiit). 

byi^jan-ligr, a. that is to begin. 

byrjar-gol, xv. gentle breeze. 

byila (at5), v. to pour out ; byrlar 

hann i hornin, he fills out the cups ; 

with dat., to serve (a cup) to one 

(SnjofriS byrlaSi ker mjadar fullt 

byriari, m. cup-bearer. 
byr-lei^i, n. favourable wind (fa 

gott -leioi) ;, di. gently blowing; 

-leysa, f. lack of fair wind, 
byiii, m. = byriari. 


byr-ligr, a. promising a fair wind 
(Jjvi at ekki er -ligtj ; ekki -ligr 
draumr, a bad dreajn ; -litill, a. 
faintly blowing with fair wind. 

byrr (-jar, -ir), m. fair wind ; e-m 
gefr vel byri (ace. pi. ), one gets a fair 
wind', bifla byrjar, liggja til byrjar, 
to wait, lie by, for a fair wind ; b. 
rennr a, a fair breeze begins to blow ; 
b. tekr at vaxa, the wind freshens. 

byrsta (-sta, -str), v. (i) to furnish 
with bristles ; {2) to cover as with 
bristles ; borg gulli byrst, with the 
gable-head mou?ited with gold ; (3) 
refl., byrstast, to bristle up, to show 

byrstr, pp. set with bristles ; fig. 

byr-ssBll, a. lucky i7i getting fair 
wind', -vsenligr, -v8Bnn, ?i. promising 
a fair wind. 

bysja (busti), v. to gush (busti bl65 
d brimis eggjar). 

bytna (acS), v. to come to the bottom. 

bytta, f . small t-ub, pail, bucket. 

byttu-austr, la. baling {a. ship) with 

byxa (-ta, -t), v., b. s^r, to jump 
(si6an byxti hann sdr i. sjomnj. 

bjrxing, f. violent tossing. 

by, n. bee ; -fluga, f. = by ; -flygi,n. 
= -flugur. 

byfur, f. pi. clumsy feet ; rdtta b., to 
stretch out the legs. 

byr (-jar, -ir), m. = boer. 

bysn, n. and f. wonder, portent 
(t>etta eru stor b.). 

bysna (acS), v. (i) to bode, portend 
({)etta bysnar tjon ok sorg) ; (2) b. 
skal til batnaSar, things must run to 
an extreme before they get better. 

bysna-veSr, n. portentous weather ; 
-vetr, m. a winter of portents. 

by-Btokkr, m. bee-hive. 

byta (-tta, -tt), v. (i) to deal out 
(bytti Hrafn silfrinu) ; (2) to exchange 

(byttum vi6 jordum okkar). 

byti, n. exchange, barter. 

baatSi (n. dual from ' baSir ', used as) 
conj., (l)b. .. dk,both .. and; b. vitr 
ok framgjarn, both wise and bold; b. 

at lasrdomi ok vitrleik ok atgervi, 

both in learning, and wisdofn, and 




accompUshjiients \ (2) b. .. enda, ^^M 
. . and also, and indeed. 

bSBgi-fotr, m. '' lame-foot\ a nick- 
name of one who was *haltr'. 

bfiBging, f. thwarting. 

besginn, a. cross-grained. 

baBgja (-tSa, -t), v. (i) to make one 
give way, to push, with dat. ; b. skipi 
or laegi, to push the ship frotn her 
7noorings', b. heraSsvist, to remove 
from the district ', honum bsegSi ve6r 
ok bar hann til eyja peirra er Sylling- 
ar heita, the weather drove him out 
of his course and he was carried to 
the Scilly islands', (2) to hinder (ef 
eigi baegja nauSsynjar J)eirra) ; (3) 
refl., baegjast vi6 e-n, to quarrel 
or strive with one (J)^ vill hann 
eigi vi6 J)a baegjast). 

bSBla (-da, -dr), v. to consume by 
fire (brenna ok b.). 

baera (-tSi, -t), v. impers., gekk din 
undir J)at J)d er meirr baerdi, when 
the waves (bdrur) rose higher. 

bSBri-ligr, a. (i) able to be carried 
(-hgr a herSum) ; {1) fit, seeinly. 

beerr, a. entitled to ; b. er hverr at 
raSa sinu, every one has a right to 
dispose of his own property. 

boBsa (-ta, -tr), v. to drive cattle 
into the stall ( = basa). 

bsBsingr, m. (o7ie born in a bass), a 
child of an outlawed 7noiher. 

boejar-biskup, m. tow?i bishop ; 
-bruni, m. bttrning of a town or 
farjn-house ; -bygtS, f. town-district ; 
-folk, n. =-menn; -gjald, n. town- 
rate; -ly^r, m. =-menn; -IcgmaSr, 
m. town-justice ; -maSr, m. 1 1 ) in- 
habitant of a town ; -menn, towns- 
folk, tow7tsmen ; (2) citizen ; -seta, f. 
dwelling \stay) in town; -starf, n., 
-sysla, f. town office. 

boeki-skogr, m. beech-wood (svin er 
ganga 1 boekiskogi). 

boeklingr, m. little book, booklet. 

boeli, n. (i) den, lair; (2) fann, 

boen (pi. -ir), f. request, prayer; er 
su b. allra var, at, we all beg, that; 
skaltu veita mer b. J)a {grant me the 

request), er ek mun bi3ja Jjik ; fel'a b. 
at e-m, til e-s, to entreat one ; gera 

e-t at been e-s, at his entreaty or 
prayer ; vera (liggja) d boenum, to 
be at prayers ; biSja b. sinni, boenar 
sinnar til gu8s, to pray to God; g63r 
bcena, ready or willing to grant a 
request (konungr var g65r boena). 

boena (-da, -dr), v. to request, en- 
treat, pray (b. e-n). 

boena-fullting, n. the support of 
prayers ; -g0rc5, f. = -hald, n. {say- 
ing) prayers (H. gekk hverja nott til 
kirkju til -halds). 

boenahalds-matSr, m. one who 
prays, religious ma?i (-maSr mikill). 

boena-hus, n. = boenhus ; -kail, n. 
calling upon (God) in player 'y 
-kraptr, m. power of prayer. 

bcBnar-br6f, n. petition ; -ort5, n. pi. 

(1) entreaty, prayer; (2) ivooing, 
courtship; -stat5r, m. (i) place of 
worship ; (2) request, entreaty (pat 
er -staSr minn til allrar alj)y8u, at) ; 
-timi, m. hour of prayers. 

bcena-stat^r, m. (i) = boenarsta3r I.; 

(2) = boenarsta6r 2.; i. {)vi er mdr 
-staQr, at, / beg, that ; gera e-t fyrir 
-sta5 e-s, to do a thing at one's inter- 
cession ; -traust, n. confidence in one's 
prayer or intercession (fela sik undir 
-traust e-s). 

bcen-bifast (at5), v. refl. to be moved 
by prayers; -heyrtSr, pp. willing to 
hear one's prayers ; (gorast -heyrQr 
v\b e-n) ; -hus, n. house of prayer, 
chapel ; -roekinn, a. diligent in 

boer (gen. boejar, pi. -ir, dat. -jum), 
m. {\) fa?'7?i house, farmstead ; reisa, 
gora, setja boe, efna til bcejar, to build 
a far >7i stead; (2) far/n, la7ided estate 
(nil bua tveir menn "k einum boe ec5a 
fleirij ; (3) to%v7i ; 1 boe ok 1 hera5i = 
i kaupangri ok i heraSi ; borgir ok 
bceir, castles a7id towns. 

boeta (-tta, -ttr), v. (l) to better ^ 
i77iprove (ar Jiosr, sem mikit boeta 
landit) ; b. xi.h sitt {to better one's 
conditio7t) ok biSja konu ; b. aptr, to 
restore; b. at e-u, to repair; b. upp 
borg, to repair it; {2) to 77iake up for ^ 
C077ipe7isate ; ef J)er vilit eigi b. (7nake 
up for) t)at er per hafit brotit ; b. 
gloep sinn, syndir sinar, to atone for 




onis crime, sins ; b. e-m e-t, to com- 
pensate one for a thing (=b. e-t vi5 
e-n) ; Styrr v^ morg vig, en boetti 
engi {viz. vig', S. slew many men, 
hit paid for none; b. mann fe (dat.), 
to pay weregild for one slain (Hrafn- 
kell bcetti engan mann fe); b. sdl 
sina, to devote one's efforts to the 
saving of one's soul ; b. um e-t, to 
improve a thing; ekki boetist um, 
matters groiu worse ; b. yfir e-t, to 
make good again, redress ; (3) /^ heal, 
restore to health ; gu3 bcEtti honum 
af Jiessi sott. God healed him of that 
disease ; with gen. of the disease ; b. 
e-m sinnar vanheilsu, to restore one 
to health ; refl., e-m boetist, one gets 
better, is restored to health ; with gen. 
of the disease (bcEttist Bua augna- 

boetandi (pi. -endr), m. 07ie who 
has to pay weregild. 

boettr, pp. (cf. 'boeta') atoned for \ 
er mer ekki sonr minn at boettari, 
pott Bolii se drepinn, my son's death 
is none the more atoned' for though B. 
is slain ; ok er eigi at boettra, pott, 
things are no better, though. 

boexl, n. shoulder of a dragon ; 
flipper of a whale. 

boS (gen. botSvar), f. poet, battle. 

botS-froGkinn, a. valiant in battle^ 

botJvast (atS), v. refl. to become 
quarrelsome (bo6va3ist at vini). 

boggull, m. a small bag, bundle, a 

bol (dat. bolvi; gen. pi. bolva), n. 
bale, misfortune (pd er botin nasst, er 
boht er haest). 

bol-boen, f. imp^-ecation ; -fengi, f. 
malice ; -fenginn, a. evil-minded. 

bollottr, a. ball-shaped, round like 
a ball (bollott eggskurn). 

bollr (gen. ballar, dat. belli; pi. 
bellir, ace. bollu), m. (i) ball, globe 
(b. jarSar) ; (2) b. svinfylkingar, the 
front of a phalanx. 

bol-rann, n. house of woe ; -stafir, 
m. pi. 'evil runes*, misfortune. 

bolva (a$),v. (l) to curse, yi'iih. dat.; 
(2) to swear. 

bolvan, f. curse, imprecation, 

bolva-smiSr, m. the contriver of 
mischief (Loki). 

bol-via?, a. ^ balewise\ ?naligna?it, 

borkr (gen. barkar, dat. berki), m. 
bark (d berki ok a bac5mi). 

borr, m. a kind of tree ; b. skjaldar, 
warrior (poet.). 

bdrur, f. pl. = barar, barir. 

dafla (atS), v. to dabble {splash) with 
the oars (pu skalt d. i drum). 

dafna (acS), v. to thrive (hann nam 
at vaxa ok vel dafna). 

daga (a^), v. impers., to dawn; 
eptir um morguninn er trautt var 
dagat, at early dawn ; e-n dagar uppi, 
the day dawns upon one (of dwarfs 
and giants). 

daga-kaup, n. daily wages ; fara 
me6 -kaup. to work for daily wages, 
be a day-labourer. 

dagan, f. dawn, daybreak. 

daga-tal, n. tale of days. 

dag-baS, n. daily bath; -bolli, m. 
^ day-bow r (a vessel containing 
sufficient wine for a whole day) ; 

-drykkja, f. day-drinking (beginning 
after the ' dagverdr ') ; -far, n., in the 
phrase, fara -fari (dat.) ok ndttfari, to 
travel day and ?tight; -fasta, {.fast- 
ing by day ; -fdtt, a. n., in the phrase, 
e-m verSr -fdtt, the day is not long 
enough for one ; -ferS, -for, f. days 
joicr?tey ; -ganga, f. day's walk ; 
-langr, a. day-long, lasting all day 
(-langt erfi6i) ; -langt, as adv., all 
through the day \ -leiS, f. day's 
journey (fara fullum dagleiSum) ; 
-lengis. adv. all day long, = -\^.r\%\.; 
-liga, adv. daily, every day ; -ligr, a. 
daily, occurring every day ; -mal, n. 
pi. the time about 9 o^ clock a.m. 
dagmala-skeiS, n., -tit5, f. = dagmdi. 




dag-messa, f. day-mass (held at 
* dagmil ') ; -mcgr, m. * son of the 
day ', poet. 7;tan. 

dagr (gen. dags, dat. degi ; pi. 
dagar), m. (i) day; at kveldi skal 
dag leyfa, a/ eventide shall the day be 
praised ; dagr kemr upp i austri, sezt 
i vestri, the day rises in the east, sets 
in the west ; ondverSr d., the early 
day, forenoon ; midr d., midday ; 
hallandi d., declining day ; at kveldi 
dags, si6 dags, late m the day ; sannr 
(em d., true as day ; i dag, to-day ; i. 
sor um) daginn, diu'ing the day ; 
sama dags, the same day ; annan dag, 
the next day ; annars dags, atiother 
day; hindra dags, the day after, 
to-7norrow; dag fra degi, hvern dag 
fra 65rum, from day to day ; dag 
eptir dag, day after day ; nott ok dag, 
night a?id day ; dogunum optar, 
more titnes than there are days, over 
and over again ; a deyjanda degi, on 
one^s death-day ; (2) pi., days, times; 
ef aSrir dagar (better days) koma ; 
goSir dagar, happy days ; (3) esp. pi., 
lifetime; a dogum e-s, um daga e-s, 
in the days of, duri?ig or in the reign 
of; eptir minn dag, when I af?i dead 
(gaf honum alia sina eign eptir sinn 
dag) ; matti harm eigi lengr gefa en 
um sina daga, tha?i for his lifetime ; 
ri3a (taka) e-n af dogum, to put to 

dag-rat5, n. (i) convenient time (for 
doing a thing) ; (2) leita -ra3s, to be an 
observer of days or times (menn skulu 
eigi leita -rdSs at syslu sinni) ; -rotSr, 
m. day'^s rowing; -sannr, a. plain 
{true) as day ; fii segir -sanna ( = hit 
-sanna), the obvious truth. 

dags-brun, f. the first streak of day- 
light, daybreak. 

dag-setr, n. nightfall (um kveld 
naer -setri). 

dagsetrs-skeic5, n. the time about 

dag-sett, pp. n., er -sett var, when 
the day was at an end, at nightfall. 

dags-hald, n. the celebration of a 
day ; -helgr (gen. -helgar), f. 
hallowedness of a day. 

dag-skemtan, f. pastit^ie ; -slgarr. 

a. shunning the daylight ; -slatta, f. 
day's 7nowing ( = three quarters of an 
acre of grassland). 

dags-]j6s, n. daylight; -magn, n., 
at -magni oernu, in full daylight ; 
-munr, m. a day's differe7ice (sva at 
-mun ser a). 

dag-starf, n. day's work; -stingr, 
m. daybreak (rare) ; -stjarna, f. the 
morning star; -stund, f. (i) day 
ti??ie, a whole day ; (2) an hour of the 
day ; -stoett, a. n. fixed as to the day 
(eigi hofum ver fundit -stoett, nser 
signaSr Thomas var kjorinn til erki- 

dags-upprds, f. dawn, daybreak ; 
-verk, n. = dagstarf. 

dag-tiSir, f. pi. day- service ; -timi, 
m. the tiine of daylight. 

dag-veizla, f. help to win the day. 

dagvercSar-bor^, n. day-meal table 
(sitja, snseSa, at -borSi) ; -drykkja, f. 
the drinking after dagverSr, = dag- 
dry kkj a ; -mdl, n. tJie time of the day- 

dag-verc5r (-ver^ar, -vertSi, pi. 
-verSir), m. *• day-meaV (the chief 
meal, taken at the time of ' dagmal '), 

= dogurSr ; -villr, a. not knowing 
what day it is, = daga villr ; -voxtr, 
m. growth of a day ; vaxa -voxtum, 
to grow visibly day by day ; -ping, n. 
appointed 7neeti?ig, conference ; -J)inga 
(atS), V. negotiate (vid e-n um e-t) ; 
-J)ingan, f. (i) negotiation ; (2) agree- 
inent between pai'ties. 

dala (aS), v. impers. to become 
dented (daladi ekki ne sprakk). 

dal-bui, m. = -byggi ; -bygS, f . dale- 
country ; -byggi (pi. -jar), m. dweller 
in a dale ; -land, n. dale-grotmd. 

dalmatika, f. dalmatic. 

dalr (gen. dais, dat. dal or dali ; 
pi. dalar or dalir), m. dale, valley 
(djupir dalir). 

dals-botn, m. bottotn (= head) of a 
dale ; -mynni, n. mouth of a dale, 

dal-verpi, n. little dale. 

Dana-konungr, m. King of the 
Danes ; -veldi, n. the Danish empire ; 
-virki, n. the Danish wall, 

Danir, m. pi. the Danes. 

Danmork, f. Denmark, 




dans» m. (i) dance ^ daficing \ (2) 
dance-tune \ sla d., to strike tip a 
dance-time \ (3) ballad (t)eir g0r3u 
um hann dansa marga). 
dansa (a5), v. to dance, 
dan ska, f. Danish (language). 
danskr, a. Danish ; donsk tunga, 
the Da?iish {or old Scandinavian) 
dans-leikr, m. dance, dancing. 
dapi, m. pool, puddle, a nickname. 
dapr (ace. dapran), a. downcast, 
sad', of things, dreary (d. dagr, 
daprar n£etr, dopr heimkynni). 
daprast (acS), v. refl. to become 
faint ; dapraSist honum sundit, the 
swinijning became difficult for him. 
dapr-eygcSr, 2i. weak-sighted', -ligr, 
a. dismal, sad', daprlig asjona, « ja^f 
look ; daprlig kona, a dismal-lookitig 
woma7t ; daprligir draumar, dismal 
darr, n. spear, dart', darra^r (gen. 
-ar), m.=darr; vefr darraQar, web of 
spears, woof of war. 
dasatSr, pp. weary and exhausted 
(from cold or bodily exertion). 
dasast (at5), v. refl. to becofne weary 
and exhausted. 
datta (atS), v. to throb ; dattaSi 
hjarta bans vi6, his heart sank. 
dautSa-bond, n. pi. (i) bonds of 
death ; (2) wrappings for the dead, 
winding-sheet', -dagr, m. death-day, 
dying day, -domr, m. sentence of 
death ; -drep, n. plague ; -dreyri, m. 
blood of death ; -drukkinn, pp. dead- 
drtmk ; -drykkr, m. deadly draught ; 
-dvol, f . delay of one's death ; -dcegr, 
n. death-day, -doemdr, pp. doo7ned 
to death ; -fleinn, m. deadly shaft ; 
-floS, n. plague-, -fylgja, f. ^ death- 
fetch\ an apparition boding one's 
death ; -jorS, f. hell, opp. to 'jor5 
lifandi manna ', 'udainsakr ',/<?r«^zj<? ; 
-kraptr, m. deadly power; -kvol, f . 
death-pang \ -kyn, n. manner of 
death ; -litr, m. colour {pallor) of 
death ; -maSr, m. a man doomed to 
death ; vilja hafa e-n at -manni, to 
seek his life ; -mark, n. sign of death ; 
-mein, n. moital disease; -net, n. 
the net of death (draga -net at e-m) ; 

-ort5, n. = banaor3 ; segja -or6 e-s. to 
relate one's death ; -pina, f. capital 
punishment (pola -pinu) ; -raS, n.the 
planni?ig of a person's death, = 
rdd ; -rog, n. deadly slander; -skattr, 
m. tribute of death ; -skellr, m. death- 
blow ; a nassta dag eptir datt honum 
-skellr, he was surprised by death ; 
-skuld, f. the debt of nature (gjalda 
-skuld) ; -slag, n. death-blow; veita 
e-m -slag, to strike 07ie dead; -slig, 
n. deadly strain (of the muscles or 
tendons, of a horse) ; -snara, f. snare 
of death ; -sonr, m. = -ma6r ; -steytr, 
m. = -slag ; -stingr, m. deadly thrust ; 
setja e-m -sting, to kill one ; -stund, 
f. hour of death ; -svefn, m. deadly 
swoon, fatal sleep ; -svertS, n. fatal 
sword; -sok, f. (i) cause of one's 
death ; (2) tnatter of death, a deed 
deserving death ; -takn, n. token of 
death ; -utlegtS, f. penalty of death ; 
-verk, n. = -sok 2. 

dau$-dagi, m. death, manner of 
death ; -drukkinn, pp. = dau5adrukk- 
inn ; -foerandi, pr. p. death-bringing, 
deadly (-foeranda gras, eitr). 

dautSi, m. death ; taka dauSa, to 
fneet one's death, die ; d. ferr i. e-n, 
one is sicrprised by death ; draga e-m 
til dauSa, to cause one s death : sa 
vegr, er til daucia dregr, that leads to 
death ; liggja fyrir dauSanum, to be 
dying or on the point of death » 

daucS-leikr, m. (i) deadness, lifeless- 
ness ; (2) the state of being mortal, 
mortality ; -liga, adv. mortally ; 
-ligr, a. (l) deadly, fatal (-ligr harmr, 
-lig synd, -ligt eitr) ; (2) liable to 
death, mortal {-Xx-gx maSr). 

dau(5r (gen. dau(5s), m. = dauQi 
(drepa, brenna, e-n til dauQs). 

dauSr, a. (i) dead; verSa, vera, d., to 
become dead, die ; falla nidr d., to drop 
down dead ; ganga d., to reappear (of 
ghosts), = ganga aptr ; (2) inanimate 
(dautt f^, opp. to ' kvikfe '). 

dautS-staddr, a. dying, at the point 
of death ; -stra, n. pi., in the phrase, 
liggja i. -stram, to be dyiftg (cf. 
Mikstrd', 'nastrd') ; -vdna, a. indecl. 

= dau6v2enn 2; -vaenn, a. (i) deadly, 
fatal (-vaenn drykkr) ; (2) sinking 




fast, -past all hope ; -yfli, n. lifeless 
thing, carcase. 

dauf-hejrrast (t5), v. refl. to tiirn a 
deaf ear to (vi5 e-t) ; -heyrSr, a. 
turning a deaf ear to (vi6 e-t) ; 
-leikr, m. slothftilness, sloth ; -lig- 
leikr, m. dullness; -ligr, a. lonely, 
dull {J)6tti honum daufligt). 

daufr, a. ^'^^/"(dumbir ok daufir). 

daiinatSr, a., ilia d., evil-smelling. 

daun-mikill, a. havi7ig a strong 
{bad) smell. 

daunn, m. bad smell, opp. to * ilmr '. 

daun-semd, f. stench, stink. 

daunsna (atS), v. to smell {sniff) at. 

dauss, m. the two at dice, deiice ; 
kasta daus ok ^s, to throw deuce-ace. 

da (ddi, datSa, ddSr), v. to admire 
(daSu menn mjok dans bans) ; refl., 
ddst at e-m, to admire otie. 

da, n. trance, senseless state (falla i 
dd, liggja 1 dai). 

daS, f. (i) ^f<?^/; drygja d., to do a 
daring deed; (2) valour, energy (ef 
nokkur d. er i J)er) ; (3) 7nerit, virtue 
(syndalauss ok allra da3a fullr). 

dat5a-fullr, a. deedful\ -lauss, a. 
I'oluptuous, sensual. 

da$-lauss, a. inactive, sluggish, 
spiritless ; -leysi, n. dastardli?iess ; 
-leysingi (pi. -jar), m. a good-for- 
nothing, worthless person ; -rakkr, a. 
valiant, doughty ; -semi, f. bravery ; 
-vandr, a. virtuous. 

daendi or daindi, n. (i) excellence', 
(2) admiration ; (3) miracle. 

da-leikar, m. pi. intimacy, 

dd-liga, adv. badly ; -ligr, a. bad, 
evil ; poor, wretched. 

dalkr, ts\.{\) a pin (to fasten a cloak 
with) ; (2) dagger. 

damaSr, a. tasted, flavoured (t)at er 
ddmat allikt mungdti). 

ddm-goSr, a. well-flavoured. 

ddmr, nx. flavour (illr d.). 

ddnar-arfr, m. inherita7ice froi?i one 
deceased ; -dagr, m., -doegr, n. (^<;zy of 
death ; -f6, n.=-arfr. 

ddr, n. i-<r<?^; draga d. at e-m, to 
ffiake game or jest of one, to ridicule 
one ; cf. ' ddra '. 

ddr, a., scarcely used except in the 
neut., *datt,' (l) e-m verSr datt vi3 

e-t, one is startled at a thing (vi6 \)2m 
tiSendi var3 honum svd datt, sem 
hann vasri steini lostinn) ; (2) e-m 
verdr datt um e-t, one is pleased with 
a thing', svd var d^tt me6 J^eim, at, 
they were on stich friendly terms that ; 
gera sdr datt vi3 e-n, to be very 
fafniliar with one ; l)a var nu 1 datt 
efni komit, they had cojne to be good 

dara (aS), v. (i) to mock, j?iake 
sport of one, with ace. ; (2) to impose 
upon one ; d. e-t af e-m, to cheat one 
out of a thing. 

dara-samligr, a. foolish ; -skapr, 
m. (i) scoff, mockery; gora -skap at 
e-u, to make sport of', (2) imposition^ 

dari, m.fool, buffoon. 

daru-skapr, m. = daraskapr. 

da-sama (atS), v. to admire ; 
-samandi, admi?'able ; -samliga, adv. 
admirably, wonderfully ; -samligr, a. 
admirable, wonderful ; -senad, f. (i) 
admiration ; (2) marvellous glory ; 
-semi, f. = -semd. 

dasi, m. sluggard. 

dd-vaenn, a. very pretty. 

deging, f. dawn, dawning. 

degradera (at5), v. degrade, dismiss 
(d. e-n af vigslu). 

deig, n. dough. 

deigja (-t5a, -t5r), v. to make soft, 
to weaken. 

deigja, f. seri'ant-tnaid, dairy- 
maid (deigja e3r onnur hjiin). 

deigr, a. (l) soft, of metal; (2) 
timid, cowajdly. 

deila (-da, -dr), v. fi) to divide into 
parts ; su i., er deilir me6 jotna 
sonum grund ok me6 goSum, that 
river which parts the giants and the 
gods ; allt {)at land, er vatnsfoll deila 
til sjofar, of which the divers form 
the boundaries down to the sea ; vildi 
H. baeSi kjosa ok d., H. would both 
choose and deal (viz. divide the catch 
in shares and choose for himself the 
share he liked best) ; lata e-n kjosa 
ok d., /^ give one an arbitrary power 
in a case ; with dat. (hversu ma 
keisarinn d. ser i tva staSi) ; (2) to 
deal outf apportion^ allot ; deildr 




hlutr, a share allotted to one\ d. 
dogurS, mat d mdlum, to deal out 
portions of food in a household] d. 
\\g meS verum, to deal victory fairly 
among men ; (3) to disti?iguishy dis- 
cern, = greina ; eptir {)at sd sol ok 
mdtti J)d d. aettir, they could then 
discern the quarte7'S of heaven ; d. 
liti, to discern colours ; eigi deilir litr 
kosti (ace. pi.), colour is no sure test 
of the quality ; (4) to busy or occupy 
oneself withy deal with (engi maSr i. 
onnur mil at d. i kirkju, nema biSja 
fyrir sdr) ; hann vi6 Rig runar deilcli, 
he capped runes {spells) with R,\ d. 
orSspeki vi6 e-n, to contend in learning 
with one ; J)6tt hringbrotar heiptir 
deili, though men hate one another ; 
d. knlf ok kjotstykki, to share knife 
and meat ; (5) d. vi3 e-n, to quarrel 
with one (d. vi6 heimska hali) ; 
deili grom vi5 I)ik, may the fiends 
bandy words with thee ; d. um e-t, to 
quarrel, contest about ; J)eir deildu 
um {they had a lawsuit about) jarQir ; 
d. i e-n, to contefta against one ; d. 
illyrSum, illdeildum, to chide, abuse 
one another ; d. afli, ofriki, vi5 e-n, to 
deal harshly and overbearingly with 
one ; impers., ef i J)at deilir, if there 
be dissent on that point ; ef i deilir 
me6 J)eim, if they disagree ; (6) to be 
master of possess (d. bauga, f^) ; hug 
skaltu d., thou shalt control thy 
mind [feelings) ; J)ar er munu6 deilir, 
when love is concerned, iJi a 7natter 
of love-, (7) refl., deilast, to spread, 
branch off \s^i. vi6a sem kristni deilist 
um heim) ; medan mer deilist lifit til, 
as long as life is granted me ; d. at 
e-u, to disagree about a thing. 

deila, f. disagreement, contest ; eiga, 
halda, deilu vi5 e-n, to quarrel or 
contend with one. 

deild, f. (i) dole, share', fara at 
deildum, to be parcelled out \ fa illt or 
deildum, to get a bad share, be 
worsted; inokkurri d., /«;//)/ ; i a6ra 
d., i J)ri5ju d., secondly, thif-dly \ (2) 
quarrel, contest, litigatioti ; leggja 
mil i d., to make a matter the subject 
of a lawsuit. 

deildar-arfr, m. inheritance in 

shares ; -lit5, n. strong body of men 
that can be divided in detachments. 

deili, n. pi. distinctive features ; 
kunna, vita oil (engi) d. i. e-u, to 
know all {nothing) about a thing', sa 
J)6 oil d. a. honum, all his features 
were visible. 

deilir, m. one who deals out, dis- 
tribh'tor ; bauga d., giver of rings ; 
sverSa d., warrior, hero (poet.). 

deilis-steinn, m. boundary stone. 

deilu-efni, n. matter of disptite ; 
-g-jarn, a. quarrelsome, contentious', 
-mal, n. quarrel ; -vsenligr, a. likely 
to lead to a quarrel. 

dekan (pi. -ar), m. deacon, = d^)^vi. 

dekreta (aS), v. to decree (rare). 

dekreta, f. decree (rare). 

dengS, f., denging, f. the sharpening 
of a scythe by hanunering (cf. ' le- 

dengir, m. one who hatnmers or 
sharpens, a nickname. 

dengja (-da, -dr), v. (i) to beat, to 
ha7?imer', (2) to sharpen (a scythe) by 
hajnmering \ {3) to egg on. 

depill (dat. depli), m. spot, dot. 

des (-jar, -jar), f. hay-rick. 

detta (dett ; datt, duttum ; dott- 
inn), V. to drop, fall', d. ni6r daudr, 
to drop down dead; duttu ftasr of an, 
they tu7nbled down ; sau6f^na6r datt 
nidr unnvorpum {dropped down, died 
sudde7ily, in heaps) i megrd ; spjot 
dettr or hendi e-m, the spear drops 
out of one's hand ; dauSinn dettr a, 
comes on suddenly ; datt nor6anve6rit 
1 logn, the north wi7idfell altogether ; 
lata e-t d. ni6r, to let a 77iatter drop. 

dett-hendr, a. a kind of 77iet7'e. 

detti-yrtSi, n. scoff, sneers. 

dettr, m. thu7np (heyrSu t)eir brest 
ok dett sem nakkvat felli). 

dett-yr^i, n. = detti-yr6i. 

deyc5a (-dda, -ddr), v. (i) to kill, 
put to death ; (2) to 77iake mill a7id 
void (d. dom) ; d. likamliga lostu, 
girndir holdsins, d. sik, to 7nortify the 
lus4s of the flesh. 

deySr, a. deserving of, liable to, 
death (draepr ok d.). 

deyfa (-Sa, -tSr), v. (l) to make deaf 
(daufr) ; impers., hann deyfSi, he 




became deaf\ (2) to make blunt (d. 
^'g'g^ sverS, vdpn) ; (3) to soothe^ allay 
(d. kvalar, sakar). 

deyf t5, f., deyfi, f. deafness. 

deyja (dey ; do, doum ; ddinn), v. 
to die (deyr fe, deyja frasndr) ; hann do 
af eitri, or sarum, he died of poison, 
from wounds ; d deyjanda degi, on 
one's dyinc day, on one's deathbed] of 
a limb (do fotleggrinn allr) ; of inani- 
mate things, dainn arfr, an inheritance 
left to the heir. 

deyna (-da, -t), v. to stink, 

deyning, f. stink, stench. 

digla (aS), v. to drip (diglaSi 
niSr lir kyrtlinum). 

digna (atS), v. {\) to lose temper (of 
steel) ; [2) to lose heart. 

digr (ace. digran), a. (l) big, stout, 
opp. to 'grannr' ; d. sem naut, big as 
an OX', d. fotr, a big leg; hon gekk 
d. med tvelm, she was big with 
twins ; (2) thick, = l)jokkr, opp. to 
* J)unnr * ; digrt belti, a thick belt ; 
nautssiSa feit ok d., a fat and thick 
side of beef; (3) of sound, deep (J)at 
hljod er digrara) ; (4) big, haughty ; 
digr or6, big words, threats ; gera sik 
digran, to pii^ oneself up. 

digrast (atS), v. refl. (i) to grow big, 
of a pregnant woman ; (2) to make one- 
self big, become haughty (eigi digrast 
hann e6a drambar). 

digr-barkliga, adv. haughtily ^ boast- 
fully (Mta, masla, -barkliga). 

digr-beinn, a. big-legged. 

digrtS, f. bigness, thickness. 

digr-halsat$r, a. big-necked, — \\ii\s- 
digr; -leikr, m. (i) bigness; (2) of 
sound, deepness, lowness of pitch ; 
-liga, adv. haughtily (Idta -liga) ; 
-ligr, a. big, haughty (-lig or6, and- 
svor) ; -neigat5r, a. big-nosed, — nef- 
<iigr ; "yrt$i, n. pi. big words. 

digull (pi. diglar), m. (i) « hanging 
drop, drip ; (2) crtccible, melting-pot. 

dik, n. run, leap ; taka d., to take to 

dikt, n. co7nposition in Lati?i. 

dikta (at5), v. (i) to compose in 
Latin (d. ok skrifa bref d L^tinu) ; 
(2) to bring about, make; (3) to 
invent^ devise^ think out (hann gerir 

i. somu lei6 sem fjandinn fyrir honum 

diktan, f. composition in Latin, 

diktr, m. = dikt (rare). 

dilk-fe, n. ewes together with their 
lambs (dilkfjdreign). 

dilkr, m. a sucking-lamb, kid, calfy 
pig (J)6tt kyr leiSi dilka). 

dilks-hofutS, n. lamb's head. 

dilk-ser, f. a ewe with a lamb. 

dimina (aS), v. to make dark^ 
darken; impers., um kveldit, er d. 
tok, when it began to grow dark; 
tekr at d. af nott, the night comes on ; 
refl., dimmast, to grow dark (er nott 

dimma, f. darkness (d. naetrinnar); 
dimmu dregr i. e-t, it begins to look 
gloomy, threatening. 

dimm-hljoSr, a. = dimmradda3r. 

dimmr, a. difn, dark, gloomy; 
dokkt ok dimmt s'k)f, a dim and dark 
cloud ; e-m verSr dimmt fyrir augum, 
one sees ditnly. 

dimm-raddaSr, a. deep-voiced. 

dirfa (-tSa, -t), v. to make bold; esp. 
d. sik or dirfast, to dare ; dirfast til 
e-s or at e-u, to have courage for a 
thing; boendr dirfSust mjok vi5 
Birkibeina, becafne bold, tjnpudent ; 
dirfast at gera e-t, to dare to do a 

dirfS, f. boldness, courage, 

dirokkr, m. drudge. 

diskorda (atS), v. to disagree with 
(viQ e-n). 

diskr (-S, -ar), m. plate, dish. 

disputa (atS), disputera (at5), v. to 

diar, m. -pX. gods or priests. 

diki, m. dike, ditch. 

dili, m. spot, mark. 

dis (pi. disir), f. (i) sister (heitir 
ok systir d.); (2) a female guardian 
angel, goddess ; (3) 7naid. 

disa-blot, n. a sacrifice to the disir ; 
-salr, m. hall {temple) of the disir. 

divisera (atS), v. to distribute. 

djarf-leikr, m. boldness, courage; 
-liga, adv. (i) boldly; (2) certainly 
(Jjat vaeri -liga minn dauSi) ; -ligr, a. 
bold, daring ; -m.annligr, a. bold- 
looking; -msBltr, a. bold of speech. 




djarfi", a. bold, daring (d. f orrust- 
um) ; d. ok dularfullr, ijnpudent and 

djarf-toeki, n. boldness in taking \ 
-tcBkr, a. bold in taking. 

djdkn (-8, -ar), m., djakni, m. 

djdsn, n. diadem. 

djup, n. (l) deep water, deep place ; 
(2) the deep sea, deep (kastaSi hann 
0xinni fyrir borcJ d djupi) ; (3) pit (d. 

djup-auSigr, a. very rich ; -hugatSr, 
a. sagacious, ingenious', -hyggja, f. 
sagacity ; -leikr, m. depth ; -ligr, a. 
deep, profound (-lig rad). 

djupr, a. ( i) deep (d. saer, djup tjorn, 
djupt vatn) ; d. hottr, a deep hat 
(coming down over the eyes) ; (2) 
heavy, severe (djup laun ok ill) ; neut., 
djupt, as adv., deep^ deeply ; leggjast 
djupt, to dive deep. 

djup-ratSr, -ratSugr, a. deep-coun- 
selling, cunning', -reBtSi, n. deep- 
scheming', -settr, pp. (i) deep-laid 
(-sett rd^6, or6) ; (2) deep, penetrating. 

djiips-hofn, {.fishing-line. 

djup-s8Bi, f. deep-seeing, penetration. 

djup-s8Br, a. penetrating] -utSigr, 
a. deep-minded', -vitr, a. deeply 
wise, profound, sagacious. 

djofla-blot, n. worshipping of 
devils ; -flokkr, m. host of devils ; 
-mot, n. meeting of devils. 

djofull (dat. §'ofli, pi. djoflar), m. 
devil', freq. as a term of abuse (taki 
l)er djoful {)enna). 

djoful-ligr, a. devilish. 

dj6ful-6$r, 2i. possessed. 

djofuls-kraptr, m. diabolical power \ 
-prestr, x^-x. priest of the devil. 

djoful-oerr, a. = dj6ful66r. 

djorfung, f. boldness^ daring feat (J)d 
djorfung J)or6i engi at g0ra). 

djorfungar-fullr, a. bold, audacious. 

do(5ka, f. a kind of bird. 

doSna (aS), v. to become insensible. 

dot$r-kvisa, f. a kind of bird. 

dofi, m. torpor, numbness ; dofinn, 
a. benumbed, dead (d. er mer fotr 
minn) ; dofna (atS), v. to lose vitality 
or force, to become benumbed ( eitrormar- 
nir dofna af naetr kuldanum) ; to be 

come dead, of limbs (dofnaSi hondin) ; 
hugrinn dofnar, the mitid gets heavy ; 
impers., dofnar yfir e-u, the matter 
begins to die down. 

doki, m. strip, shred (ri'sta blaejur f 
sundr i doka). 

dokka, f. windlass. 

doparr, m., doppa, f. knob, boss (of 

dorg, f. trailing-line ({jeir reru me3 
dorgar sinar at sma-fiski). 

dottr, m. a poor, wretched creature 
(hestr er I)eir kalla dott). 

dolg, n. direful enmity ; dolg-liga, 
adv. in a hostile ma7i7ier (Idta -liga). 

dolgr, m. enefnyy fiend \ dauSir 
dolgar, ghosts. 

d6]g-rognir, m. poet, warrior'^ 
-spor, n. gaping zvounds ; -vit5r, m. 
= -rognir. 

doma-dagr, doomsday, = dL6v[\sd^gr. 

domandi (pi. -endrj, m. judge, = 

domara-saBti, n. judgement-seat, 

domari, m. judge (domarans er at 

d6m-f6, n. fee or payment fixed by 
sentence ; -festa, f. submitting to sub- 
poena ; -flogi, m. defaulter (from 
court) ; -hringr, m. fudge7nent-ri7ig''\ 
-bus, n. court-house ; -kirkja, f. 
cathedral; -leggja (see leggja), v. to 
lay before a court ; -ligr, a. judicial ; 
-ligt 2AkM2e.^\, judgement ', -nefna, f. 
the notnination of judges. 

domr (-8, -ar), m. (i ) opinion, judge' 
ment (d. um dauSan hvem); (2) 
judicial decision, decree, jzidgement, 
sentence', striSr d., a seve?-e judge- 
mettt ; rettlatr i domum, impartial as 
judge ; segja upp dom, to pronounce 
{pass) sente?2ce', (3) court {of judica- 
ture), the body of judges] ganga 1 
dom, to go into court, take one^s seat 
in court ; setja dom, to set the coiirt, 
to let the judges take their seats ; sitja 
1 domi, to sit in judgemefit or in 
court ; nefna dom, to ?io7ninate {ap- 
point) the jZidges ', scfckja mal i dom, 
to prosecute a lawsuit in court ; hley- 
pa upp domi, to break up the court by 
force', bera \€ i dom, to bribe the 
court 'i rySja dom, to challenge the 




court \ mdl ferr i dom, a case goes 
into court ; (4) state ^ condition ; 
heiSinn d., heathenism ; kristinn d., 
the Christian faith \ (5) heilagr d., 
helgir domar, relic^ relics ; (6) in 
compds., -dom^ -head, -hood (gu5- 
domr, Godhead^ manndomr, manhood^ 
konungdomr, kingdom, Qt'c). 

dom-rof, n. disregard of judgement ; 
-rutSning, f. challenging of judges. 

doms-dagr, m. doomsday, day of 
judgement (d -degi, J)d er gu5 kemr 
at doema allt mannkyn). 

dom-seta, f . sitti?ig in court, judge- 
ment ; -setning, f. setting or opening 
the court, 

doms-matSr, m. judge', -or$, n. 
judgement, sentence. 

dom-spekt, f. acuteness of judge- 
ment, wise discernment', -stat5r, m. 
a place in which a court is held; 
-stefna, f. summoning, citing', -stoll, 
m. judgefftent-seat, tribunal', -saBti, 
n. = -stoll ; -saetr, a. qualified to sit in 
a court as lawful judge (eiga -ssett) ; 
-varzla, f. the guarding of a court; 
-vorzlumacSr, m. a 7nan who guards 
the court. 

dottir (gen., dat., and ace, dottur, 
pi. doetr), f. daughter. 

draf, n. draff, husks. 

drafl, n. idle talk, tattle. 

drafli, m. curdled milk when cooked. 

drafla-yr$i, n.= drafl. 

drafna (at$), v. to become rotten as 
draff [di. sundr). 

drag, n. ( I ) the iron ri7n U7tder the 
keel of a boat or a sledge ; fig., leggja 
d. undir ofmetnaS e-s, to encourage 
one's pride ; (2) an additional line to 
a stanza. 

draga (dreg ; dro, drogum ; dreg- 
inn), V. {\) to draw, drag, pull', d. 
heim viSinn, to drag the logs ho7ne ; 
d. drar, to pull the oars', absol., 
drogu l^eir skjott eptir, they soo7i 
pulled up to them ; d. boga, to draw 
the bow, d. segl, to hoist sails (=d. 
upp segl) ; d. fisk, to catch, pull up 
fish with a line ; d. kvernstein, to 
turn the 77iill-sto7te, to grind', vi6 
ramman mun reip at d., it will be 
pulling a rope against a strong man, 

i.e. it will be a difficult task ; (2) to 
draw, inhale (d. ut)efjan med nosum) ; 
d. nasir af e-u, to S7nell a thing ; d. 
ondina, to breathe, live', (3) to pro- 
cure, earn, gain (J^egar hann hafSi fe 
dregit sem hann vildi) ; d. e-m e-t, to 
procure {or get) 07te a thi7ig (eigi sog- 
6ust t)eir vita, at hann droegi Haraldi 
riki) : (4) to employ as a 7fieastcre (d. 
kvarQa vi6 vaSmai) ; {$) to prolong, 
protract (dvalir J^essar drogu timann) ; 
(6) to delay, put off, defer', vii ek 
J)essi svor ekki lata d. fyrir mer icngi, 
/ will not wait long for these 
answers ; hann dro um J)at engan 
hlut, /z<? 77iade 710 subterfuge', (7) to 
delineate, draw a picture (var dregit i. 
skjoldinn leo me5 gulli) ; i {jann tima, 
sem hann dregr klaeSafollin {the folds) ; 
(8) to tri7n or li7ie gar7nents (treyjan 
var dregin utan ok innan vi3 rau3u 
silki) ; with dat., hjilmr hans var 
dreginn leiri {overlaid with clay), er 
i.hx var (dreginn) gulli ; (9) intrans. 
to 7nove, draw ; drogu J)eir J)eim svd 
naer {came so near to the7n), at ; (10) 
with preps. ; d. fot, sk6k]as6i af e-m, 
to pull off one^s clothes, shoes ; d. 
hring af hendi ser, to take off a ring 
fro77i 07ie's hand', dro hann J)a af 
grunninu, he pulled them off the 
shallow ; d. e-t af e-u, to draw, 
derive fro7n a source ; d. e-t af, to 
take off (t». hafSi Mtit af d. bruna) ; 
d. e-t af vi3 e-n, to keep back, with- 
hold, f7-077i one', man heSan af eigi af 
dregit vi6 oss, henceforth we shall not 
be neglected, stinted ; Egill dro at ser 
skipit, E. pulled the ship close up to 
hi7nself', d. vel at e-m, to draw wiles 
arou7id 07ie', d. spott, skaup, at e-u, 
to hold a thing tip to ridicule ; d. at 
113, fong, to collect troops, stores ; dro 
at honum sottin, the ilhiess drew 
closer to hi77i, he s^rew worse ; impers., 
dro at msetti hans, dro at um mdtt 
hans, his strength declined {fell off) ; 
til J)ess er dro at degi, //// the day 
drew near ; pd, er dregr at jolum, 
when Yule drew 7iear ; dro at J)vi 
{the ti7ne drew near), at hann vaeri 
banvaenn ; tok fta at d. fast at heyjum 
hans, his stock of hay was rapidly 




diminishing ; sva dregr at m6r af elli, 
svengd, J)orsta, / ain so overcome by 
old age, hunger, thirst ; nu J)ykki mer 
sem fast dragi at t)dr, that thou art 
sinking fast ; d. bring a bond ser, 
to put a ring on 07ie's hand; d. 
(grun) 6. e-t, to suspect ; d. a vetr, to 
rear through the winter {Hrafnkell 
dro a vetr kalf ok ki6) ; impers., 
dregr a tunglit, the inooti is obscured 
(= dregr myrkr d tunglit); dimmu 
pykkir d. i. rdSit Odds, it looks as if 
a cloud was dra'wi?ig over Odds' 
affairs ; dregr a gledi biskups, the 
bishop's gladness was obsc2ired\ d. 
eptir e-m, to gain on one (f>6rarinn 
sotti dkaft r63rinn ok bans menn, ok 
drogu skjott eptir J)eim Steinolfi ok 
Kjallaki); d. eptir e-m um e-t, to 
approach one, be nearly equal to one, 
in a thing ; um margar ijjrottir [in 
many accomplish7nents) dro hann fast 
eptir Olafi konungi ; d. e-t fram, to 
produce, bring forward (d. fram 
atbugasamlig doemi) ; to further, 
promote (d. fram blut e-s) ; d. fram 
kaupeyri sinn, to make money ; d. 
fram skip, to launch a ship', impers., 
dregr fra, {cloud, darkness) is drawn 
off; bratt stundum fyrir, en stundum 
dro fra, {clouds) drew sometimes over, 
sometimes off', dregr fyrir sol, tungl, 
the sun, vioon, is obscured by clouds 
or eclipse (tunglskin var Ijost, en 
stundum dro fyrir) ; ok er i tok at d. 
skurirnar, when showers began to 
gather; d. e-3 saman, to collect, 
gather (d. Ii3, ber, skip saman) ; 
impers., saman dro kaupmiila me3 
J)eim, they struck a bargain ; saman 
dro hugi J)eirra, their hearts were 
drawn together ; dregr J)a saman or 
dregr saman me3 t)eim, the distance 
between them grows less; d. e-t i 
sundr, to draw asunder, disjoin (vil 
ek eigi d. i sundr sasttir ySrar) ; 
impers., dregr pa i sundr or dregr i 
sundr me5 J)eim, the distance betweefi 
them increases ; d. e-n til e-s, to 
move, prompt, induce ; engi ofkasti 
dregr mik til Jjessarar ferSar, it is 
not fro7H wantonness that I undertake 
this journey ; slikt dregr hann til vin- 

sasldar, this furthers his popularity , 
ef bann droegi ekki til, if he was not 
concer7ied; d. e-t til dcemis um e-t, to 
adduce as a proof of; bann bet at d. 
allt til sastta {to do everytlii7ig i7i his 
power for reconciliatio7i) me5 t)eim 
Skota konungi ; impers., nema til 
verra dragi, unless 7natters tur7i out 
for the worse ; witb dat., pat samband 
peirra, er peim dregr baSum til bana, 
which will prove fatal to both of 
the77i ; at ber mundi til mikillar ugiptu 
d. um kaup pessi, that much 7>iischief 
would arise fro77i this ba7gain ; dro 
pa enn til sundrpykkju me3 peim 
Svium, the old feud with the Szvedes 
began over again ; sva er pat, segir 
R., ef ekki dregr til, unless so)ne un- 
foreseen thing hafpe7is ; d. e-t undan 
e-m, to seek to deprive one of a thi72g 
(peir hafa bundizt i pvi at d. boendr 
undan per) ; d. e-t undan, to delay 
(drogu Skotar undan sasttina) ; bvi 
dregr pu undan at bj66a mer til pin ? 
why dost thou put off i7iviting 7ne to 
co77ie ? ; d. rot undan (tolu), /^ extract 
the root ; d. undan e-m, to escape 
f7-077i one (nu Isegir seglin peirra ok 
draga peir undan oss) ; imners., hann 
(ace.) dro undan sem nau6uligast, he 
had a narrow escape ; litt dro enn 
undan vi3 pik, there was little chance 
of drawing out of thy reach ; d. e-t 
undir sik. to app7-op7-iate or take 
fraudule7itly to oneself (haf5i dregit 
undir sik finnskattinn) ; impers., dro 
y6r (ace.) undir brakningina, en oss 
(ace.) undan, you ca77ie i7t for hard 
tisage, but we escaped; d. upp skip, 
to drag a ship ashore ; d. upp segl, to 
hoist a sail {sails) ; d. upp fisk, to 
pull up fish with a li7ie ; impers., 
poku dregr upp, fog is co77ii7ig on ; 
(ll) refl., dragast, to draw 07ieself, 
7nove ; d. apir d lei3, to re7nai7t 
behind; d. i. bendr e-m, to gather 
around one ; d. a e-t, to give a partial 
pro77iise (porvarSr drost a at \]i. Sturlu 
sverSit, ok forst pat fyrir) ; d. a legg, 
to grow up ; pegar bonum drost aldr, 
when he grew tip ; e-m dragast 
penningar, one 77takes 7noney ; berr, 
li5, dregst e-m, troops gather round 




one ; d. vel, ilia, to do well^ ill ; drost 
\i. liSit mjok af kulda, the host 
suffered muchfroin cold ; J)au diogust 
{they prilled against each other, 
fought) um einn gullhring ; Sigvaldi 
dregst ut frd flotanum, 6". draws away 
Jrom the fleets d. viO e-t, to becojue 

draga, f. only in pi. 'diogur', (l) 
timber carried on horseback and 
trailing along the grotmd \ (2) metric, 
term, repetition^ anadtpiosis (when a 
stanza begins with the last word of 
the preceding one). 

dragi, m. trail or lojtg line of laden 

drag-kyrtill, m. a trailing kirtle or 
gown ; -loka, f. bolt ; fig. loiterer ; 
-mall, a. drawling. 

dragna (atS), v. /^ drag, trail oneself 
along (hann dragnar sit3an heim at 
burinu) ; refl., dragnast = dragna. 

dragna-hross, n. a horse carrying 
timber (' drogur '). 

drag-ndl, f. bodkin ; -net, n. drag- 
net ; -reip, n. halyard. 

dragsa (^aS), v. to drag along. 

drag-sitSr, a. trailing behind (-sidar 

dramb, n. (i) arrogance (ofbeldi ok 
dramb) ; (2) pomp. 

dramba (at5), v. to be haughty, 
behave with arrogance (d. vi6 e-m, 
1 moti e-m) ; d. at e-u, to pride one- 
self on ; d. yfir ser, to boast ; d. yfir 
e-m, to lord it over one, look dow?i 
upon one. 

dramban, f. haughty behaviour. 

dramb-hosur, f . pi. a sort of * court- 
breeches ' ; -lauss, a. tcnpresuming, 
modest ; -Idtliga, adv. haughtily ; 
-latr, a. haughty ; -Iseti, n. haughti- 
ness, pride. 

dramblsBtis-kona, 2l. proud woman. 

dramb-samliga, adv. haughtily ; 
-samligr, a. haughty (-samligr met- 
TisJSx) ; -samr, a. haughty^ proud \ 
-semi, f. haughtiness^ pride. 

drambsemis-andi, m. spirit of 
pride ; -fotr, m. a foot showing pride 
(hefja -fot i mot e-m) ; -hdls, m. a 
haughty person. 

drambs-fullr, a. arrogant. 

dramb-skapr, m. arrogance. 

drambs-matSr, m. a haughty person. 

dramb-visi, f. = -semi ; -viss, a.= 
-samr; -yrSi, n. pi. proud speech^ 
haughty language. 

drangr (-s, -ar), m. a detached pillar 
of rock. 

drang-s'^einn, m. = drangr. 

draaill, m. poet. ^^rj'^, = dr6sull. 

dratta (a5j, v. to drag, trail oneself 

draug-hent, a. n. a sort of metre ; 
-hus, n. pi. '■house of ghost s\ burial 
mound (poet.). 

draugr (-s, -ar), m. the dead i7i- 
habitant of a cairn, ghost, spirit. 

drauma-matSr, m. a great drea7ner ; 
-raSning, f. reading of dreams ; 
-skriinsl, n. dream-monster, pha?i- 
tasm ; -vetr, m. winter of d?'eams. 

draum-heill, n. divination by 
dreams', -kona, f. ^ drea?n-wo77ian\ 
one who appears in dreams ; -ligr, a. 
dream-like (-lig sjonhverfing) ; -m.atSr, 
m. a man who appears in dreams ; 
-orar, m. pi. dream-phantasies. 

draumr (-s, -ar), m. dream ; eigi er 
mark at draumum, dreams are not 
zuorth noticing', segja e-m draum, 
to tell one^s dream to another ; rd6a 
draum, to read {interpret) a dream ; 
d. raetist, a dream proves true ; vakna 
eigi vi6 g65an draum, to awake from 
a bad dreai7i ; e-m er draums, one 
dreams, is in a trance. 

draum-skrok, n. pi. dream-phan- 
tasm ; -spakr, a. skilled in interpret- 
ing dreafns ; -speki, f. skill in 
interpreting dreams ; -spekingr, m. 
a skilful ifiterpreter of dreams ; 
-stoli, a. one who never dreams (of. 
* J)at er eigi manns e6li, at hann 
dreymi aldri ') ; -t)ing, n. assembly of 
drea7ns, poet, sleep. 

drak, draka, f. streak. 

drap, n. slaughter, killing. 

drdpa, f. a heroic latidatory poetn 
with refrains in the central portion 
(contrasted with 'flokkr'). 

drdp-gjarn, a. blood-thirsty. 

drapu-mal, n. a lawsuit concerning 
a drapa. 

drdp-veSr, n. destructive gale. 




drdttr fgen. -ar, dat. drastti, pi. 
draBttir, ace. drattu), m. (i) pull\ 
(2) drau^/it of fish ; draught of a 
seine ; (3) hesitation, = undandrattr. 

dregg (-jar, -jar), i. yeast, leaven. 

dregill (dat. dregli), m. ribbon. 

dreginn, pp. of ' draga'. (i) drawn, 
pinched, starved (hestar mjok dreg- 
nir) ; (2 1 io?ig (of vowels). 

dreglat5r, pp. furnished with rib- 
bons, laced. 

dregla-liufa, f. a laced cap ; -liS, n. 
soldiers decof'ated with ribbons, = 
dreglat li6. 

dreif, f. scattering ; drepa e-u d d., to 
scatter aboict \ fig. to throw or cast 
aside, to let drop ; {)eir drapu ollu 
a d. um J)essa fyrir^Etlun, gave it up 
altogether', (2) string or chain (valr- 
inn komst hvergi, y^\\ at dreifarnar 
heldu honum). 

dreifa (-tSa, -tSr), v. (i) to scatter, 
disperse, with dat. (dreif3a J)eir \>-k 
ollu li6inu) ; to strew (tak duft ok 
dreif d sarit) ; to spri7tkle (d. vatni 
umhverfis stein) ; d. e-n bI66i or med 
bl66i, to bedabble 07ie with blood \ 
reflex., dreifast, to be spread out \ (2) 
to derive (d. or6 af ordi). 

dreifing, f. scattering, diffusion ; d. 
bl66s, effusion of blood. 

dreif t, adv. scatteredly ; fara A., to 
march in loose order (of troops). 

dreita (-tta, -ttr), v., in the phrase, 
d. e-n inni, to shut one up so as to 
force him to ease himself {dxiidCj within 

dreka-haror, m. slough of a dragon ; 
-boeli, n, lair of a dragon ; -hofucS, 
n. a dragon^ s head on a shifs prow ; 
-liki, n. shape of a drag07t ; -merki, 
n. a banner bearing the sign of a 

dreki, m. (i) dragon \ (2) ship of 
war (bearing a dragon's head as an 
ornament at the prow). 

drekka (drekk ; drakk, drukkum ; 
drukkinn), v.{\) to dritik (d. mjod, 
61, mungdt) ; d. fidl, minni, horn, to 
drink a toast, cup, horn ; d. drykk, to 
drink a draught (pii skalt d. af tva 
drykki) ; d. brjost, spena, to suck ; 
i. limaelt, without measure ; d. fast 

(mjok), to drink hard', d. e-n af 
stokki, to drink 07ie under the table ; 
d. ser litit vit, d. frd ser vit allt, to 
dri7ik away one's reason ; {2) to hold, 
celebrate a feast (d. veizlu, bruUaup, 
erfi) ; (3) with preps., d. af keri, to 
drink out of a vessel (drukku J^eir af 
einu silfrkeri) ; to drink off [e^npty) a 
vessel, cup (hann tok vi6 horninu ok 
drakk af j ; d. a e-n, to drink to a 
person ; refl., drekkast d, to dritik to 
one another ; impers., drekkr a e-n, 
one ships a sea ; d. til e-s = d. a e-n ; 
d. e-t ut, to consic77ie or spend in 

drekka, f. (i) drink, beverage ; (2) 
a drinking feast or banquet ; M.g\s d., 
the dri7iking at ^gir's. 

drekkandi, ger. drinkable (mdtti 
hvergi vatn finna, J)at er drekkanda 

drekkja (-ta, -tr), v. fi) to put 
under water, sub7nerge, with dat. (d. 
skipi) ; drekktust ftrjar snekkjur fyrir 
atroSri Jieirra, were sunk ; (2) to 
drown ; impers., e-m drekkir, 07te gets 
d7-owned ; (3) fig. to quell, suppress 
(d. kristninni). 

drenibi-liga, adv. haughtily. 

drengi-liga, adv. bravely ; -ligr, a. 
(l) brave, valia7it', {2) gene?'Ous. 

drengja (-da, -dr), v., naut. term, 
to bi7td fast, haul taut to a pole 

drengja-val, n. a choice company of 
gallant men. 

dreng-leysi, n. want of generosity, 
unf7ianliness ; -lundatSr, -Lyndr, a. 
noble-7}ii7ided, generous ; -matSr, m. 
(i) = drengr l ; (2) bachelor, opp. to 
' bondi ' ; -mannligr, a. noble-77iinded, 
gentle77ianly ; -menska, f. noble- 

drengr (-s, pi. -ir, gen. -ja), m. (l) 
a bold, valiant, chivalrous 77ian ; d. 
g63r, a good-hearted, 7toble-minded 
fnan (auSigr at fe ok d. g63r) ; ekki 
Jjykki m^r J)u sterkr, en d. ertu g., but 
thou art a good fellow ; drengir, en 
eigi da5leysingjar, gallant 7nen, and 
no faint-hearts ; at J)u maettir drengr- 
inn af verSa sem beztr, thai you 
might get the greatest credit from it \ 




hafa dreng i serk, to have a stout 
heart in one's breast ; (2) <:? young, 
unmarried man (drengir heita ungir 
menn biilausir, meSan J)eir afla ser 
fjdr eSa orSstirs) ; (3) attendant (t)eir 
heita konungs drengir, er hofdingjum 
J)i6na) ; {^\ fellow (leetr siQan sverSit 
ri3a i. hdlsinn a peim leida dreng) ; 
(5) pole, cf. ' dsdrengr '. 

drengs-ac5al, n. the nature of a 
drengr ; -bot, f. what makes a ma7t 
the better drengr ; -bragtS, n. a brave 
or gallant deed. 

drengskapar-fall, n. failure in 
drengskapr ; -raun^ f. test^ trial of 
one's drengskapr. 

dreng-skapr (gen. -skapar), m. 
high-Diifidedness, courage ; falla me(5 
-skap, to fall fighting bravely \ me6 
litlum -skap, cowardly ; Jjinum -skap 
[manliness) skal ek vic3 bregSa, 

drengs-verk, n. a noble deed. 

drep, n. (i) bodily hurt, blow (^at 
er d. ef bein brotna) ; (2) killifig, 
slaying, = d rap ; (3 ) plague, pestilence, 
— drepsott ; (4) mortification, gan- 

drepa (drep ; drap, drdpum ; 
drepinn), v. I. with ace. or absol. ; 
{\) to strike, beat, knock ; d. e-n vendi, 
to strike one with a rod', hann tok 
horpu sina ok drap strengi {struck the 
strings) til sld-ttar ; d.. ]i.rr\, to hamfner 
iron ; d. or d. hogg i. dyrr, to knock 
at the door', d. botn lir keraldi, to 
knock the bottom out of a tub ; at eigi 
drepir J)u mik i djup, that you knock 
me not into the deep ; d. 1 hel, i dau6a, 
til heljar, to smite to death ; {2) to 
kill, slay (skulu ver nu fara at honum 
ok d. hann) ; (3) in a game of chess, 
to take a piece {\>i. drap jarl af honum 
riddara) ; (4) to produce by a blow or 
blows ; d. eld, to stt'ike fire ( = d. upp 
eld) ; d. sl66, to make a trail (dripu 
kyrtlarnir doggsl66ina) ; (5) with 
prepp., d. af, to kill, slaughter (cattle) ; 
d. niSr, to kill off i^oXX hirSmenn J^inir 
s6 drepnir ni6r sem svin) ; d. sik or 
droma, to get rid of {throw off) a 
fetter ; d. til e-s, to strike, hit, at one ; 
d. e-t undir sik, to htock or drag down 
(skaltu stand a hia, er fjandi sa drepr 

mik undir sik); d. upp eld = d. eld; 
d. e-t ut, to divulge a thing ; d. yfir 
e-t, to hide, suppress ; drap hann 
brdtt yfir {he soon mastered) harm 
sinn ; (6) refl., drepast, to ferish, die, 
esp. of cattle (f6 bans drapst aldri af 
drephridum) ; recipr. to put one 
a?tother to death (^a drepast menn 
fyrir agirni sakir) ; d. menn fyrir, to 
kill one another's 7nen ; (7) impers., 
drepr honum aldregi sky (ace.) 1 augu, 
his eyes 7iever get clouded ; ofrkappit 
(ace.) drepr fyrir {)eim {their high 
spirits break down), t)egar hamingjan 
brestr ; drap f)6 heldr i fyrir honum, 
he rather grew worse, his eyes grew 
weaker', nii drepr or hljoci (ace.) fyrst 
or konunginum, the kifig became silent 
at once ; J)d drap stall or hjarta bans, 
his heart failed; ofan drap flaugina, 
the vane was knocked down ; regn 
(ace.) drepr i gegnum e-t, the raiti 
beats through (the thatch) ; II. with 
dat. ; (l) to put, thrust; hendi drap 
a kampa, he put his hand to his 
beard; d. foeti (fotum) 1 e-5, to strike 
{k?tock) one's foot against, sttnnble 
over (drap fotunum i J)r0skuldinn ok 
la fallinn) ; d. hofSi, to droop (with) 
the head (Egill drap hof6inn niSr i 
feld sinn) ; d. fingri i munn ser, to put 
the finger into the jnouth ; d. hendi til 
e-s, vi3 e-m, to give o?te a slap with 
the hand ; d. hendi vi3 e-u, to wave 
away with the hand, to refuse a kind 
offer (d. hendi vi6 bo3nu gulli) ; (2) 
to tuck up the sleeves or skirts of a 
garment (hann haf5i drepit upp skau- 
tunum) ; d. hdri undir belti se'r, to 
tuck the hair under the belt (of a 
lady) ; (3) /^ dip, iminerse ; d. skeggi 
{the beard) i BreiSafjord,/.? be drowned 
in B. ; d. barni 1 vatn, to baptize a 
child; (4) d. orQi, domi i. e-t, to talk, 
judge of; d. huldu a e-t, to hide, keep 
secret; d. e-u d dreif, see ' dreif ; 
fig., d. 1 t.%% e-u, to turn a deaf ear 
to; (5) to spoil (d. gleSi, teiti e-s) ; 
d. kosti e-s, to destroy Okie's happi- 
ness ; impers., drap f)d skjott kosti, 
the cheer was soon gone ; (6) d. niSr 
e-u, to suppress (d. niSr konungs 
retti, illu ordi) ; d. niSr scEmd e-s, to 




drag down on^s repidation^ to dis- 
parage one ; d. niSr mali, to gnash a 

drep-hriS, f. ( l ) a destructive snow- 
storm ; (2) = drepsott ; -rdcS, n. an 
intended affray or assault ; -samligr, 
a. deadly, destructive ; -sleggja, f. 
sledge-hammer ; -sott, i. plague, pest ; 
-sottr, pp. piague-st7-icken. 

drettingr, m. loiterer, a nickname. 

dreyraa (-da, -dr), v. (l) to appear 
to one (e-n) in a dreatJi [si. ma3r 
dreymir mik opt) ; (2) to dream (ein 
kona dreymdi J)ann draum) ; usually 
impers., with double ace, mik dreymdi 
draum, / dreamt a dream ; konung 
dreymdi aldri, the king never had a 

dreypa (-ta, -tr), v. to let fall in 
drops, with dat. (hann dreypir vigSu 
vatni 1 munn henni). 

dreyra (-tSa, -t), v. to bleed, ooze (of 
blood from a slight wound) ; hann 
reist i lofa s^r krossmark, sva at 
dreyrSi, so that blood plowed. 

dreyra-loekr, m. stream of blood ; 
-runninn, pp. spattered with blood. 

dreyr-fatSr, a. stained with blood', 
-gjarn, a. eager for blood, blood- 

dreyri, m. blood, gore ; vekja e-m 
dreyra, to bleed one ; rauSr sem d.= 

dreyr-rauSr, a. red as blood', e-n 
setr -rau6an, one turns scarlet 
(GuQriinu setti dreyrrauda) ; -stafir, 
pi. bloody runes, blood (poet.). 

dreyrugr, a. (i) bloody, gory, (2) 

drif, n. (i) driven snow (hvitr sem 
d.) ; (2) spoo7i-drift (sjor var hvitr 
fyrir drifi). 

drif-hvitr, a. white as driven 

drift, dript, f. (l) snow-drift (t)ar 
var snjor i driptum) ; (2) drifting 
snow (hvitr sem d.). 

drit, n. dirt of birds (fugladrit). 

drif a (drif ; dreif, drifum ; drif- 
inn), V. (i) to drift, drive like spray 
or snow (j)^ drifr snasr or oUum dttum) ; 
fig., of missiles, to shower, fly, like 
flakes of snow (lata d. skot, vapn, a 

e-n) ; veSr var drifanda, there was a 
great snow-storm ; esp. impers. with 
dat., dreif sandinn, the sand drifted', 
lauSri dreif i. lypting utan, the spray 
drove over the poop ; l^egar dreif i 
Loginn krommu, there fell wet snow 
in the Lake, it began to sleet ; (2) to 
crowd, throng, rush', J)d drifr ofan 
mannfioldi mikill til strandar, a great 
crowd rushes down to the shore ; 
dreif allt folk i. hans fund, all people 
croivded to see hiin ; toku menn J)a at 
d. brott frd, hertoganum, men began 
to desert the duke', d. yfir e-n, to 
befall, happen to one', refl., Idta yfir 
drifast (=d. yfir sik), to yield, give 
in (rdn ok utlegSir J)eirra manna, er 
eigi letu yfir d.) ; (3) to perfor7n ; d. 
leik, to play ; en i annan sta6 i. ek at 
d. mikinn vanda, / arn in a hard 
strait ; (4) /^ besprinkle with (e-t e-u ; 
doggu drifinn). 

drifa, f. fall of snow, snow-drift 
(skotvapn flugu sva t^ykt sem d.). 

drifanda, adv. with 7night and 
7nain ; roa d., to pull so that the 
spray splashes about. 

drifu-6l, n. a drifting snow'itorin 
(um kveldit gerSi i. -el blautt). 

drita (drit ; dreit, dritum ; drit- 
inn), V. to ease oneself (d. a e-n) ; oil 
ertu, deigja, dritin, thou art altogether 

drjiigan, adv. = drjugum. 

drjug-deildr, pp. siibstantial', -Idtr, 
a. self-i77iportant ; -liga, adv. with an 
air of i7nportance ; -ligr, a. a7tiple ; 
-msBltr, a. long-winded in speaking. 

dijugr, a. substa7itial, lasting, 
a77ipie ; ver6a drjiigari (drjugastr), to 
get the better {best) of it ; I)u munt 
peim ol'um drjugari verSa, you will 
outdo the7n all ; Baglar reSust at, ok 
varci J)at drjugara, at, the issue was, 

drjugt, adv. in great numbers, 
copiotisly (Kolskeggr vd. d. menn) ; d. 
manna, a good 7nany people. 

drjug-talat, pp. n.; ])eim varS -talat, 
they talked long together. 

drjiigum (prop. dat. pi. from 
'drjugr'), adv. (i) much, to a great 
extent, g7'eatly ; foru d. dag J)ann 




fram, they wetit far that day ; vegr 
Gunnar d. menn, G. slew men in great 
ftnmbers ; (2) almost, nearly (d. dau3r 
af kulda) ; d. allr, almost all ; enginn 
d., scarcely anybody. 
dijupa (dryp ; draup, drupum ; 
dropit), V. {\)io drip, to fall in drops 
({>6r6lfr kvaS smjor d. af hverju strd^i) ; 

(2) to let in rain, be leaky (hlaSan 
draup t)egar er snj^rinn braSnadi) ; 

(3) to droop with the head, = drupa.. 
drjupr, a. drippings leaky (d. salr). 
drokr, m. = dirokkr. 
dropa-lauss, a. water-tight ; -rum, 

n. dripping-place (from the eaves). 

dropi, m. drop (regns d.). 

drog, f. streak=diXd^. 

dromi, m. fetter \ drepa or droma, 
to act with great vigour, 

dromundr, m. a kind of ship used 
in the Mediterranean. 

dros, f. poet, girl, maid. 

drott, f. (1) household, people ; dygg- 
var drottir, good, upright people ; oil 
d., all people', (2) the host of the 
king's men, body-guard of a king 

drottin-hollr, a. faithful to one's 
master ; -lauss, a. withojct a master ; 
-ligr, a. pertaifting to Our Lord ; -lig 
bosn, the Lords Prayer. 

drottinn (-s, pi. drottnar), m. (i) 
lord, master', prasU e6a d., slave or 
master', dyrt er drottins or6, the 
master's word is strong', (2) king, 
chief, d3r voru J)eir (viz. the kiftgs) 
drottnar kalladir; (3) the Lord (gu3 
d. minn, d. vd.rr Jesus Kristr). 

drottinsdaga-hald, n. observance 
of the Lords day ; drottins-dagr, m. 
the Lord's day. 

drottinsdags-helgr, f. = drottins- 
dagr; -kveld, n. Sunday evening; 
-nott, f. Saturday night. 

drottina-kveld, n. = drottinsdags- 
kveld ; -morginn, m. Sunday morn- 
ing; -nott, f. = dr6ttinsdagsn6tt. 

drottin-svik, n. pi. treason towards 
a lord or 7naster ; -sviki, m, traitor. 

drott-kvaeSr, a. in the heroic or 
court 7netre (-kvasSr hattr) ; -latr, a. 
beloved of the household, gentle ; 
-megir, m. pi. people, tnen. 

drottna (a5), v. to rule, govern ; d. 
yfir e-u, to rule over; with dat. (J)6 
lastr hann J)at eigi d. huga sinum), 

drottnan, f. sway, rule (d. alls 

drottnari, m. ruler. 

drottning, f. (i) mistress; J)raell sd, 
er vegr at drottni {niaster) sinum e6a 
drottningu {mistress) ; (2) queen ; (3) 

drottningar-domr, m. queenhood, 
queenship ; -efni, n. a future queen ; 
-nafn, n. the title of a queen. 

drottning-ligr, a. becomittg a queen, 

drott-seti, m. a steward at the king's 

drukkinn, pp. drunken, tipsy. 

drukna (atS), v. to be drowned. 

druknan, f. death by drowning. 

drumbr, m. log of wood. 

driipa (-ta, -t), v. to droop, from 
sorrow (svd drupir nu Danmork, sem 
dau6r se Knutr sonr minn) ; drupir 
orn yfir, the eagle hovers over (it). 

drupr, m. drooping spirits, coldness. 

drykk-fatt, a. n., hafa -fdtt, to be 
short of drink. 

drykkja, f (l) drinking; sitja einn 
vi5 drykkju, to sit alone drinking; 
taka til drykkju, to begin drinking 
(toku menn til drykkju um kveldit) ; 
J)reyta drykkju vi6 e-n, to cofttend 
in drinking with one ; (2) drink, 
beverage, = dry\i\iY (byrla e-m drykk- 
ju) ; (3) drinking-bout, banquet (d. 
skyldi vera at hvdrratveggja) ; (4) 
drinking-cup (rare). 

drykkjatSr, pp. refreshed with 
dri7ik (vel mettr ok d.). 

drykkjar-bolli, m. drinking-cup ; 
-fong, n. pi. drinkables ; -horn, n. 
drinki7ig-ho7-n ; -ker, n. drinkuig- 
vessel; -kostr, m. dri7iki7ig-cheer ; 
-laust, adv. without dri7ik ^eta mat 
sinn -laust) ; -stutr, m. a ki7id of 

drykkju-bort^, n. drink i7tg-t able 
(sitja ytir -borQum) ; -fong, n. pi. = 
drykkjarfong ; -litill, a. sober; 
-ma(Sr, m. drinker (litill, mikill 
drykkjumaQr) ; -mdl, n. //;;?<? of 
drinking; -skapr, m. (hard) dri7iking; 




•skd-li, m. drinking-hall \ -stofa, f.= 


drykk-lauss, a. without drink \ 
-ley si, n. want of drinkables. 

drykkr (-jar, -ir), m. (i) drink, 
drinking \ sitja at (yfir) drykk, to sit 
drinkitig', hvat hafa Einherjar at 
drykk, what kind of drink have the 
E. ; (2) draught'^ J)reyta i. drykkinn, 
to take a deep draught ; drekka i 
tveimr, t)remr, drykkjum, to drain in 
two, three draughts, 

drykk-saell, a. lucky in drifik. 

drysil-c jotull, m. petty devil, devil- 
kin ; -hross, n. paltry horse ; -menni, 
n. a paltry jnan. 

drygindi, n. pi. increase, saving. 

drygja (-Sa, -Sr), v. (i) to commit, 
perpetrate, carry 02it, practise (d. 
synd, hordom, munuSlffi) ; d. viljae-s, 
to comply with one's wishes ; d. hlydni 
vi3 e-n, to obey ofie ; (2) to make to go 
far, eke out (drottinn drygSi svd pasr 
vistir, at J^asr, &c.) ; hvat t)arf J)etta 
orSum d. \to expatiate on) ? 

dryg-liga, adv. = drjugliga ; -maeltr, 
a. long-winded. 

draepi-ligr, a. deserving death. 

drsBplingr, m. a petty dr^pa. 

draspr, a. who may be killed with 

draesa, f. idle talk, twaddle. 

droemt, a. n., lata d. vi6, to hesitate. 

drofn (Ken. drafnar, pi. drafnir), f. 
poet, billow. 

drogur, f. pi., see ' draga ', f. 

drcsull, m. poet. horse, = <ix2.'i\S\. 

drottr, m. lubber (rare). 

dubba (atS), v. (i) to equips arm 

(Saul dubbar nii David med sjalfs 

sins herkl^Sum) ; d. e-n upp, to 

attire one in full dress ; d. sik, to 

trim oneself', (2) d. e-n til riddara, to 

dub one a knight. 

dubban, f. dubbing a knight, 

dubl, dufl, n.gatne atdice,ga7nbling, 

dubla, dufla (a$), v. /^ gamble. 

dublari, m. gambler. 

duga (-6a, -at), v. (i) to help, aid, 

support, with dat. ; d. e-m at or vi5, 

to succour, lend help (Gisli for at d. 

t^eim vi6) ; (2) to do, suffice ; J)at er 

t)er man d., which will do for thee ; 

hefir OSS 1)6 dugat jDessi dtrunaSr, this 
faith has served us very well ; fdtt er 
svd illt at einugi dugi, /Vw things are 
utterly useless ; mun J)er eigi J^at d. 
at sofa hdr, it will not do (is not safe) 
for thee to sleep here ; (3) absol., to 
show prowess, do good service ; dugdi 
hverr sem hann mdtti, every one did 
his best; (4) to suffice, be strong 
enough ; ef \\W. oe5i dugir, if thy wit 
suffices ; ef vitni duga, if the witnesses 
fail not. 

dugandi, pr. p. doughty (d. ma6r). 

dugandis-ma^r, dugand-ma5r, m. 
a brave, doughty mail. 

dugga, f. a useless fellow. 

dug-lauss, a. gooiifor nothing. 

dugna^ar-m a(5r, m. (i) helper, help 
in need ', (2) = dugandi maSr; -stigr, 
m. path of virt2ie ; -vapn, n. weapon 
of defence (against temptation). 

dugnatSr (gen. -ar), m. (i) aid, 
assistance', veita e-m dugnaS, to give 
help to 07ie ; (2) virtue. 

dugr, m. dough tijiess, strength of 
soul or body (aldri er d. 1 l)er). 

dul, f. (l) conceahnent ; drepa, draga 
d. i. e-t, to conceal; me3 d., secretly ; 
(2) self-conceit ; d. ok vil, pride and 
wilfulness-, aetla ser Jjd d., to be so 
conceited ; draga d. k sik, to think a 
great deal of oneself ; ganga fram i d., 
to go on in on^s conceit. 

dula (atS), V. to deny (rare). 

dular-bunaSr, m. disguise', -eiSr, 
m. oath of denial ; -f uUr, a. self- 
conceited; -klaBtSi, n. pi. disguise; 
-kufl., m. a cloak used for a disguise » 

dul-ei^r, m, = dularei6r ; -hottr, m. 
a hood used for a disguise. 

dulinn, a. = dularfullr (d. at ser), 

dul-kl8BtSi, n. pl. = du]arklcE5i. 

dulnacSr, m. conceit, self-conceit. 

dul-remmi, -rsBna, f. self-conceit ; 
-samr, a. self-conceited. 

dumba, f. dust, cloud of dust. 

durabr, a. (also dumbi) dujnb, rmcte 
(gaf hann dumbum mdl, en daufum 
heyrn) ; d. stafr, a mute {letter). 

dumpa (a5), v. to thump (rare). 

duna (aS), v. to boom, roar (dunar 
1 skoginum) ; duna, f. a rushing, 
thunderins:: noise. 




Dun-d, f. the Da?iicbe. 

dunga, f. a useless fellow^ = dugga 
(huglaus dungaj. 

dun-henda, f. = dunhendr hdttr. 

dun-hendr, a., -hendr hattr, a sort 
of metre (when the secc^nd line of 
each couplet begins with the conclud- 
ing word of the first line) ; -hent, a. 
n. = -hendr hdttr. 

diinn, m. bafid,gang, drove (flyktust 
skarfarnir saman i einn dun). 

dunna, f. the wild ducky mallard. 

dupt, n. dtist (verda at dupti). 

dupti, m. diist (einn lettr dupti). 

dupt-liga, adv. like dust ; -ligr, a. 
consistitjg of dust (-ligr maQr). 

dupt-ugr, a. dtisty, covered with 

dura-domr, m. a court at the door 
of the defendant ; -gaetti, n. = dyri- 
gaetti ; -stafr, m. = dyristafr ; -stoc5, 
f. door-post ; -umbuningr, m. door- 
frame ; -veggr, m. door-ja7nb ; 
-vorSr, m. dooi--keeper. 

dur-vorSr, m. door-keeper. 

dusil-hross, n. = drysil-hross. 

dusil-menni, n. = drysil-menni. 

dusla (at5), v. to be busy with trifling 
matters (S\einki var t)ar duslandi). 

dust, n. dust (ver erum dust ok 
aska ; verSa at dusti). 

dust, n. //// (halt citt d. me6 mik). 

dustera (aS), v. Z^* run a tilt. 

dusti, va. grain of dust. 

dufa (gen. pi. dufna), f. (i) dove, 
pigeon ; (2) poet. wave. 

dufll, n. 7ioise made by submersion 
(rare) ; dufla (a$), v. to make a noise 
(when falling into water). 

dufu-ljgr, a. dove-like ; -ungi, m. a 
young dove. 

duka (aS), v. to cover with a cloth 
(matsveinar foru at d. borS). 

duk-lauss, a. without a cloth. 

diikr (-S, -ar), m. (i) a7iy cloth or 
textile fabric ; (2) table-cloth ; (3) 
towel, napkin. 

duk-slitr, n. rags of a cloth. 

diin-beSr, n. a bed of down. 

dun-hoegindi, n. pillow or bolster of 
down ; -klasSi, n. pi. bed-clothes of 
eider-down \ -koddi, m. pillow of 

dunn, m. down, bed oj down (sofi 
hann d diini). 

dura (at5), v. to nap, take a nap. 

durr, m. nap, slumber. 

diis, n. lull, dead calm ; opt kemr 
oeSiregn or diisi, a lull is often 
followed by a heavy shozver. 

diisa (a§), v. to quake (jor3 diisaQi). 

dvala (a§), v. to delay, put off, with 
ace. (mun-a Helgi hjorJ)ing d.) ; with 
dat. ; ef er dvaliS fer6inni, if you put 
off the journey. 

dvala, i.{\) a long stay ; (2) delay. 

dvalan, {.prolongation (d. lifs J)ins). 

dval-samligr, a. slow, tardy (-sam- 
ligt setr solarinnar) ; -samr, a. catis- 
ino- delay; e-m verQr -samt, one is 

dvelja (dvel, dvalda, dvaldr or 
dvalinn), v. (i) to delay; d. for e-s, 
to delay one's jour7uy ; d. fer3 sina, 
to put off one's {ow7i) jour7iey ; d. 
dom, to defer judge7nent; d. ra6 fyrir 
konu, to put off a wo7nan's i7iarriage; 
gdtu peir hann eptir dvalit, they 
7)ianaged to keep hi77i back ; d. e-n frd 
e-u, to keep one fro77t doing- a thing; 
absol., dvaldi pat fyrir ferS peirra, it 
delayed their journey ; (2) = dveljast, 
to tar7y (ok vildu eigi d. ok eigi bi6a 
Olafs konungs) ; dvel eigi, tarry not ! 
77iake haste I; (3) with ace. of time, 
to wait, stay (konungr dvaldi mestan 
hluta sumars d, Hdlogalandi) ; d. 
stund e-s, to hold one up; d. af 
stundir, to kill the ti77ie; (4) refl., 
dveljast, to stay,77iake a stay (dvaldist 
J)ar um hri3) ; sd dagr mun d., that 
day will be long i7i co77iing ; d. munu 
stundimar d6r en sagt er allt J)at, er 
ek veit, it will take many hours, it 
will be a lo7ig ti77ie, before all is told ; 
ef l^at dvelst, at ek koma eigi hingat, 
if I should be hindered fro7n co7ning ; 
impers., dvaldist peim Jjar lengi, they 
77iade a long stay there ; dvaldist l)eim 
J)ar at l)vi, in {doing) that they lost 
772 uch ti77ie. 

dvena (at$), v. an old form for 
' dvina'. 

dverg-mali, m. echo (steinn svarar 
me3 -mdla). 

dvergr (-s, -ar), m. (i) dwarf (Idgr 




ok digr sem d.) ; (2) one of the short 
pillars which support th::^ beams and 
rafters in a house ; (3) some kind of 
orfiament (? a brooch) in a lady's dress 
(sat t)ar kona . . . diikr var d halsi, 
dver^^ar d. oxlum). 

dvina (acSs v. to n\vindle, cease, 
subside (dvinar t)roti t)j6tanda hafs) ; 
d. munda ek Idta ferSina, / would let 
the jour?iey drop ; soekjum til borg- 
arinnar ok geriS eigi at d. vi6, do tiot 

dvcl (gen. dvalar, pi. dvalar or 
dvalir), f. ( i ) short stay, stop ; delay ; 
eiga skamma dvol, to make a short 
stay ; mec3an ])essi d. {pause) var ; 
bera til dvala, to cause delay ; (2) in 
prosody, quantity. 

dvol, n. pi. delay ; svd at engi skulu 
d. i. vera, without delay ; ur5u d. 
doegra, her life was proloiiged. 

dyblissa, dybliza, f. dungeon, = 

dyg(5, f. (i) probity, faithfulness ; 113 
ok d. {help and faithful service) g66s 
drengs ; trua e-m til dygSar um e-t, 
to trust in one's integrity ; (2) virtue, 
virtuous deed (fyrir pvilikar dygQir 
veitti guS honum sina miskunn) ; (3) 
help (bi6i5 hann veita ySr d.) ; (4) 
vi-rtue, good quality (pat tre hefir 
fjorar dygQir, t)d fyrstu, at |)at kann 
eigi funa). 

dygcSar-doemi, n. an insta?ice of 
virtuous action; -lauss, a. (i) devoid 
of virtues (-laus gros) ; (2) wicked 
(var hann svd -lauss, at) ; -leysi, n. 
faithlessness, wickedness ; -matSr, m. 
trusty man ; -verk, n. virtuous 
action ; -{)j6nasta, f. efficacious, faith- 
ful ser7'ice. 

dygSugr, a. (i) faithful, trusty 
(d. ma3r) ; (2) efficacious (dygdugt 

dyggi-liga, adv. {i) faithfully (var3- 
veita e-t -liga) ; (2) thoroughly (-liga 
l^urr) ; -ligr, a. faithful, honest (-lig 

dygg-leikr, m. faithfulness, probity. 

dygg-liga, adv. = dyggiliga. 

dyggr (accus. dyggvan, rarely 
dyggan), ?i. faithful, trusty; dyggvar 
drottir, worthy, good people. 

dykr (pi. dykir), m. a crashing 
noise ; var6 af pvi d. mikill, it gave a 
great crash. 

dylgjur, f. pi. suppressed enmity 
(voru dylgjur miklar me3 Jjeim). 

dylja (dyl ; dulda ; duldr, dulit5r, 
dulinnj, v. (i) to keep (one) in 
ig?iorance of a thing, d. e-n e-s (eigi 
skalt pu {jat gera at d. l)ik sjalfan 
sanninda) ; d. e-s, to conceal, deny^ 
disavow; f>6rir dylr J)ess ekki, Th. 
does not deny it ; Eysteinn duldi 
peirra or6a fyrir sik, E. professed that 
he had never said any such thing; 
allir duldu, at ne eitt vissi til Hrapps, 
all prete?ided ignot'aiice about Hrapp ; 
vera, ganga, duldr (duliSr, dulinn) e-s, 
to be unaware of, to be kept in 
igjtoi'ance ^" (hefir hon veritalls pessa 
duld ; veit engi astt mina ok ganga 
t)ess allir duldir) ; duli6 (dulin) ertu, 
Hyndla, //., thou art mistake7t 
[decei^'ed) ; duliSr (dulinn) at e-m, 
7nistaken about 07ie ; (2) refl., dyljast, 
to conceal {hide) oneself; at pat se 
flugumenn ok vili d. [disguise thejn' 
selves) undir munka bunaSi ; d. 1 e-u, 
to co7iceal a thing from 07teself, be 
ig7iorant of =ga.nga. duldr e-s (Eirikr 
konungr parf nu ekki at d. i pvi, at) ; 
d. vi6 e-t, to refuse to acknowledge, to 
ignore ; truit pessu eigi, meSan per 
megit d., as long as you ca7i ignore it, 
till yoti get full evidence ; en Sveinn 
duldist vi3 pat, but S. shrank f 7-0171 
believing it. 

dylminn, a. careless, iiidifferent, 

dymbil-dagar, m. pi. the thiee days 
before Easter. 

dymbildaga-vika, f. Holy IFeek, 
Passio7t Week. 

dyn-bjalla, f. a ti7ikli7ig bell. 

dyngja, f. a lady's bower (bruSrin 
sat 1 dyngju sinni um daginn). 

dyngju-veggr, m. the wall of a 

dynja (dyn, dunda, dunit), v. (i) to 
boo7ny resotmd (^fram rei5 03inn, fold- 
vegr dundi) ; {2) to gush, showery 
pour ; bl66 dynr or sdrum e-s, blood 
gushes out of his wounds y dundi dkaft 
regn or lopti, the 7'ain poured down 
in sl7-ea77ts ; dundu a pa {or peim) 




v^pnin, spjotin, the weapons [spears) 
showered upon thejn. 

dynkr, m. = dykr, dynr. 

dynr (pi. -ir), f. din, noise, clattering 
of hoofs (ridu peir heim mikinn dyn 
i tunit eptir hor5um velli) ; engi d. 
verSr af hlaupi \i-6X\.?iX\Xi'&,noiseless are 
the cat's steps ; gera sem mestan dyn, 
to make the greatest noise ; koma e-m 
dyn fyrir dyrr, to make a din before 
one's doors, take one by surp?'ise. 

dyn-skot, n. a noisy but har7nless 
shot (ek mun skjota dynskot). 

dyntr, m. = dykr, dynr. 

dyr, n. pi. = dyrr, f. pi. 

dyrgja (-tSa, -t5r), v. to take (fish) 
with a hand-line (d. fiska). 

dyrgja, f. dwarf woman. 

dyri-gaBtti, n. door-frai7ie ; -stafr, 
in. door-post. 

dyrr (gen. dura), f. pi. door- 
opeiiing, doorway (Oddr hljop ut or 

dys (-jar, -jar), f. cairn. 

dysja (a6), v. to bury in a cairn. 

dyttr, m. dint, a nickname. 

dy, n. qtiaking bog, quagmire. 

dyfa (-c5a, -t), v. to dip (d. e-m i vatn). 

dyja (dy, duSa, duit), v. to shake ; 
d. dorr, spjot, to shake the spears, to 
fight ; skor nam at d., he shook {tossed) 
his locks. 

dyna, f. dow7i-bed, feather-bed, pillow 
or bolster filled with down. 

d^pt, f. depth. 

dyr, n. (i) ani^nal, beast, quadruped, 
opp. to birds and reptiles (skapari 
manna, fugla ok dyra ok skriSkyk- 
venda) ; (2) wild beast; deer (renna 
hundum at dyrum, reisa dyr). 

dyra-gartSr, m. (i) enclosure to catch 
wild beasts', (2) a yard with wild 
beasts ; -grof, f. a pit to catch wild 
beasts', -hold, n., -kjot, n. fiesh of 
animals ; -leit, f. search for gafne ; 
-rodd, f. voice of beasts ; -skinn, n. 
skin of wild beasts ; -veiSr, f. deer- 
hunting (fara a dyra-vei5i, vera at 

dyr-bit, n. biting of lambs [sheep) by 
foxes (eigi var6 bonda mein at -biti 

dyr6, f. glory (himnarikis d.). 

dyr(5ar-dagr, m. day of glory, feast ; 
-fullr, 2.. full of gloiy ; -hus, n. house 
of glory ; -konungr, m. the King of 
Glory [Christ) ; -korona, f. crown of 
glory; -lif, n. life of glory, -maSr, 
m. a glorious man, saint ; -samliga, 
adv. gloriously ; -samr, a. gloriotis ; 
-stac5r, m. a glorious place ; -songr, 
m. song of glory, hymn ; -verk, n. 
glorious work. 

dyr-gildr, a. dearly paid for', 
-goldinn, pp. =-gildr; skal {)er J)at 
-goldit verSa, thoti shall pay dearly 
for that ; -gripr, m. a thing of great 
value, a treasure. 

dyr-hundr, m. deer-hound, fox- 

dyrka (at5), v. (i) to exalt, glorify 
(gu3 dyrkaSi son sinn) ; (2) to cele- 
brate (d. penna dag) ; d. hd.ti6 e-s = 
halda hdtid e-s ; (3) to worship (far 
J)u me8 m^r at d. drottin guQ J)inn) ; 
to pray 07ie reverentially (kastar hon 
ser fram i. golfit fyrir foetr konungi 
ok dyrkaSi hann) ; refl., dyrkast, to 
magnify oneself, to glory ; sd er dyr- 
kast, dyrkist hann med gu3i, he that 
glorieth, let him glory in the Lord. 

dyrkan, f. (i) adoration, worship 
(veita go6um d.) ; (2) glorifying (d. 
andar ok li'kama) ; -ligr, 2^. glorious. 

dyr-kdlfr, m. deer-calf 

dyr-keyptr, pp. dearly bought ; 
-lagSr, pp. dearly rated; -leikr, m. 
dearness ; -ligr, a. glorious (-ligr 
klasSnaSr, -lig veizla) ; -lingr, m. 
holy tnan, saint ; -mSBtr, a. precious. 

dyrr (dyrri, dyrstr), a. (i) high- 
priced, dear ; ek met hana dyrra en 
aSrar, / put her at a higher price 
than the rest ; (2) precious, costly 
(skjoldinn p)ann inn dyra) ; dyrar 
hallir, costly halls; inn dyri mjoSr, 
the goodly mead; inn dyri hdttr, 
artificial 77ietre ; [s) of high worth, 
worthy (in dyra drottning, Maria) : 
skatna dyrstr, the best of men ; Jon 
Loptsson, er dyrstr {7wblest, worthiest) 
maSr er d landi J)essu. 

dyrs-belgr, m. beast's skin ; -horn, 
n. an ox-horn, esp. a d7'inking-horn ; 
-hofuS, n. head of a deer. 

dyr-skinn, n. deer-skin. 




dsBla, f. shif s pump. 

dsBldar-maSr, m. a gentle, easy man 
(hann var engi -ma6r ok hinn mesti 

daBll, a. gentle, easy to deal with 
(vertu nu dasi meSan ek em brautu ; 
ekki potta ek dasll heima) ; J)at er 
eigi svji daelt ( = au5velt, eas)>) at taka 
Sigur5 jarl af lifdogum ; daslt er 
heima hvat, anything will pass at 
ho?ne\ gera ser daslt vi3 e-n, to put 
oneself on a free^ familiar footifig 
with one (f>6r3r gerSi ser daslt vi3 
pau t»orvald ok GuQrunu) ; ek mun 
nu gera mer da^lt um rd6ag0r6 vi6 
J)ik, / will take the liberty to give 
thee straightforward advice. 

dael-leiki, -leikr ^m.fafniliarity ; gor 
allt i -leikum vi5 oss, 7nake no cere- 
mony with us ; -ligleikr, m. = -leikr ; 
-ligr, a. pleasant to look at, genteel. 

daelu-austr, m. baling out a ship 
with a daila ; -ker, n. a kind of 

daesa f-ta, -t), v. to fetch a deep 
groan (d. vi5) ; refl., dassast, to be- 
come exhausted. 

dffistr, pp. exhausted, worn out. 

doegr, n. (i ) one half of the as iron, 
day, twelve hours of the day or night 
(i degi doegr tvau, i dcegri stundir 
tolf; tuttugu ok fjorar stundir skulu 
vera i tveimr doegrum) ; (2) an astro- 
notnical day; twenty- four hours', 
sjau doegra sigling, a sail of seve?i 
days (between Norway and Iceland). 

dcegra-far, n. the division of day 
and night ; -mot, n. the twilight at 
morning a7id eveniftg ; -skipti, n. = 
-far; -stytting, i. pastitne; -tal, n. 
calculation of time. 

doegr-far, n. = doegrafar ; -ganga, 
f. twelve hours' walk. 

doel, doeld, f. a little dale, recess. 

doell, m. dalesman, mostly in plur. 
compounds (Laxdcelir, Fljotsdoelir, 
Vatnsdoelir, &c.). 

doslska, f. idle talk, nonsense, 

doelskr, a. foolish , == folskr. 

doema (-da, -dr), v. (i) to give 
judgement y pass sentence ; d. mdl, to 
give judgement in a case\ d. dom, to 
give a verdict or sentence ; d. sekt, 

utleg3, to pass sentence of a fine, out- 
lawry ; d. eindaga d {€, to fix a term 
for payment ; d. log, to pass a lawful 
sentence ; d. e-n skogarmann, to pro- 
claijn one an outlaw ; d. e-m e-t, to 
adjudge a thing to one ; d. e-m dom, 
to deal out a sentence to one ; d. e-n 
af e-u, to declare one to have forfeited 
(d. e-n af sinni soemd) ; d. um e-t, to 
judge of; (2) to talk, converse ; d. vi6 
e-n, to talk with one', drekka ok d., 
to drink and talk ; en er J)eir d.ttu of 
Jjessa hluti at d., when they were 
talking of those things. 

doema- t'dtt, a. n. almost unexampled; 
-frotSr, a. wise in old instances', 
-lauss, a. unexampled', -inac5r, m. a 
man to be ifnitated. 

doemandi (pi. -endr), m. a judge = 
domandi, domari. 

doemi, n. {\) proof, reason', draga 
t)eir eigi si'zt til dcemis l)ar um, at, in 
proof of this they specially adduce the 
fact, that ; (2) incident , fact ; J)6 hafa 
morg doemi orSit i forneskju, yet 
many things have happened in olden 
times', hoi6 dcEmi, hard fate', at 
eigi verSi oss Adams d., that the 
same shall not happen to us as to A. ; 

(3) tale, story (Ari prestr fr66i, er 
morg doemi spaklig hefir saman sett) ; 

(4) poem, verses (pessi dcemi oil eru 
kvedin um J)enna atburSj ; (5) quota- 
tion (draga fram doemi af bokum) ; 

(6) example for imitation, model 
(eptirdoemum kristinna manna) ; taka 
d. af e-m, to take an example by one ; 

(7) example, instance, precedent (djarf- 
ari en doemi munu til vera) ; umtram 
d., or doemum, uttexafnpled, unprece- 
dented (kom J)d sva mikill snjor, at 
J)at var or doemum) ; meirr en til 
doemis or til doema, beyond anything 
known ; til doemis at taka (draga), to 
take an example. 

doemi-lauss, a. = doema-lauss. 

deeming, {.judgement. 

doemi-saga, f. tale, fable ; parable ; 
-St 611, ux. judgement seat. 

dof, f. (i) rump (dofin dyrsins) ; 
(2) a kind of spear. 

dogg (gen. doggvar, dat. dogg or 
doggu; pi. doggvar), f. dew; -fall. 




n. dew-fall, deposit of dew ; -lauss, 
a. dewless ; -litr, a. bespritikled with 
dew ; -ottr, a. bedewed., m. chape [of a sheath) ; 
-sl6c5, f. track left in the dew ; ok 
draga kyrtlarnir -sl66ina, the tunics 
brush the dew. 

doggva (a5 or -^a), v. (i) to bedew 
(doggvir hann jorSina af meldropum 
sinum) ; (2) to i?Tigate, water. 

doggvan, f. bedewing, irrigation. 

doggvar-drep, n. mark {Joot-print) 
in the dew. 

dcggving, f. irrigation^ diog-gwein. 

doglingr, m. kmg, descendant of 
king Dag. 

dogurc^r, m. = dagver6r. 

dpkk-blar, a. dark-blue ; -brunatSr, 
-brunn, a. dark-brown ; -groenn, a. 
dark-green ; -harr, a. dark-haired ; 
-jarpr, a. dark-auburft (-jarpr d hdr) ; 
-leikr, m. duskiness ; -litaSr, pp. 

d0kkna (aS), v. to darken (himin- 
tunglin dokkna). 

d0kknan, f. darke?ting. 

d0kkr (ace. -van), a. dark ; d. i. 
hdr, dark-haired. 

dpkk-rau^r, a. dark- red. 

dpkkva (-ta, -tr), v. to darken, to 
make dark. 

d0kkvi, m. a dark spot. 


obreska, f. the Hebrew language. 

ebreskr, a. Hebraic (ebresk tunga). 

ec5a or ec5r, conj., (i) or; fyrr eQa 
si6ar, sooner or later ; annathvd.rt . . . 
eSa, either . . , or; hvirt . . . e6a, 
whether {if) ... or; hvd.rt er . . . e6a, 
whether ...or; (2) in comparison of 
two unlike things, and (mikinn mun 
eigum ver at gera J)in eQa annarra 
heiinamanna) ; (3) after a comparative, 
and perhaps (ek em eigi verri riddari 
en S. konungr, e5a nokkuru betri) ; 
(4) introducing a question, but (ek 
heiti AuSgisl, — e3a ertu H. vand- 
raeQaskdld ?) ; (5) sometimes after a 
negation, = nd, 7ior (J^eir munu hvdrki 
fyrir sjd i€ sinu eQa fjorvi). 

edda, f. (i) great-grandmother; (2) 
the name of the book Edda, written 
by Snorri Sturluson, c. 1220. 

edik, n. vinegar. 

eSla, f. adder, 77^^r, = eySla. 

eSli (in old MSS. written 0^1), n. 
\\) 7iature ; manns e., mannligt e., 
hwnan nature; arnar e., the eagle's 
nature ; pat er i moti ndtturligu e., it 
is against the order of nature ; (2) 
origin^ extraction (hann var valskr 
at aett ok e.) ; (3) foetus (J)6tti henni 
kviknat hafa e. sitt). 

e^li-borinn, pp. born in wedlock. 

eSlis-log, n. pi. law of nature ; 

-skapan, -skepna, f. natural con- 
dition or quality ; -skynsemd, f. 
native intellige?ice. 

eSl-vina, {.friend of vipers (dub.). 

eSr, conj., see *e8a'. 

ef (older form if), conj. (i) if in 
case (aldri hefSir J)u i borgina komit, 
ef ek hef5a vitat) ; in poetry generally 
with subj. ; vega J)u gakk, ef vreicir 
seir (ser), if thou be wroth ; (2) 
= hvart, if, whether (Egill spurcJi, ef 
hann vildi upp or grofinni) ; (3) as 
a relat. part., sa ef=sa er (rare). 

ef or if, n. doubt ; ef er d e-u, // is 
dotibtful; ekki er til efs, at, it cannot 
be doubted that; utan ef, without doubt. 

efa or ifa (aS), v. to doubt (engi efar 
bat) ; e. um e-t, to doubt about a 
thing; refl., efast 1 e-u, to hesitate in^ 
be in doubt ; e. um e-t = efa um e-t ; 
with gen., e. e-s, to chatige one's mind 
in a matter. 

efaS-samligr, a. doubtful; -semd, 
f. doubtfulness, uncertaifity. 

efa-lausliga, adv. withoiit doubt ; 
-lauss, a. itidubitable, certain ; -laust, 
adv. without doubt, certainly. 

efan, f. doubt, doubting. 

efanar-lauss, a. undoubted ; -laust, 
adv. undoubtedly, indubitably. 

efan-leikr, m. doubtfidness ; -leikr 
sagnar, atnbiguity of expression \ 




-ligr, a. (l) doubtful \ (2) hesiiatifig^ 
irresolute ; (3) uncertain (efanligt er 
mannsins eSli). 

efa-samliga, adv. doubtfully \ -semd, 
f . ( I ) doubt ( dn -semd) ; ( 2 ) auibiguity 
(-semd andsvarsins) ; -sok, f. doubtful 
case (in law), 
efja, f. mud, ooze. 

eflla (-da, -dr), v. (i) to strengthen 
structurally, to reinforce (e. veggi) ; 
letu peir e. at nyju Danavirki, t/iey 
restored the Danish ivall\ (2) to 
found, raise (e. sta6, kirkju) ; e. her 
(115) d hendr e-m, to raise troops 
against one ; e. e-n, to support, aid 
(efldi Dofri hann siSan til rikis 1 
Noregi) ; e. e-n til rangs mdls, to 
help one iii an unjust cause ; (3) to 
perform ; e. heit, to make a vow ; e. 
at brullaupi, to hold a weddings (4) 
to be able (sem ver eflum ok orkum ) ; 
(5) refl., eflast. to grow strong (hann 
fann, at motstodumenn hans efldust) ; 
e. at her, to gather, raise troops ; e. 
til rikis, to win a kingdom {by force 
of arms) ; poet., e. vi6 e-n, to tnarry 
into one's family, = m3dg} 

ef-laust, adv. undoubtedly, without 
doubt leflaust ma hann t)at vita). 

efling, f. (i) strengthening, increase 
in strength ; {2) aid, support. 
efna (-da, -dr), v. to perform, fulfil 
(e. or6 sin, sastt, heit) ; refl., efnast, to 
turn out in a certain way (efndist J)at 
ok vel ; Jjat efnist opt ilia). 

efna (aS), v. to prepare, make 
arrangements, for a thing (e. til vetr- 
setu, veizlu, kaupstadar). 
efna-faeS, f., -leysi, n., -skortr, m. 
scarcity, want, or shortness of means. 
efnd, i. fulfilmerit of a pr-otnise (raun 
mun eptir fara um efndir). 

efni, n. (i) stuff, material (svd skildu 
J)eir, at allir hlutir vseri smi6a5ir af 
nokkuru efni) ; ek em gorr af ustyrku 
efni, / arn made of frail stuff; cf. 
biskups-, bru3ar-, fraegSar-, konu-, 
konungs-, mdgs-, manns-, mungdts-, 
smi6ar-efni ; (2) matter of discourse, 
subject, theme (t>ryti m6r fyrr stundin 
til frdsagnar en efnit til umroeSu) ; 
eigi me6 sonnu e., with untrice state- 
ment, falsely ; nu er uti mitt e., now 

my story is at an end', (3) matter^ 
affair (segir konungr frd oUu Jjessu e.) ; 
fdtt er betr Idtit en e, eru til, few 
things are reported better than they 
really are ; (4) cause, reason ; Idtast 
bdQir af J)vi e., both die from this 
calls e ; fyrir f)at e. {for that reason) 
keypti hann landit ; (5) state, condi- 
tion, affair ; sagdi, hver e. i voru, he 
told how matters stood; ek veit eigi 
gorla e. Gunnlaugs, how G.*s affairs 
stand; kominn i uvaent e., into a 
critical condition ; ottalauss i ollu e., 
in every respect ; er J)essi hlutr kom 
til efnis, when this came about ; ben- 
pat til efnis, at, // happens that ; (6) 
pi., means; ok bjuggust um eptir 
peim efnum, sem peir hofSu til, 
according to their means ; engi voru e. 
annars, par voru engi e. onnur, there 
was no other chance or choice. 

efhi-ligr, a. hopeful, promising 
(efniligir menn) ; ekki efniligt, not 

efning, f. keeping, fulfilment, = eind. 

efni-tr6, n. wood-materials, timber. 

efri (older form 0fri), a. compar., 
efstr (older form 0fstr), a. superl., 
(i) upper, uppermost, opp. to 'neSri, 
neSstr ' ; bera efra skjold, to gain the 
victory ; ver6a e-m e., to be superior 
to ; hit efra, {a) high above groicnd 
(fara hit efra i trjdm sem apynjur e3a 
ikornar) ; [b) the upper or inland 
road, opp. to 'hit ytra', along the 
shore (sumir foru hit efra til f»rihyrn- 
ingshdlsa) ; by land, opp. to the sea ; 
if) of the inner part of a building, 
opposed to ' hit fremra ' or the part 
nearest the door (konungr settist i 
hdsceti ok alskipat var hit efra ok hit 
fremra) ; (2) latter, last ; petta var 
inn efra hlut sumars, towards the end 
of summer; i. efra aldri, advanced in 
years ; efsti domr, the last judge- 
ment ; efsta vika langafdstu, the last 
week of Lent, Passion Week. 

EgSir, m. pi. the inhabitants of 
Ag6ir, a ' fylki ' in Norway. 

egSskr, 3.. from AgQir. 

egg (gen. pi. eggja), n. egg. 

egg (gen. -jar, dat. -ju; pi -jar), 
f. edge ; ey6a (verja) oddi ok eggju, 




by force of arms^ with might and 

egg-bitinn, pp. cut, wotmded by an 
edge\ -elningr, m. a scythe having 
an ell-long edge ; -farvegr, m. the 
print of an edge ; -livass, a. sharp- 
edged^ sharp (-hvast jarn). 

eggja (aS), v. to ificite, e^g one on 
to do a thing (e. e-n e-s or til e-s or 
a e-t) ; e. e-n fram, to urge one on ; 
refl., lata at eggjast, to yield to 
aftother's egging on ; e. upp i. e-n, to 
pick a quarrel with one, provoke one ; 
recipr. to egg one another on (eggjud- 
ust nu fast hvdrirtveggju). 

eggja-broddr, m, sharp-edged spike. 

eggjan, f. edging on, goading. 

eggjanar-fifl, n. fool, cafs paw ; 
-orS, n. pi. inciting {egging) words, 

eggjari, m. egger-on, inciter. 

egg-leikr, m. poet, play with sharp 
weapons^ battle ; -motSr, a. poet. 

egg-skurn, f. egg-shell. 

egg-steinn, m. sharp-edged stone', 
-teinn, m. ^ edge-twig\ the steeled 
edge of a sword; svd at fal ba6a 
-teina sverQsins, so that both edges of 
the sword were hidden. 

egg-tits, f. egg- seas on ; -ver, n. ' egg- 
field'' (a place where eggs of sea-birds 
are gathered). 

egg-volr, m. the steeled edge of a7i 
axe (hann snerpir eggvolinn). 

Kgipta-land, n. the land of Egypt. 

egipzkr, a. Egyptian. 

egna (-da, -dr), v. (i) to use as a 
bait, with dat. (e. oxahofQi i. ongul) ; 
(2) to furnish with a bait, to bait, 
with ace. (e. snoru, net, gildru) ; (3) 
to bait for (e. aurriSa) ; e. veidi, to 
set bait for the prey ; (4) to incite, 

ei, adv. (i) ever, = ey, ae ; ei ok ei, 
for ever and ever-, (2) not, = eigi (as 

•aldri' for * aldri^^i'). 

eic5, n. isthmus, neck of land (mjott e.). 

eicSa, f. poet, mother (rare). 

eiSa-brig'Si, n. breach of oath ; 
-fullting, n. oath-help', -kona, f. 
female compurgator; -liS, n. oath- 
heipers, compurgators ; -mdl, n. the 

matter of taking an oath. 

ei5-br6t5ir, m. a sworn confederate ; 

bundinn, pp. oath-bound; -fall, n. 
failing in on^s oath ; -foera (-(5a, 
-Sr), V. to charge one with a thing by 
an oath ; -foering, -foersla, f. charging 
by an oath ; -foerr, a. able, competent 
to take an oath ; -hjalp, n. oath-help ; 
-laust, adv. without an oath. 

eiSr (-S, -ar), m. oath ; vinna, sverja 
eiS, to take [swear] an oath ; rjufa 
ei6, to break an oath ; ganga lil ei3a, 
to proceed to the taking of oaths ; eigi 
verSr einn ei3r alia, a single oath does 
not clear all men. 

ei5-rof, n. breach of an oath ; -roJS, 
m. violator of an oath^ perjurer ; 
-spjall, n. taking of an oath ; hlyda 
til -spjalls e-s, to listen to one's oath ; 
-stafr, m. oath-formula ; -svari, m. 
one bound by oath, liege-7nan ; -soerr, 
a. that ?nay be sworn to, absolutely 
true ; -unning, f. the taking of an oath ; 
-varr, a. cautious {conscientious) as 
to an oath ; -vsBtti, n. testimony on 

eiga (a, atta, attr), v. (i) to own, 
possess (Starkadr atti best g66an) ; 
(2) to have (e. born, foSur, moSur, 
vin) ; e. konu, to have her for wife ; 
hann dtti Gro, he was married to G. ; 
hann gekk at e. f»6ru, he took Th.for 
his wife, he married Th. ; enga vil 
ek J)essa e., / will fiot marry any of 
these ; e. heima, to have a home, to 
live (peir dttu heima austr i Mork) ; 
e. s^r e-t = e. e-t (Hoskuldr atti ser 
dottur, er HallgerSr het) ; e. van e-s, 
to have hope of a thing, to reckon 
upon ; e. hlut at or i e-u, to hai'e a 
share in a thing, to be co?icerned in ; 
e. vald d e-u, to have within one's 
power ; (3) to be under obligation, be 
obliged, have to do a ihitig ; tolf menn, 
J)eir er fylgS attu meS konungi, who 
were bound to attend the king's 
person ; a ek {)ar fyrir at sj^, / am 
bound (/ have) to see to that ; dtti 
Hrutr for i Vestfjordu, H. had to go to 
the v.; (4) to have a right {claim) 
to, be entitled to (e. hogg ok hofn i 
skoginum) ; e. mdl i. e-m, to have a 
charge against one; e. rdtt i. ser, to 
have a {personal) claim to redress) 




(5) to keep, hold\ e. fund, l^ing, sam- 
kvdmu, stefnu, to hold a 7neeting ; e. 
kaupstefnu, to hold a market \ e. 
orrustu vi3 e-n, to fight a battle with 
one \ e. hogg vi5 e-n, to exchange 
blows with one\ e. illt vi6 e-n, to 
quarrel with ; e. tal {or mal) vi3 e-n, 
to speak, converse with one ; (6) as 
an auxiliary with pp. = hafa (t^at er 
vid dttum maalt) ; e. skilit, to have 
stipulated; (7) to have to (skal ^. 
eigi at t)vi e. at spotta) ; e. hendr 
si'nar at verja, to have to act in self- 
defence; e. um vandraeSi at halda, to 
be i?i a strait ; (8) e. e-m e-t, to owe 
to 07ie (mun ae, hvat J)u dtt t)eim er 
veitir) ; (9) /^ be the person denoted 
by a thing] t)at muntu aetla, at ek 
mun e. hinn bleika uxann, that the 
fawn-coloured ox means me \ (10) 
with preps., e. e-t at e-m, to have 
something due from one, to expect 
from one (J)at vil ek e. at J)er, at Jju 
segir mer hi. fer3 J)inni) ; to deserve 
from one (ok d ek annat at t)er) ; J^eir 
er mikit J)6ttust at ser e., had much 
in their power ; e. e-t eptir, to have 
to do yet, to have left tmdone (J)at 
dttu eptir, er erticiast er, en {)at er at 
deyja) ; to leave behind one (andaSist 
ok dtti eptir tva sonu vaxna) ; e. e-t 
saman, to own in comifion ; e. skap 
saman, to agree well, be of one fnind; 
eigi veit ek, hvdrt vi5 eigum heill 
saman, whether we shall live happy 
together ; e. saman, to quarrel, — e. 
deild saman ; e. um vi3 e-n, to have 
to deal with (vi5 brogdotta dttu nu 
um) ; J)ar sem vi6 vim mina er um at 
e., where my friends are concerned', 
e. e-t undir e-m, to have in another's 
hands', Njdll atti mikit fe undir 
StarkaSi ok 1 Sandgili, A^. had ?nuch 
money out at interest with St. and at 
Sandgil ; er sd eigi vel staddr, er h'f 
sitt i. undir J)mum truna6i, whose life 
depends on thy good faith ; e. mikit 
(litit) undir ser, to have much {little) 
in o?ie's power ; far I)u vi3 marga 
menu, svd at t)u eigir allt undir J)er, 
that the whole matter rests in thy 
own hands ; hann sd, at hann dtti ekki 
undir ser, that he had no influence ; 

e. vi6 e-n, to have to do with, fight 
with (brdtt fundu J)eir, at })eir dttu 
l)ar ekki vi3 sinn maka) ; ekki d ek 
l)etta vi6 Jjik, this is 710 business 
between thee and 77te ; e. gott (illt) vid 
e-n, to be on good {bad) terms with 
one ; e. \'\6 konu, to have intercourse 
with, = e. lag (samrccSi) vi6 konu ; 
recipr., eigast viQ, to deal with one 
another; fight , quarrel ; e. vi3 deildir, 
to be etigaged in strife ; dttust t)eir 
hoggvaskipti vi6, they exchanged 
blows with one another. 

eiga, f. (i) possession; kasta sinni 
eigu, leggja sina eigu, a e-t, to take 
possession of; (2) property. 

eigandi (pi. eigendr), m. owner^ 

eigi, adv. not ; eigi . . . ok, nor (e. vil 
ek ok J)at mitt rd6 kalla). 

eigin, n. (i) one's own, one's pro- 
perty ; (2) new sprout of corn. 

eigin, a. indecl. own, = eiginn (var 
jardadr 1 sinni e. borg) ; this 'eigin' 
may also be considered as the first 
part of a compound ; -borg, f. one's 
own tow7i ; -bondi, m. husband ; 
-broe^r, m. pi. one's own brothers ; 
-dottir, f. ones own daughter ; -gipt- 
ast (see gipta), v. refl., to 77iarry, be 
7narried to (of a woman) ; -gimd, 
-girni, f. selfishness ; -gjarnligr, a. 
selfish ; -hiisfru, -kona, -kvan, f. 
wife ; -kvdngacSr, -kvsentr, pp. law- 
fully 7narried (of a man) ; -kyn, n. 
peculiarity ; -lauss, a. having no 
property y poor; -leikr, m. quality, 
peculiarity ; -liga, adv. properly, 
strictly ; -ligr, a. one's own,perso7ial, 
particular ; sjd -ligum augum, with 

one's own eyes; -ligt nafn, proper 
na7ne ; -maor, m. husba7id. 

eiginn, a. ow7i, f roper (med sam- 

Jjykt eiginnar konu). 

eigin-nafn, n. proper 7ia77ie ; -ort5, 

n. (i) possession; fd e-t at -orSi, to 
get possession of, opp. to 'fa e-t at 

lani'; (2) wedding, 77iarriage (bj63a 

e-m konu til -oros) ; -raiin, f. on^s 

own experience ; -tunga, f. one's own 

native tongue. 

eign, f. (i) property, possession ; 

kasta sinni e., leggja e. sma, d e-t| to 




take possession of\ (2) estate, landed 
property, esp. pi. (hann iXXx eignir i 
Vik austr). 

eigna (aS), v. (i) to assign, attribute 
to one (eigna e-m e-t) ; eigna s^r e-t, 
to declare a thing to be one^s own 
property, to take to oneself; eigna s6r 
land, to take lajid into one's own 
hands ; refl., eignast, to become the 
owner of, to get ; (2) to dedicate to, 
name after one (eigna e-m kvasdi, 
eigna {>6r hof). 

eigna^r, pp. having possessions or 
property (vel eignaSr). 

eigna-lauss, a. having no property, 

eignar-akall, n. claim of owner- 
ship ; -broSir, m. one's ow?i brother ; 
-hlutr, m. ( I ) private share, property ; 
(2) part of an estate ; -jorS, f . patri- 
7nony ; -kona, f. = eiginkona; -lyrittr, 
m. legal title of ow tier ship ; -inac5r, 
m. owner, possessor ; -nafn, n. proper 
name ; -sonr, m. one's ow?t son ; 
-spusa, f. = -kona; -vili, m. otie's 
own will ; -vitni, -vsetti, n. witness 
of ownership. 

eigna-skipti, n. exchange of land. 

ei-g6(5r, a. *■ ever good\ beloved, as a 
nickname ; -groenn, a. evergreen. 

eigu-ligr, a. worth having, precious. 

eik (gen. eikar and eikr, pi. eikr), 
f. oak, also a tree in general. 

eikar-kefli, m. oaken stick ; -stofn, 
-stubbi, m. oak stump, oak stub. 

eiki, n. oak timber ; -dss, m. oaken 
beam ; -kylfa, f. oaken club ; -kostr, 
m. pile of oak wood. 

eikinn, a. wild, vehement {of fire). 

eiki-skogr, m. oak wood, oak forest ; 
-stobbi, m. stiwp of an oak ; -stokkr, 
m. oak stock ; -sula, f. oaken colufnn ; 
-tindaSr, pp. with oaken pegs ; -viSr, 
m. oak wood, oak timber \ -vondr, m. 
twig of an oak tree. 

eikja, f. a sinall ferry-boat. 

eikju-karfi, m. = eikja. 

ei-ligr, a. eternal (rare). 

eilif S, f. eterfiity, eternal life. 

eilif 5ar-fri5r, m. everlasting peace ; 
-yndi, n. everlasting happiness ; 
-ombun, f. eternal recompense. 

ei-lifi. n. = eilif6. 

eilifis-fagnaSr, m. everlasting joy. 

eilif-leikr, m. etertiiiy ; -liga, adv. 
eternally, to all eternity; -ligr, a. 
eternal, everlasting. 

ei-lifr, a. eternal, everlasting; at 
-\i{u, for ever and ever. 

ei-litill, a. very small, very little. 

eimi, eimr, m. reek, vapour. 

ei-muni, m. an ever metnorable 
tiling- ; Jsat er J)eim -muni, they will 
never forget it. 

eimyrja, f. embers (eldr ok e.; allr 
er segir sem i eimyrju hroeri). 

eina, adv. o?ily, alone. 

ein-angr, m. a great strait (vaskr, 
oruggr, i einangri); -angra (a6), v. to 
Put 07ie in a strait. 

einarcSar-fatt, a. n., e-m verSr -fdtt, 
one fails in courage ; -lauss, a. 
waverittg, treacherous ; -ley si, n. 
inconstancy, uttreliableness ; -macSr, 
m. a steadfast, trusty 7nan. 

einar5-liga, adv. firmly, heai^tily ; 
-ligr, a. firm, del ermitied- looking, 
faithful; -maBltr, a. frank, out- 

einartSr, a. (i) si?igle (einart l)ak) ; 
{2)fir7n, determined, reliable. 

einart, adv. (i) incessantly; (2) 
straight, directly. 

ein-baka5r, pp. once-baked ; -bani, 
m. sincrle-handed slayer ; -berni, n. 
only child; -beygSr, pp. sole, only 
(-beygSr kostr) ; -bjarga, a. indecl. 
self-supporting, independent ; -breiSr, 
2l. of a single breadth, half a yard 
broad (of stuff) ; -bui, m. single 
dweller; -boeli, n. single hotisehold; 
-daga (aS), v. to px a day for a thing 
(eindaga fe, l^ing, leigu, brullaup) ; 
-dagi, m. a fixed time, term ; -droegr, 
a. incessant, continuous (gerum {)eim 
eindroegja hriSina) ; -dosmi, n. (i) the 
right to be sole arbiter in a case ; (2) 
an tmexampled thing; -eggja^r, pp. 
one-edged; -eit5i (=eins ei5r), n. 
single oath ; -eign, f. sole ownership ; 
-eyg^r, a. one-eyed; -falda (ao), v. 
to use in the singular ; einfalda akall, 
to address with ' thou ' ; -faldleikr, 
m. simplicity ; -faldliga,adv. j/w//y, 
singly ; -faldligleikr, m. = -fald- 




ein-faldr, a. (i) siinple ; single \ (2) 
weak in intellect, silly ; ( 3 ) plain, 
coi7imon (einfaldr bondi) ; -farar, f, 
pi. walking alone ; -feldi, f, simplicity, 
weak int elicit ; -feldr, a. be7it on one 
thing, resolute ; -ferSir, f. pi. = -farar ; 
-fyndr, a. (i) belonging to the finder 
alone (hvalr einfyndr) ; (2) as finder 
entitled to the whole (einfyndr at 
hval) ; -foGrr, a. able to go alone \ 
-foetingr, m. one-legged ?}ia?i ; -foettr, 
pp. one-It gged\ -for, f., see -farar. 

einga, a. indecl. only, single ; e. barn, 
only child; e. vinr, only friend, inti- 
mate friejid. 

ein-ganga, f. solitary walk ; ganga 
eingongu, to walk alone ; -getinn, 
pp. only begotten ; -hama, a. indecl., 
-hamr, a. single-shaped, op p. to 
'hamrammr'; |»rilndr var kallaSr 
eigi einhamr, Th. was thought to be 
a werewolf', -harSr, a. = einarSr ; 
-hendis, adv. straight, off-ha7id\ 
-hendr, a. one-handed; -her jar, m. 
pi. the dead warriors (in Valhalla) ; 
sing., einheri, great champion (of 
Thor) ; -hjal, n. private talk [betweefi 
tivo) ; -hleypingr, m., -hleypismaSr, 
m. single person without hearth or 
home; -hleypr, a. single, unmarried \ 
-hlitr, 2l. fully sufiicient, adequate (til 
e-s, to) ; lata s^r e-t einhlitt, to rest 
satisfied with ; vera ser einhlitr, 7iot 
to need the help of others ; -hugaS- 
liga, adv. unanifnously ; -hugi, a. 
wholly intent on (a e-t) ; -hugsa (a$), 
V. to make 2ip one's mind; -hverfa 
(-t5a, -§r), V. to turn a thing in one 
direction ; einhverfa astlan sina fyrir 
ser, to decide upon doing a thing ; 
-hverfr, a. deterjnined; -hverr, 
pron., see 'einnhverr'; einhvers 
stadar, somewhere ; -hyrndr, a. one- 
horned; -hyrningr, m. unico7'n. 

einigr, a. (l) any; (2) 710,= engi. 

eining, f. unity (t)rennr i einingu). 

einir (gen. einis), rvi. fiiniper. 

ein-jarnungr, m. a cutting tool or 
weapon 77iade of 07ie priece of iron. 

einka (atS), v. to appoint for a 
peculiar use (einka e-t til e-s). 

einka-, in compds., special, par- 
ticular; -gjdf, f. special gift; -griS, 

n. special truce; -gripr, m. special 
fa?nily heirloom ; -jartegn, n. special 
toke7i ; -leyfi, -lof, n. special leave ; 
-maSr, m. a person of special rank, 
dig7iita7y; -mal, n. (i) special agree- 
77ie7it ; ( 2 ) privilege, 

einkan-liga, adv. especially^ par- 
ticularly ; -ligr, a. special^ extra- 

ein-kanna (aS), v. = einka, to assign 

einkanna-hlutr, m. a distinguishing 
77iark or feature. 

einkar, adv. very, exceedingly fe. 
fagr, hrasddr) ; e. mjok, very much ; 
e. skjott, with great speed; e. vel, 
extre7nely well; in compds. with 
nouns = einka- ; -etSli, n. special 
7iature ; -nafn, n. proper na7ne ; 
-skriptargangr, m. special confes- 

einka-ssBla, f. particular or personal 
happifiess; -vinr, m. a particular 

ein-kenna (-da, -dr), v. to fur7iish 
with a disti7ictive 7)iark, distinguish, 
signalize ; -kenniligr, a. especial, 
particular \ -kenning, f. distinctioft. 

einkum, adv. (i) chiefiy, especially ; 
(2) ve7y (e. godr, e. bezt). 

ein-kunn, f. 77iark of ownership (on 
animals) ; -kvasntr, pp. having only 
one wife; -kynna (-da, -dr), v. to 
77tark (animals) ; -lagi, a., vera, gerast 
einlagi urn e-t, to act alone i7i a thing; 
-lat, n. desertifig one's wife or husba7id 
(cf. ' Uta konu eina ') ; -leikr, m. 
tinity ; -leitr, a. si7igular in one's 
behaviour, odd; -litr, a. of one 
colour ; -lyndi, n. obsti7iacy, stubborn- 
7iess ; -lyndr, a. obsti7iate, stubborn ; 
-lasti, n. (i) = einlyndi ; (2) = -Idt ; 
a^tla konu einlasti, to inte7id to desert 
ones wife; -mall, a. opinionated; 
-man, n. solitude ; bua 1 einmani, to 
live in solitude ; -mana, a. indecl. 
solitary, lonely, friendless. 

einmanaSar-samkvama, f. a meet- 
i7ig held in ' einmdnaQr '. 

ein-manat5r, m. the last month of 
winter (part of March and April) ; 
-manl, a. = -mana ; -menningr, m., 
drekka einmenning, to e7npty tht 




drinking-horn each one by himself \ 
-moSliga, adv. Jif-mly, resolutely ; 
-maBli, n. (i) private talk or con- 
ference ; (2) conwion talk (var pat 
allra manna einmasli) ; -mealingr, m. 
one meal only ; hafa einmasling, to 
eat one meal a r'ay\ -maBlt, adv. once 
a day, one 7neal a day (eta, drekka 
einmselt) ; -maeltr, pp. unatiimoiisly 
said (J)at var einmaelt, at). 

einn, card. numb, and pron. (i) one\ 
e. skal vi3 e. eiga, one shall fight 
against one ; e. ok e., one by one^ one 
at a time, singly, (2) as ord. numb. 
= inn fyrsti (Ur3 hetu eina, a6ra Ver- 
3andi, Skuld ina J)ric3ju) ; (3) the 
sa7ne, ofie and the same ( svein- 
arnir upp foeddir baQir 1 einu t>orpi) ; 
allt i. eina leid, all in one way ; e. . . 
ok, the same as (1 einu herbergi ok 
hinn) ; allr e., the very same, quite 
the same (t)at er allt eitt ok himinn) ; 
allt at einu, nevertheless^ for all that 
(po at pu J)j6na8ir ilium, ^6 var hann 
allt at einu J)inn herra) ; (4) indef. 
one, a certain (e. vetr, e. dag, eitt 
kveld) ; e. vinr f>6ris, a certain friend 
of Th. ; before numbers, about, soine ; 
einar fimm l)usundir, some fitve 
thousand', einir . . aQrir, some . . others 
(einir t6ku duka ok aSrir rekkju- 
blsejur) ; e. ok ymiss, one and another 
(einar ok ymissar t>j69ir); (5) after a 
negation, any, ne eitt, not anything-, 
(6) gen. pi. 'einna' used in an inten- 
sive sense ; einna manna bezt, best of 
all {single) men ; einna verst, by far 
the worst ; einna si'zt, by far the least, 
least of all ; engi er einna hvatastr, 
no man is superior to all others; (7) 
alone (Gufirun skyldi ein ra3a fyrir fe 
J)eirra) ; lata konu eina, to desert or 
divorce 07ie's wife ; with gen., hann 
yard e. sinna manna, he was separated 
from his men ; if put after the noun 
* einn ' generally denotes only, but ; 
segja J)etta prett einn, to call this a 
7nere trick ; vin eitt, wine only ; var 
J)at (handklaeSi) raufar einar, all in 
holes, mere tatters ; fdir einir, only a 
few ; e. ser or ser e., quite by oneself 
alone (hann var e. ser) ; e. saman, e. 
samtj quite alone ; kona eigi ein 

saman, not alone, with child', at eins, 
only, but ; eigi at eins, not only ; J)vi 
at eins, ojily in that case ; lidaudr at 
eins, merely not dead, all but deady 
barely alive', at einu = at eins. 

ein-nefna (-da, -dr), v. to appoint. 

einn-hverr (ein-hver, eitt-hvert), 
indef. pron.; except in nom. and ace. 
sing. masc. and neut. ein- is generally 
indecl. ; (i) so?ne, some one; einn- 
hvern dag, some day ; eitthvert sinn, 
einhverju sinni, sometime, once ; as a 
noun (meQan einnhverr varr biiand- 
anna er lifs) ; (2) as an intensive 
with superl. ; agjetastr ma3r einn- 
hverr, one of the very foremost men ; 
(3) each, each one, usually in two 
words (or J)eirra fjorQungi sem or 
einum hverjum o3rum). 

einnig, einnug ( = einn veg), adv. 
in the same way, likewise, also ; i. e. 
( = ^ einn veg), in the same 7nanner. 

ein-nsettr, a. one night old ; -rdc5inn, 
pp. having 7nade up 07ie's 7nind, 
resolved (i e-u, til e-s, upon) ; hafa 
einrdSit at gera e-t, to have 7nade up 
one's 7nind to do a thing; -rdt5r, a. 
self-willed ; -reikull, a. inclified to 
roam about alone ; -raetSi, n. self-will \ 
-roeSa, f. private co7iference; -roen- 
ligr, a. strange, odd ; -roenn, a. sin- 
gular i7i his behaviour. 

eins, adv. alike, i7i the sai7ie way ; 
e. ok, as (bar e. vi3 ok i Valt)j6fs- 
stoSum) ; as if (e. ok vasri hann me3 
ollu ottalauss) ; allt e. ok, jiist as (allt 
e. ok rakkar metja med tungu) ; allt e. 
= allt at einu, see einn 3 ; at eins, see 
einn 7. 

ein-samall, a. alone (rare) = einn 

ein-seta, f. (i) solitude ; (2) solitary 
life, hermifs life ; (3) her77iitage. 

einsetu-bro^ir, m. anchoret, recluse, 
liermit ; -klefi, -kofi, m. hermit* s 
cell ; -kona, f. herfuitess, a7ichoress ; 
-lifnaSr, m. the life of an anchoret, 
her7nit s life ; -ligr, a. pertai7n7ig to 
einseta ; -llf, n. = -lifnac5r ; -matSr, 
-munkr, m. = -br66ir. 

eins-hverr, indef. pron. = einnhverr. 

ein-skapan, f the 7'ight to fix one's 
own terms ; -skipa, a. indecl. with a 




single ship (l)u sigldir einskipa) ; 
-skirr, a. pej-fectly clear (einskirt 
ve6r) ; -skjaldar, adv. under the 
same shield^ acting together ; -skora 
(a5), v., einskora hug sinn, to make 
tip one^s mind ; -skeerligr, a. pure. 

eins-liga, adv. privately^ si?igly ; 
-ligr, a. (i) single = einfaldr ; einslig 
X2t\?i, singular number^ {2)private (eins- 
lig ^minning) ; (3) especial, particular. 

ein-staSar, adv. in some place ; 
-staka, a. indecl. single, occurring 
now and then, here and there ; -stapi, 
m. a kind oi fern ; -stigi, n. narrow 
path ; -strengja (-da, -dr), v. to 
make firm ; einstrengja J)d aetlan fyrir 
ser at, to resolve firmly ; -stoeSr, a. 
solitary, bereaved. 

eins-vigi, n. single co7nbat, = e'mvig'u 

ein-synn, a. (l) one-eyed \ (2) evid- 
ent, obvious; at einsynu, evidently; 
-s8Btt, a. n. clear, evident, only in the 
phrase, e-t er einsastt, is the 07ily 
thing to be done ; -sogn, f. a single 
person'' s stateinent ; -tal, n. private 
conferetice (ganga a eintal) ; -talat, 
pp. n., varS J)eim eintalat um Helgu, 
they talked of ?iothing but H. ; -teiti, 
a. in high spirits, quite merry ; 
-tomi, a. quite unoccupied, disen- 
gaged; -trjanungr, m. a boat made 
of a single tree. 

einugi, neut. dat. from * engi ' ; e. 
feti framarr, not a step further. 

ein-urS, f. = -or5; -vala, a. indecl. 
chosen, select ; einvala kappi, great 
champion ; einvala \\h, picked troops ; 
-vald, n. absolute government, sole 
sovereignty ; tiundi vetr einvalds 
hans, the tenth year of his reign ; 
-valdi, m. monarch, sovereign (ein- 
valdi e-s or yfir e-u) ; -valdr, m. = 

einvalds-herra, -hofSingi, m. 
autocrat, monarch ; -konungr, m. 
absolute king ; -riki, n. absolute sway, 

ein-valinn, pp. select, picked; -vild, 
f., -vili, m. self-will; -vir^ing, f. 
one' s own choice ; af einvirdmgu, 

einvirSu-liga, adv. exceedingly^ 
especially ; -ligr, a. especial. 

ein-virki, m. single worker, a poor 
husbandjnan who has no servants ; 
-vist, f. solitude ; vera einvistum, to 
live alone ; -vigi, n. single combat, 
duel; einvigis-inac5r, m. one who 
fights in sifigle combat, a duellist. 

ein-vsenn, a. in a hopeless state, 
sinking fast (liggja, vera, einvaenn) ; 
-voldugr, a. absolute ; -vortSungum, 
2i^w. particularly ; -yrki, m. = -virki; 
-l)ykki, n. self-will ; -t)ykkr, a. self- 
willed, sljcbborn ; -SBri, n. ter?n of 
one year ; -aerr, a. lasting one year^ 
of one year (einaer tiund) ; -seti, n. pi., 
only in the phrase, eta e-t einaetum, 
to eat alone, in private ; -orS (gen. 
-ar(5ar), f. (i) frankness, boldness, 
fairness (hafa einord til at ganga vi6 
e-u) ; einord v^rrar frasagnar, the 
fairness of our story ; (2) fidelity, 
loyalty (at landsfolkit mundi sniiit ixk 
einordinni vi6 konung) ; {2,)fir7n con- 
viction (pat er einorS min, at l)at er 
at engum kosti rdtt). 

Eir, f. one of the heathen goddesses. 

eir, n. brass, copper. 

eira (-J5a, -t), v. (i) to spare, with 
dat. (at J)eir skyldu eira konum ok 
kirkjum) ; e. undan e-u, to yield to ; 
(2) e-m eirir e-t vel (ilia), it agrees 
well {ill) with one, he is well pleased 
{displeased) with it (Eiriki konungi 
eirSi J)etta storilla) ; honum eirir ilia, 
ef, he is annoyed, if; (3) e. e-n af e-u, 
to deprive one of. 

eir-altarl, n. brazen altar; -baug^, 
m. brazen ring. 

eirc5, f. clemency, mercy. 

eir-guc5, m. an idol of brass; 
-hjalmr, m. brazett helmet. 

eirinn, 2^. forbearing, lenient. 

eir-ker, n. brazen vessel ; -ketill, 
m. braze7i kettle ; -kross, m. brazen 
cross ; -kyrtill, m. brazen cloak ; 
-ligr, a. brazen ; -nckkvi, m. brazen 
boat ; -ormr, m. brazen serpent ; 
-peningr, m, brass coin, copper coin ; 
-pipa, f. brass tube ; -skjoldr, m. 
brazen shield; -steypari, m. brass- 
founder ; -stolpi, m. pillar of brass ; 
-teinn, m. brass wire ; -uxi, m. brazen 
ox (image). 

elsa, f. glowing embers. 




eisa (a5), v. (i) to rush on ; ganga 
eisanda, to go dashing though the 
waves (of a ship) ; eisandi u6r, foam- 
ing wave ; (2) eisa eldum, to shower 
down embers. 

eiskald, n., eiskold, f. poet, heart. 

eiskra (a^j, v. to roar, rage. 

eiskran, f. roaring, raging. 

eista (gen. pi. eistna), n. testicle, 
stojie (eistun prutnufiu). 

Eistland, n. Esthonia. 

eistneatr, a. Esthotiian. 

Eistr, Eistrir, m. pi. the Esfhonia7is. 

eitla (a5), v., only in the phrase, e. 
augum, to look stern. 

eitr, n. poison (kasta eitri i drykk) ; 
fig. bitterness, malice. 

eitra(a$), v. to poison (eitra smyrsl); 
^itrsibr, poisonous (eitrat hatr). 

eitr-a, f. poisofious stream ; -bland- 
inn, pp. impregnated, tainted, with 
poison, poisoned, enve7iomed ; -bias- 
inn, pp. swollen up with poison ; 
-blastr, m. (i) inJiam7natio7i from 
poison ; (2) poisonous breath ; -bolg- 
inn, pp. = eitr-bldsinn ; -dalr, m. 
* venom dale ' ; -drep, n. deadly 
poison, poisotiing', -drepinn, pp. 
killed by poison, poisoned; -dropi, 
m. drop of poison ; -drykkr, m. 
poiso7ied draught ; -egg-jaSr, pp. hav- 
ing a poiso7ied edge ; -far, a. vc7io77ious 
(eitr-fdr ormr) ; -fluga, f. venomous 
insect ; -fullr, a. full of poiso7i ; 
-lier^r, pp. tempered i7ipoiso7i (sverSit 
var -hert) ; -kaldr, a. deadly cold; 
-kveisa, f. ve7iomous sore, a nick- 
name ; -kvikja, f. venojnous yeast ; 
-kvikvendi, n. veno77ious creature ; 
-ligr, a. poisonous ; -matSkr, m. 
veno77ious 7naggot ; -naSra, f. poison- 
ous adder ; -ormr, m. poisonous ser- 
pent ; -padda, f. ve7io7?ious toad. 

eitrs-fullr, ?i. full of venom. 

eitr-tandrat5r, pp. glittering with 
poison, — ei tr-far. 

ei-vesandi, pr. p. eve7-lasti7ig, eter- 
nal; -vist, f. = eilifi. 

ek, pers. pron. /; in poetry and old 
prose a pronominal k is suffixed to 
the verb, emk = em ek, vask = vas ek ; 
sik = sd ek ; mundak = munda ek ; 
even if preceded by ek : ek sek, ek 

sitk ; a preceding g becomes by 
assimilation k, hykk = hygg ek ; the 
pronominal k is inserted between the 
suffixed negative, -a or -at, and the 
verb, saka = sd ek-a, / saw not ; 
veitka = veit ek-a, / k7tow not. 

ekja, f. carti7ig, ca7-7yi7ig in a cart 
(sumir toku til ekju). 

ekju-vegr, m. cart-road. 

ekka-lau3S, a. griefless. 

ekki, m. hea^y sobbi7ig, sorrow, 
g7'ief(angr ok ekki). 

ekki, nom, and ace. neut. sing, of 
' engi ', nothi7ig, 7iought ; also used as 
adv., 7iot, — eigi. 

ekkja, f. widow (var t)at litit, at 
bera ekkju nafn) ; poet. woma7i. 

ekkju-biinaSr, m. widow's weeds ; 
-domr, m. widowhood; -lifi, n. wid- 
owed life ; -sonr, m. widow's so7t. 

ekla, f. dearth, want. 

ekra, f. co7-7t-feld, acre. 

61, n. (i) shower of rai7i, s7iow or 
hail ; (2) fig. a hot fight. 

elda (elda, eldr), v. (i) to light, 
kindle afire (hann eldir undir kat- 
linum) ; with dat. of the fuel (e. vi5i) ; 
(2) to ki7tdle, light, set fire to, with 
ace. ; e. vita, to kindle a beacon ; fig., 
e. hug e-s, to kindle one's mind; ek 
skal y6ra hu8 e. kndliga me6 klun- 
grum, I shall make you S}nart; (3) to 
heat, war7n (e. hus, e. ofn til brauQs) ; 
to S77ielt ; fig., e. grdtt silfr, to be bad 
friends; (4) impers., eldi h^r lengi af 
met5 f)eim broeSrum, the spark of 
resent7)ie7it was lo7ig felt afNong the 
brothers ; {$) it clears up ; eldi nokkut 
elit (ace), the shower cleared tip a 
little ; nott (ace.) eldir, the 7iight 
bright e7is, the day daw7is. 

eldast (d), v. refl. to grow old ; hann 
tekr nu at eldast mjok, he is begi7ini7ig 
to age fist. 

elda-hus, n., -skali, m. = eldhus. 

eld-baka^r, pp. baked 071 e}7ibers ; 
-beri, m. fire-pan, brasier ; -brandr, 
m. firebrand; -bruni, m. (l) fire, 
C07iflagrati07i ; (2) caute7-ization (at 
groeSa me3 -bruna) ; -bollr, m. fire- 
ball; -fimr, a. i7ipla77wiable, easily 
co7>ibustible ; -foeri, n. pi. a7t apparatus 
for striking fire, tinder-box ; -grof. 




-grof, i. fire-pit \ -bus, n. (i) ^fire- 
house ', hall or sitting-room ; (2) 

eldhus-dyrr, f. pi. doorway of an 
eldhus ; -tifl, n. an idiot who sits 
all day by the fire ; -hurS, f. door ofi 
an eldhus ; -skot, n, {see skot). 

eldi, n, (i) procreation {hafa eQli til 
barna eldis) ; (2) foetus, offspring 
(eldi J)at, er fiam kemr af kvidi 
konunnar) ; komast frd eldi sinu, to 
be delivered ofi a child \ (3) main- 
tenance, feeding (par er ekki gesta 
eldi maelt). 

eldi-brandr, m. {i) firewood, fiuel; 
(2 ) firebrand. 

eldi-gamall, a. very old \ -ligr, a. 
elderly, old-looking. 

elding, f. ( i ) firing, heating, warm- 
ing (ofnar til eldingar) ; (2) smelting, 
refining (gull t>at, er stenzt e.) ; (3) 
lightning {^^vi nasst flugu eldingar ok 
reiSar) ; (4) daybreak, dawn (= naetr- 

eldinga-flaug, -Aug, n. fiash of 
lightniftg; -manatSr, m. a month in 
which lightning is frequent. 

eldi-skiS, n. piece of firewood', 
-^Xok.^x,vi\. firebrand', -torf, 11. turf 
for fuel. 

eldivic5ar-fatt, a. n., e-m verSr -fdtt, 
one becomes short of fuel', -leysi, n. 
want of fuel', -stika, f. stick of fire- 

eldi-vi^r, m. firewood, fuel. 

eld-ker, n. brasier', -kveikja, f. 
fire-lighter', fdst mun annat til eld- 
kveikna, somethitig else will be got 
to light a fire with ; -ligr, a. fiery, of 
fire (eldligr stoloi) ; -nsBmr, a. easily 
catching fire, infiainmable. 

eldr (-S, -ar), Vi\. fire ', taka eld, 
drepa (upp) eld, to strike fire ; kveikja 
(upp) eld, to light a fire', bregSa 
(koma, skjota) eldi 1 e-t, lata (leggja) 
eld i e-t, to set fire to, to set on fire ; 
e. var3 lauss ok lek skjott, afire broke 
out and spread rapidly ; e. hraut af 
sverSum l)eirra, sparks of fire fiew 
from their swords. 

eldr, pp. grown old, worn by age ; 
kvazt e. vera mjok fra ufridi, said that 
he was too old for fighting. 

elds-bruni, m. burning of fire; 
-daunn, m. smell of fire (kenna 
-daun) ; -fMl\v,2i. full of fire ', -gangr, 
m. 7-aging of fire, conflagration ; 
-glor, n. glare of fire ', -gneisti, m. 
spark ofyire', -golf, n. hearth floor; 
-gogn, n. pi. 7nate?'ials for flring; 
-gpr$, f. making flre ; -hiti, m. flery 

eld-skali, m. = eldaskdli; -ski5, n.= 

elds-kveykja, f. = eldkveikja ; -litr, 
m. fiery hue ; -liki, n. shape {like fie ss) 
of fire (1 -liki) ; -Ijos, n. fire-light; 
-logi, m. fiame of fire ; -matr, m. 
food of fire ; -neyti, n. ficel ; -pisl, f. 
torture by fire ; -sokn, f. fetching of 
fire ; -stolpi, va. pillar of fire. 

eld-stokkr, va. firebrand; -sto (pi. 
-stoar), {.fire-place, hearth. 

elds-uppkvama, f. volcanic erup- 
tion ; -va6i, m. danger of fire; con- 
fiagration ; -v61ar, f.'re devices; 
-verk, n. tending the fire ; -viSr, m. 
= eldiviOr ; -vimr, m. gleam of fire ; 
-virki, n. tinder-box. 

eld-s8Btinn, -s8Btr, a. habitually 
sitting by the fire (for warmth) ; 
-tinna, {.flint to strike fire with. 

elfar-bakki, m. bank of a river. 

Elfar-byggjar, -grimar, m. pi. the 
dwellers on the banks of the Gotha 
(Gautelfr) ; -kvislir, f. pi. the arms 
of the Gotha, also used of the mouths 
of the Nile ; -sker, n. pi. the skerries 
at the Tnouth of the Gotha. 

elfr (gen. elfar, dat. and ace. elfi), 
f. river ; esp. as prop, name in Saxelfr, 
the Elbe ; Gautelfr or Elfr, the river 
Gotha (in Sweden) ; Raumelfr (in 

elfskr, a. from the river Gotha. 

elg-fro^i, m. centaur (a monster half 
man and half elk). 

el gj a- grof, f. elk pit ; -hold, n. flesh 
of the elk ; -vei(5r, f. elk-hunting, 

elgr (-S, -ir), m. elk. 

elg-skogr, m. a forest with elks. 

eligr, a. mean, poor, = 3£Ugr. 

Eli-vagar, m. pi. (mythol. name). 

elja, f. a rival wife (l^asr konur eru 
eljur er einn mann eigu). 
, e]jan, f. endurance, energy. 




eljanar-lauss, a. wanting energy, 

eljara-gletta, f. periness, sarcasm, 

eljun, f. = eljan ; eljunar-leysi, n. 
want of energy, weakness ; -macSr, m. 
energetic mati. 

eljun-froekn, a. doughty (seldusk 
ei6a eljunfroeknir) ; -lauss, a. = eljan- 
arlauss ; -leysi, n. = eljunarleysi. 

61-kaldr, a. ice-cold (of a stream). 

ella, adv. and conj. (i) else, other- 
wise (skaltu eigi annat pora en fara, 
ella skal ek drepa J)ik) ; e5a ella, or 
else; e6a heit hvers manns niQingr 
ella, or else be called the ' nithin^ ' of 
every man ; (2) or, or else (annathvdrt 
at koma honum i. mitt vald, ella drepa 
hann sjdlfr). 

ellar, adv. and conj. = ella, elligar. 

elli, f. old age (fyrir e. sakir). 

elli-belgr, m. the ^slough' of old 
age (kasta -belginum) ; -bjugr, a. 
bowed down with age ; -dagar, m. pi. 
old days ; -dau(5r, a. ; ver6a -dau6r, 
to die of old a^e. 

ellicSi, m. a kind of ship. 

elli-domr, m. old age. 

ellifci, ord. numb, the eleventh, 

ellifu, card. numb, eleven. 

elli-gamall, a. very old. 

elligar, adv. and conj. = ella. 

elli-glop, n. pi. dotage of old age. 

61-ligr, a. showery-looking (J)6tti 
mdr nokkut ^1-ligt vera). 

elli-hamr, m. = -belgr; -hrumr, a. 
decrepit with age ; -hfierur, f. pi. 
hoariness of age ; -karl, m. old 7nan ; 
-lyf, n. medicine to keep off old age ; 
-moSr, a. weary with age ; -sjukr, a. 
infirm through age ; -stot5, f. stay of 
old age ', -tiS, f. ti?ne of old age ; 
-vafa, f. decrepitude, infirmity of age ; 
-vamm, n. blemish of old age ; 
-t)okki, m. oldish look (hratt hon af 
ser elli-t)okka). 

ellri, a. com par. elder, older. 

ellztr, a. superl. eldest, oldest (ellztr 
broeSranna ; hinn ellzti sonr). 

elma, f. bratich, twig. 

elna (a^), v. to wax, grow, sott 
elnar d hendr e-m, e-m elnar sottin, 
o?te''s ilbiess becomes worse. 

elptr (gen. elptar), {.swan ( = dlpt). 

elri, n., elrir (gen. -is), m. alder, 

elris-hundr, m. the wind (poet.). 

elska (at5), v. to love (hann elskafii 
ekki annat god meir en Frey) ; refl., 
elskast at e-m, to grow fond of\ 
recipr., to love one another (hofSu J)au 
Jon elskazt fra barnoesku). 

elska, f. love (= dst) ; hafa elsku ^ 
e-m, to love one ; leggja elsku k e-n 
or vi3 e-n, to take a fancy for, to fall 
in love with one. 

elskan-liga, adv. lovingly ; -ligr, a. 
beloved, lovable. 

elskari, m. lover (e. e-s). 

elskhuga-mac5r, m. /^•z'<?r, = elskari. 

elsk-hugi, m. (i) love-, {2) belovea 
person (minn dgaetr elskhugi). 

elskr, a. fondly attached to one (e. 
at e-m), of persons and animals. 

elsku-band, n. tie {bond) of love ; 
-bragc5, n. deed of love ; -fullr, a, 
full of love ; -gratr, m. tears of love ; 
-grein, f. a special kind of love', 
-lauss, a. loveless ; -leysi, n. loveless- 
ness ; -liga, adv. (i) lovingly', (2) 
heartily, delightfully ; -ligr, a. ( i ) 
affectionate ; (2) beloved, dear (e. 
faSir !) ; elskuligr e-m, dear to one ; 
-mark, n. token of love. 

elta (elta, eltr), v. (i) to knead (e. 
leir) ; ek skal y6ra hud e. {belabour) 
meQ klungrum ; {2) to chase, pursue ; 
e. ^xv\ me6 vendi, to drive cattle with 
a goad', e. sau6i, to run after sheep ; 
refl., eltast eptir e-m, to pursue 

elting (pi. -ar), f. pursuing, chasing. 

embsetta (-tta, -tt), v. (i) to attend, 
serve, wait upon, e. e-m (eiga gestum 
at e.) ; e. fe, to attend to the cattle, to 
milk ; (2) to administer the sacrament 
to one (e. e-m). 

embaetti, n. (i) service, = J)j6nosta 
I ; veita e-m e., to serve one ; bindast 
i e-s e., to enter one's service ; guSligt 
e., holy service', hefi ek morg vand- 
r^5i ^olat i J)inu e., in your service ; 
(2) the sacrament, eucharist, = 
jjjonosta 3 ; (3) offce (biskupligt e.) ; 
bj66a e-m af e., to depose one from 

embsBttis-foerr, a. able to perforin 
one's duties ; -g0rtS, f. poformance oj 




a {religious) duty ; -lauss, a. holdi7ig 
no office (of a priest) ; -matSr, m. (i) 
servant ; (2 spriest. 

emenda (ao), emendera (at5), v. to 
emend (a book). 

emja (at5), v. to howl, shriek. 

emjan, f. howling^ shrieking. 

en, conj. (i) but\ en heima mun ek 
sitja, but I will stay at hotne ; (2) as 
a copulative, atid, = ok ; ek kann 
radiim Gunnhildar, en kappsemd 
Egils, / know the devices of G. and 
{on the other hand) EglPs eagerness ; 
(3) = ' an', than (obrigSra vin fser 
madr aldregi en mannvit mikit). 

en, in Norse MSS. = ef, er (rel. pron. 
and temp, conj.) ; (i) if\ saelar vasri 
salurnar, en ])ser vissi, if they knew ; 
(2) as a rel. pron., = er; mi'na dottur, en 
( = er) allra meyja er fegrst, who is the 
faii'est of all maidens ; (3) whe?i, = er, 
J)a er (J)eir voru i hjd, en upp var lesit). 

enda, conj. (i) with subj. (a standing 
phrase in the law connecting the 
latter clause of a conditional premiss) 
if, and if, and in case that, and 
supposing that ; mi hefir ma6r svein- 
barn fram foert 1 oesku, enda verdi sd, 
ma6r veginn siQan, J)d . . . , if a man 
has brought a boy up in his youth^ 
a?td it so happens that he (the boy) be 
slain, then . . . ; (2) eve7i if, although, 
with subj. (seg mer, hvat til berr, at 
J)u veizt fyrir uorSna hluti, enda ser 
pu eigi spamaSr) ; (3) even ; J)d. skal 
hann segja buum sinum til, enda i. 
J)ingi, even i?i parliament ; (4) if only, 
with subj. ({yrir engan mun ^ori ek 
at vekja konunginn, en segja m^ ek 
honum tiSindin, ef J)u vill, enda vekir 
J)u hann) ; (5) and indeed, and of 
course, and also, and besides ; enda 
skulum ver "pi. leysa t)ik, and then of 
course we shall loose thee ; synist J)at 
jafnan, at ek em fegjarn, enda man 
sva enn, and so it will be also in this 
case', (6) and yet \ eigi nenni ek at 
hafa l)at saman, at veita Hogna, enda 
drepa broQur bans, / cannot bear to 
do both, help H. and yet kill his 
brother ; (7) ellipt. without a preced- 
ing premiss ; enda tak fiu nu 0xi i)ma, 
and now take thy axe. 


enda (a5, or enda, ent), v. (i) to 
ena, u)ing to an end (1 J)v{ sama 
klaustri endi hann sina asfi) ; impers., 
endar par sogu frd honum, the tale of 
hi?n ettds there ; (2) to fulfil, perform 
(e. heit sitt) ; (3) to mark the end of, 
to bound (af suSri endir hana [i.e. 
Asia'\ uthafit) ; (4) refl., endast, to 
end, come to an end (reiSi mannsins 
endist d einu augabragSi) ; to last, 
hold out (berjast meSan dagrinn 
endist) ; medan mer endast fong til, 
as long as my f-7'ovisions last ; ef 
honum endist aldr til, if he lives so 
lo7ig', meSan mer endast lifdagar, 
meQan ek endumst, as long as I live ; 
to turn out, to e7id (well or ill), to do 
(enda mun J)at fam bondum vel e. at 
synja mer masgSar). 

enda-dagr, m. the last day, day of 
death (vita sinn -dag) ; -fjol, f. end- 
board (of a chest) ; -lauss, a. endless, 
eter7ial (endalaus pina, farsaeldj ; 
-liga, 2idv. definitively , finally \ -ligr, 
a. defi7iitive, final (endaligt svarj ; 
-lok, n. pi. end, co7tclusion ; -lykt, f. 
= -lok; -mark, n. ^;/</, li77iit', enda- 
mork rikis J)ins, the e7id of thy reign ; 
-merki, n. //;;///, boundary ; -nijor, 
a. thin at the e7id, tapering ; gera 
eigi endamjott vi6 e-n, not to leave 
ofie i7i the lurch, treat ofie well to the 
end ; -I)armr, m. rectum. 

endemi, endimi, n. = eindcemi 2, 
so77iething unexa77ipled or utiheard of 
(t)at er undr ok endemi) ; heyr i. 
endemi, for sha)7ie ! 

endeniis-niac5r, m. a 7nonster, an 
extrao7'dinary person. 

endemligr, a. wonderful, strange. 

endi and endir, ni. (i) the e7td 
{extre7nity) of a7t object ({)ar var skali 
mikill ok dyrr d bd5um endum) ; (2) 
conclusion, e7id, issue (hvern enda 
eiga mundi mdlit) ; gera enda d e-u, 
koma enda d e-t, to bring to a7i e7ui ; 
vera d enda, to be at an e7td ; S. 
var vistum me3 foSur smum til enda, 
S. stayed with his father to the end', 
eigi er fyrir enda um gert meQ {)eim, 
their differe7ice is not settled betwee7t 
the7n ; upphaf ok endir, begL7i7iing 
and e7td ', hir skal nu ok endir d 




verSa, here it shall coine to an end ; 
sd var6 endir d, at, the end of it was, 
that ; til alls endis, to the very end. 

endi-land, n. borderland \ -lond, 
confmes ; -langr, along the -whole 
extent of, fro7n one end to the other 
(ri5a um endilangt heraS) ; ok lag6ist 
{)ar endilangr, at full length ; um 
endilangt, at endilongu, lengthways', 
-lauss, a.=endalauss ; -leysa, f. non- 
sense (-lokleysa) ; -liga, adv. (i) 
finally (staSfesta endiliga) ; (2) co7n- 
pletely \ -ligr, a. = endaligr; -lok, n. 
pi. =endalok ; til endiloka heims, to 
the end of the world ; -lykt, f. = enda- 
lykt ; -mark, n. (l) limit, end; (2) 
boundary ; (3) aifn, end ; -merki, n. 

endimi, n. see endemi, eindoemi. 

ending, f. ending, termination. 

endir, m. esp. in nom., == ' endi ' 
(upphaf ok endir mins mals). 

end-langr, a. = endilangr. 

endr, adv. {i) in tifnes of yore, for- 
merly, =G.r\dr fyrir longu ; (2) again 
{svi. kom 03ins son endr at hamri) ; 
(3) endr ok sinnum, endr ok stundum, 
from time to time, now and then. 

endranaBr, adv. at other times, else 
(bceSi l)d ok endranasr). 

endr-bati, m. = -b6t; -batna (a?5), 
V. to get well again, recover ; -beit5a 
(-dda, -ddr), v. to ask again ; -bera 
(see bera), v. to regenerate ; -borlnn, 
pp. reborn, regenerated', -bot, f. 
restoration, regeneration', -bua (see 
bua), V. to renew, restore ; -boeta 
(-tta, -ttr), V. to repair, restore (t)at 
jjarf at endrboeta, er d6r hefir farizt) ; 
-bcBtari, m. restorer ; -bceting, f. 
restoration, restitutio7t ; -boetingr, 
m. a thing that wants repair ; -forn, 
{. presenting again ; -forn a (atS), v. to 
present again ; -foeSa (-dda, -ddr), 
V. to regenerate, =endTheTa., endrgeta ; 
-gefendr, m. pi. those who give 
again-, -geta (see geta), v. = endr- 
fceSa ; -getnaSr, m. regeneration ; 
-getning, f. = endrgetna5r ; -gjald, n. 
repayment, return; -gjalda (see 
gjalda), V. to pay back, to repay, 
-groetSa (-dda, -ddr), v. to heal 
again ; -hreinsa (a5), v. to purify 

again ; -hroera (-Sa, -Sr), v. to move 
again ; -lausn, f. rede?nption ; -lifga 
(at5), V. to call to life again ; -lifna 
(a(5), V. to return to life, to revive ; 
-minnast (see minna), v. refl. to 
7-emember, call to mind, with gen. ; 
-minning, f. remembrance, recollec- 
tiofi ; -maBli, n. repetition (verQr J)at 
at endrmseli einu) ; -mcB^ing, f. 
tribulation ; -nyja (at5), v. to renew, 
repeat; impers. (endrnyjaSi sottina i 
annat sinn) ; -nyjan, -nyjung, f. 
rejiewal ; -reiaa (-ta, -tr), v. to raise 
again ; -risa (see risa), v. to arise 
again ; -ijotSa, a. indecl. downcast, 
dispirited; -semja (see seroja), v. 
to renew ; -skapa (see skapa), v. to 
create anew, re-create ; -smicSa (at5), 
v. to rebuild; -taka (see taka), v. to 
resume, take up again (endrtaka til 
e-s) ; -tryggja (-Sa, -Sr), v. to tnake 
secure again, reconcile; -{)aga, f. 
renewed silence. 

eng (gen. -jar, pi. -jar), f, meadow, 
meadow-land (hann villtist i enginni) ; 
pi. out-lying grass-fields. 

eng, engi, n. meadow, meadow- 
land (tiin ok eng ; akr ok engi). 

engi (neut. ekki), indef. pron. (i) 
no, none, no one; hafa ekki e-s, to 
have nothing of it, lose it altogether 
(er buit vio, at J)u hafir pd ekki 
dyrsins) ; old dat. einugi=engu (fdtt 
er sv^ illt, at einugi dugi) ; (2) any, 
after a negative (aldri fyrr fekk hann 
J)vilikan sigr 1 engri herferd) ; after 
comparative (|)essir dvergar kunnu 
betr smida af jdrni en engir aSrir). 

engi-bui, m. a neighbour who has 
to appear in an engidomr ; -dalr, m. 
meadow-valley; -domr, m. a court to 
decide the possession of a contested 

engill (pi. englar), m. angel. 

engil-ligr, a. angelical (-lig asjona). 

Engils-nes, n. Cape San Angelo. 

engi-lykkja, f. an enclosed piece of 
meadow; -mark, n. (i) bou?idafy of 
a meadow ; (2) the meadow within 
the boundary. 

engis-hofn, f. possession of a 

engi-skipti, n. division of a meadow. 




engiskiptis-bui, m. = engibui. 

engis-maSr, m, owner of a vieado'v. 

engi-sprett, n, grasshopper, locust ; 
-teigr, m. strip of meadow- lafui \ 
-verk, n. meadow-work ; um engi- 
verk, dicrbig the time of mozving the 
vieadozus ; -voxtr, m. that which 
grows upon meadows. 

engja-domr, m. = engid6mr; -gras- 
nautn, n. right of grazing^ or 7nak- 
ing hay, in the engjar ; -merki, n. 
boundary betiveen 7)ieadow-la7ids ; 
-skipti, n. = engiskipti ; -teigr, m.= 
engiteigr; -voxtr, in. = eiigivoxtr. 

engla-flokkr, m. host of angels \ 
-fylki, n, one of the fiine hosts of 
angels ; -liS, n. coll. angels ; -lif, n. 
life of angels ; -mjol, n. ' angel-meal% 

Englands-far, n. a ship that sails 
to England; -fari, m. one who makes 
voyages to England; -haf, n. the 
GermaJt Ocean ; -sjor, m. the English 

Englar, m. pi. the English, English- 
men (\ ar kominn herr Englanna). 

engla-rodd, f. angelic voice ; -skari, 
m., -sveit, f. host of angels ; -syn, f. 
vision of angels ; -songr, m. song of 

Englis-ma'Sr, m. Englishma?!. 

enn (en, et), the oldest form of the 
def. art., = inn, hinn. 

enn, adv. (i) yet, still (hann er enn 
ungr ok bernskr) ; (2) with compar., 
enn betri, verri, still better, worse. 

enna, adv. =enn-na, jj/-?/; eigi enna, 
not yet (eigi veit ek enna). 

enni, n. (i) forehead (p6 spratt 
honuin sveiti um enni) ; (2) a steep 
crag (in place-names). 

enni-brei^r, a. having a b7'oad 
forehead ; -dukr, m. head-barid, fillet ; 
-let5r, n. skin of the forehead of 

ennis-brattr, a. having a straight-up 

enni-snau^r, a. having a low fore- 
head ; -spesnir, m. pi. ornamental 

work on ships of war both fore and 

aft ; -svell, n. an icy slope. 

ennis-voxtr, m. shape of the fore- 

en ska, f. tJie English language. 

enskr, a. 

epla-at, n. eating of apples {fruit) ; 
-garSr, n. orchard ; -kyn, n. a kind 
of apples or fruit. 

epli, n. (i) apple; (2) tree-fruit (in 

epli-berandi, pr. p. bearing apples. 

eplottr, a. dapple-grey (of a horse). 

ept, prep. = eptir (rare). 

eptir, prep with dat. and ace. ; I. 
with dat. (i) with verbs of motion, 
after (ric5a, roa, fara, ganga, senda e. 
e-m) ; (2) denoting the aim and object 
of many verbs ; leita, spyrja, fretta e. 
e-u, to search, ask, inquire after ; lit a 
e. e-n, to look after, attend to ; bi3a 
eptir e-u, to wait for; vaka e. e-m, 
to sit up waiting for 07ie ; segja e. 
e-m. to 7'ep07t behirid 07te's back ; (3) 
following the course of a track, road, 
&c., along; ni3r e. halsinum, down 
the h' II; e. endilongu, yV't?;;; 07te end 
to the other ; e. midju, alo?ig the 
fjiiddle ; (4) after, according to, in 
accordance with (e. sid J)eirra ok 
logum) ; hann leiddist e. fortolum 
hennar, he was led by her persuasiori ; 
gekk allt e. J)vi sem H. hafQi sagt, 
according as H. had said; (5) denot- 
ing proportion, comparison ; fatt 
manna e. pvi sem hann var vdinr, few 
77ien i7i co77iparison to what he was 
wont to have : (6) with verbs denoting 
imitation, indulgence, longing after ; 
lata e. e-m, to indulge one ; breyta e. 
e-m, to i77iitate; (7) behirid (hann 
leiddi e. ser hestinn) ; fundust e.J)eim 
irskar boekr, which they had left 
behi7id; II. with ace. (i) of time, 
after, in successio7t to (vdr kom e. 
vetr) ; hvern dag e. annan, one day 
after the other ; ar e. ir, dag e. dag, 
year by year, day by day ; e. J)at, after 
that, thereafter ; (2) denoting suc- 
cession, inheritance ; taka e-t 1 arf 
e. e-n, to i7iherit f 7-0771 one ; hann tok 
konungdom e. fo6ur sinn, after his 
father ; vita t)a skomm e. sik, to leave 
such a bad report ; skaSi mikill er e. 
menn slika, there is a great loss i7i 
stich men\ III. as adv. (i) after; 




annat snmar e., the second summer 
after \ um daginn e., the day after \ 
e. um vdrit, later during the spring ; 
e. koma usvinnum rao, the fool is 
wise when too late \ {2) behind', bida, 
sitja e., to wait, stay behind', vera, 
standa e., to remain behind, be left ; 
halda e-u e., to keep back', skammt 
get ek e. J)innar asfi, I guess that little 
is left of thy life ; (3) before the rel. 
part., e. er = e. J)at er, after (ef maSr 
andast a J)ingi e. er menn eru a braut 
famir) ; (4) e. a, afterwards, later 
on ; in addition. 

eptir-bdtr, m. a boat in tow ; fig., 
vera -batr e-s, to be i?iferior to one ; 
-bur$r, m. afterbirth ; -dvol, f. stay ; 
eiga eptirdvol, to make a stay, 
-dcBmi, n. example ; -farandi, pr. p. 
following, subsequejit ; -fer(5, f. pur- 
suit ; -fv^tty {. inquiry ', -foeriligr, a. 
investigable ; -for, f. = eptirfer3 ; veita 
e-m eptirfor, to pursue one ; -ganga, 
f. (1) proseciciio7i of a suit to get 
redress', [1) support, aid; (3) imita- 
tion (1 eptirgongu bans dcema) ; 
-gangr, m., -gengi, n. = -ganga 2; 
-glikjari, m. i7nitator. 
eptirgongu-kona, f. {a female) 
underling (ek mun eigi vera -kona 
hennar) ; -macSr, m. a supporter, 

eptir-g0r5, f. funeral honours, esp. 
gifts for the soul of the dead; 
-komandi, pr. p. following, future ; 
-komari, m.=-glikjari ; -komendr, 
m. pi. offspriiig, descendants ; -kasra, 
f. prosecution (taka malit til eptir- 
kseru) ; -latligr, a. agreeable, pleas- 
ing; -latr, -latsamr, a. indulgent; 
ser eptirlatr, self-indulgent ; -leifar, 
f. pi. retnains ; -leit, f. ( i ) search ; 
(2) application to a person ; -leitan, 
f. = eptirleit ; -lifi, n. indulgence^ self- 

eptirlifis-niat5r, m. self-indulgent 
man ; -synd, f. the sin of self- 

eptir-lifr, a. self-indulgent ; -liking, 
f. ijnitation ; -likja (-ta, -t), v. to 
imitate^ with dat. ; -likjandi (pi. 
endr), m., -likjari, m. imitator; 
-l8Bti, n. (l) complaisance, compliance ; 

(2) indulgence, gratification of one's 
desires; {jf) enjoyment. 

eptirlaetis-lifi, n. life of self-indul- 
gence ; -J)j6nosta, f. act of indulgence. 
eptir-mal, n. an aciio7i on behalf of 
a person slain against the slayer; 
eiga -mal eptir e-n, um e-n, to have 
the right and duty to take action 
against the slayer ; -mali, m. epilogue, 
opp. to ' formdli ' ; -mall, a. co?npliant 
(e-m or vi6 e-n, with). 
eptirmals-ma^r, m. prosecutor in 
a blood-feud (eptirmalj. 

eptir-maslandi (pi. -endr), m. = 
eptirmalsmaSr ; -msBli, n. (i)=-mal; 
(2) cojnpliance, indulgence ; veita e-m 
eptirmaeli, to take one's part ; {2,) good 

eptirmaslis-matSr, m. a person who 
is eptirmall. 

eptir-ras, f. running after, pursuit ; 
-reiS, f. pursicit on horseback ; 
-reikna (aS), v. to reflect on ; -r6(5r, 
m. rowing in pursuit of one. 

eptirryningar-ro a^r, m.onecleverat 
detectingwhat is unknown (-ma6r um 
stuldi) ; -samr, a. clever at detecting 

eptir-seta, f. remai?iing behind; 
-sj^, f. (i) looking after, attention, 
ca7-e ; (2) regret, grief; e-m er eptir- 
sja at e-u, one 77tisses a thing. g7-ieves 
at the loss of; -skoc5an, f. exa7}ii7ia~ 
tion, search ; -sokn, f. a seeking after, 
pursuing ; -sta^a, f. what re7nains, 
a7'rears; -stag's!, a. re77iaining be- 
hi7td; verSa eptirstaSsi, to remain 
behi7id ; -syn, f. lookifig after one. 

eptri, a. compar. (i) after7nost, 
hind7nost, opp. to ' fremri ' ; eptri fotr, 
the hind leg; hit eptra austrriim, the 
hind7nost pimiping place ; (2) later, 
latter, opp. to ' fyrri '. 

er (older form es), rel. part. In old 
poems and in law phrases ' es ' is suffixed 
to a demonstrative or interrogative 
word, pron. or adv., as s : s^s, sus, Jsats, 
l)eims, l^aers ; liars, J)ds, J^egars, 
siSans, hveims, hvars, &c., = sd es, 
sii es, l)ar es, 1)^ es,&c. I. used as a rel. 
pron., indecl., who, which, thai ; (i) 
M6r3r h^t mac5r, er (nom.) kallaSr var 
gigja ; gros fogr, er (ace.) hon hafSi 
i hendi ; ac5ra hluti t»d, er (gen.) menn 




vildu visir ver5a ; t)ann einn son, er 

(dat.) hann ami litit ; (2) with a prep. 

placed at the end of the sentence ; 

land, er hann kom frd, the la7id he 

came from ; jotunn, er or steini var 

hofudit a (viz. honum), whose head 

was of stone \ (3) ellipt., the prep. 

being understood ; or J)eim asttum, er 

mer J)6ttu fuglarnir fljuga (viz. or), 

from the quarter that I thought the 

birds flew from ; peir hafa nii Idtit 

lif sitt, er mer J)ykkir eigi vert at Ufa 

(viz. eptir), whojn 1 think it is not 

worth while to outlive ; (4) a personal 

or demonstr. pron. may be added to 

the rel. part., er J)u, er t)ik ; er hann, 

er hon, er hana, er bans, er hennar, 

er J)eim, er l)eiri, er J)eira, &c. ; cerr 

ertu, Loki, er J)u {who) yQra telr Ijota 

leiSstafi ; sd ma5r, er hann vill, that 

man who wishes ; nema ein GoSrun, 

er hon asva gret, who never wept ; 

ekkja heitir su, er buandi hennar 

{whose husband) varS s6ttdau3r ; 

J)ann konuni^, er undir honum eru 

skatt - konungar, that king under 

whom are tributary kings ; (5) in the 

fourteenth century added to the 

interrog. pron,, hverr; J)at herbergi, 

i hverju er hann {in which = er hann 

i J)vi) hefir sitt rd3 ok rseSr ; II. as a 

conj. and adv. (i) local, er, \>a.T er, 

there where ; hann sA A eldinum 

folskann, er netit hafSi brunnit, 

where the net had been bur7it\ O. gekk 

J)ar til, er H. Id, to the spot where H. 

lay ; (2) of time, er, pd er, when ; ok 

er, and when ; en er, but when ; par 

til er, until ; i Jjvi er, just when ; 

eptir (l)at) er, when ; t)egar er, as 

soon as (pegar er lysti, st66 konungr 

upp) ; siQan er, since ; me5an er, 

! while ; nsest er ver komum, next 

1 when we came ; pd let i hamrinum, 

i sem er reid gengr, as when it thun- 

! ders\ (3) = at, that\ ok fannst I)at a 

1 ollu, er hon J)6ttist vargefin, that she 

: thought she was thrown away ; ek em 

\ J)ess saell, er okkart felag sleit, / am 

happy that ; skyldi fara fyrst leyni- 

liga, en J)6 kom par, er allir vissu, but 

it came to this, that every one knew 

of it. 

er, nom. pi. to * pii *, j4?, = per. 
erSi, n. a heavy beam (Grettir preif 
e. tvau, er Mgu i skipinu). 
erenda-lok, n. pi. the result (issue) 
of one's errand; -maSr, m. errand- 
man, messenger. 
erendi, eyrendi, prendi (also er- 
indi, etc. ), n. ( i ) errand, message, mis- 
sion, business ; eiga e. vi6 e-n, hafa e. 
til e-s, to have business with one ; reka 
e., to do an errand', pess erendis, to 
that purpose ; (2) the result of one^s 
errand or mission (potti monnum 
bans e. litit orQit) ; ef erendit eySist, 
if the errand turns to nought ; hefik 
erfiSi ok e., / have had toil, but also 
gained my quest ; (3) ganga erenda 
(eyrna, 0rna) sinna, to go to ease 
07ieself', (4) speech ; tala langt e. ok 
snjallt, to make a long and eloquent 

erendi (from * 0r ' and ' ond '), n. see 
* 0rendi '. 

erendis-lauss, a. without effect, 
vain ; fara at -lausu, to go on a fooFs 
errand', -leysa, f. failure of one's 

erend-laust, adv. in vain, to no 
purpose (fara -laust) ; -leysa, f. = 
erendisleysa ; -reki, m. messenger. 

erfa (-t5a, -t5r), v. (i) to honour with 
a funeral feast (si3an let Egill e. sonu 
sina eptir fornum sid) ; (2) to i^iherit 
(erfir hon allt pat eptir born sin). 

erf tS, f. inheritance ; taka e., to take 
possession of an inheritance ; taka, 
eignast e-t at e., to get or come into 
possession of by inheritance. 

erfSa-balkr, m.. the section of law 
treating of inhejifaftce ; -einkunn, f. 
hereditary mark (on cattl ■) ; -fe, n. 
heritage, inheritance ; -got5or5, n. 
hereditary priesthood', -jort5, f. 
hereditary estate ; -land, n. patrimony, 
land of inheritance ; -matSr, m. heir', 
-mark, n. = -einkunn ; -mal, n. law- 
suit concertiing ati inheritance. 

erfSar-jcrtS, f, -land,n., -ma$r, m., 
see erf3a- ; -partr, m. share of in- 
heritance', -umagi, m. an *umagi', 
having an inherited right to receive 

erf Sa-skipan, f. law or ordinance 




relating to inheritance'^ -oldr, m. 

funeral feast. 

erfi, n. funeral feast (g0ra e. e-s, e. 
eptir e-n ; drekka e. e-s, eptir e-n). 

erfitSa (at$), v. (i) to toil, laboiir; 
(2) e. e-m, to cause one trouble ; e. 
ser i e-u, to trouble oneself with ; (3) 
to till (e. jor6ina) ; (4) impers., erfi3- 
a3i sottarfar bans, his illness grew 
more severe. 

erfiSari, m. labourer. 

erfiS-drygi, n. labour, laborious- 
ness ; -droegr, a. difficult to do (var5 
J)eim pat -drcEgt). 

erfiSi, n. trouble, toil, labour ; hofum 
e. ok ekki erendi, we have the toil, 
but no result. 

erficSis-dautSi, m. painful death ; 
-laun, n. pi. reco7npense for labour or 
suffe7'ing\ -16ttir, m. relief of labour ; 
-liga, adv. = erfi61iga ; -munir, m. pi. 
exertion, difficulty ; -neyS, f. grinding 
labour ; -orka, f. hard, weary labour ; 
-samr, a. toilsotne ; -verk, n. hard 
or heavy work. 

erfiS-lifi, n. toilsome life ; -liga, adv. 
with fain and toil ; e-t horfir -liga, 
// looks hard ; bua -liga vi3 e-n, to 
treat one harshly ; var3 mer J)ar 
-ligast um, there I tnet with the 
greatest difficulties ; -ligr, a. toil- 
some, difficult, adverse (margir hlutir 

erfic5r, a. difficult, hard, troublesome ; 
OSS verSr erhtt at Jjjona NorSmonnum, 
// will be hard for tis ', Guc3run var 
erfiS i. gripakaupum, G. was trouble- 
sofne {extravagant) in biiyittg fifiery ; 
hvildist Helgi, pvi at honum var or5it 
erfitt, for he was exhausted ; \>6 at 
honum v^ri mdlit erlitt, though he 
spoke with difficulty. 

erfi-drapa, i. funeral poem ; -flokkr, 
m. a short funeral poem ; -kvsBSi, n. 

erfingi (pi. -jar), m. heir, child (J)au 
attu engan erfingja). 

erfingja-lau3S, a. childless (deyja 
-lauss) ; -leysi, n. childless7iess. 

erfi-nyti (gen. -nytja), m. heir, 
child (ek a ungan erfinytja). 

erfi3-g(2)rc5, f. holding a funeral 
,£ast (J)a eyddist erfisg0r3in). 

erfi- veizla, f. funeral feast. 

erfi-vortSr, m. poet. heir. 

erfi-ol, Xi. funeral feast, = -veizla. 

erf-skinn, n. the skin of the glutton. 

ergi, f. (i) lewdness, lust', (2) 
wickedness, devilry (me6 allri ergi ok 

ergjast (S), v. refl. to lose courage, 
grow faint-hearted (svd. ergist hverr 
sem hann eldist). 

erja (er, arSa, arinn), v. (i) to 
plough (e. jorS sina) ; (2) to scratch, 
scrape (hann lastr erja skoinn um 

erju-samr, a. intrusive. 

erki-biskup, m. archbishop. 

erki-biskupligr, a. archiepiscopal. 

erkibiskups-domr, m., -doemi, n. 
archbishopric ; -efni, m. archbishop- 
elect ; -garSr, m. archbishop's dwell- 
ing; -kosningr, m. election of an 
archbishop ; -stoll, m. archiepiscopal 
seat (cf. erki-stoll). 

erki-bysn, f. great portent. 

erki-djakn, m. archdeacon ; -prestr, 
m. archp7'iest ; -stoll, m. = erki- 

er-lendast, v. refl. to go i7ito exile ; 
-lending, f. exile, -lendis, adv. 
ab7oad, i7i a foreig7i land. 

erlendis-vig,n. a 77ia7islaughter com- 
77iitted ab7-oad. 

erlendr, a./<9;-^/*^, = 0rlendr. 

erma-drog, n. pi. sleeves reaching 
dow7t to the feet ; -kapa, f. cloak with 
sleeves ; -langr, a. tvith long sleeves ; 
-lauss, a. sleeveless. 

ermar-kjos, f. ''sleeve-bag'*, wide 
sleeve ; -stuka, f. short sleeve. 

ermita-klsB^i, n. pi. he7'7nit clothes; 
-lifi, n. he7'77iit life. 

ermiti, m. /z^;7;/z/, = einsetuma3r. 

Erm-land, n. (i) A7-7nenia', (2) a 
province i7i Prussia. 

erm-lauss, a. sleeveless, without 
sleeves = ermalauss. 

errar (gen. -ar, dat. and ace. -i ; pi. 
-ar), f. sleeve. 

ermskr, a. Ar77ienian. 

ern, a. brisk, vigorous ; -ligr, a. 
vigorous-looking, stu7'dy. 

erpi, n. a kind of wood. 

erriligr, a. = ernligr. 




erta (erta, ertr), v. to taunt ^ tease 
(er eigi gott at erta illt skap) ; refl., 
ertast vi5 e-n, to tease one. 

erting (pi. -ar), f. teasing^ provoca- 
tion (margskonar ertingar). 

ertiiiga-inac5r, m. 07ie who will 
stand teasing (engi -maSr). 

ertla, f. wagtail (bird). 

ertr (gen. ertr a), f. pi. pease. 

ertra-akr, m. pea-field \ -reitr, m. 
bed of pease ; -r6ttr, m. dish of pease ; 
-sot5, n., -vellingr, m. pea-soup. 

es, old form for 'er', rel. part., and 
3rd pers. sing, from ' vera '. 

eski, n. ashen box (e. Friggjar). 

eski-maBr, f. a lady's maid. 

eskingr, m.. fne snow (like ashes). 

eski-3t6ng, f. ash pole. 

espingr, m. a ships boat. 

ess, n. ridi7tg horse ^ steed. 

eta (et; at, atum; etinn), v. (i) to 
eat (e. kjot, mat sinn, dagver3) ; fig., 
e. orS sin, to eat one's own woi'ds ; (2) 
to consume ; sorg etr hjarta, sorrow 
eats away the heart \ refl., GyQingar 
dtust innan, er t)eir heyrSu Jjetta, the 
Jews fretted inwardly oti hearing 

eta, f. (l) crib^ manger \ standa 611- 
um fotum 1 etu, to live at rack and 
manger \ (2) pi., etur, cancer (etur 1 

etall, a. consuming (e. ry6r). 

etari, m. great eater ^ glutton. 

etja (et, atta, attr). v.{\) to incite, 
egg {goad) on to fight, with dat. ; e. 
hestum, to make horses fight ; with 
ace, e. e-n til J)olinm(De5i, to exhort 
one to patience ; (2) e. hamingju, afli, 
vid e-n, to jnatch one^s luck, strength, 
with another's ; e. kappi vi6 e-n, to 
contend in j'ivalry, vie with one ] e. 
rdSum, hvart .,.,to consider, if ... \ 
e. saman manndrapum, to incite two 
Parties to manslatcghter ; (3) e. vi3 
e-t, to contend against ; e. vi6 afls- 
mun (liSsmun), to fight against odds ; 
(4) to put forth ; hann etr fram 
skallanum, he exposes his bare skull 
(to the blows) ; (s) to cause to be 
eaten ; e. heyvi, heyjum, to feed cattle 
upon hay, (6) refl., etjast vi6 e-n, to 
contend with one ; ef menn etjast 

vitnum d, if men contend {plead) with 

etju-hundr, m. deer-hound, fox- 
hound ; -kostr, m. hard condition ; 
-tik, f. female hound, bitch-hound. 

etki, neut. sing, from * engi ' and 
adv. = ekki. 

etu-stallr, m. crib, itianger (U. fal 
hann 1 etustalli), = eta (i). 

ey, adv. (i) always, ever, = ei, ae ; 
(2) not,=^€\, eigi ; ey manni {)at veit, 
no man knows. 

ey (gen. eyjar, dat. ey and eyju ; 
pi. eyjir), f. an island; -bui, m. 

ey5a (-dda, -ddr), v. (i) to make 
empty (au6rj, clear of deprive of its 
co7itents (e. allan IjorSinn basSi at 
monnum ok fe) ; e. bygQ (bcei ok 
borgir, heroS), to desolate, lay waste', 
(2) to desert, depart frofft (fellu sumir, 
en sumir eyddu hdlfrymin) ; e. veizl- 
una, to break tip the feast; e. fing, 
to dissolve the meeting', (3) to do 
azvay with, destroy, with dat. (eyddi 
eldr konum ok bornum) ; (4) to spe7id, 
squa7ider (e. fe, peningum) ; (5) to 
render void in law, a7i7iul, with ace. 
or dat. (e. vigsm^l or vigsm^lum) ; 
(6) refl., eydast, to come to 7iought; 
eyddist erfisgor6in fyrir honum, he let 
the funeral feast drop. 

eytSi, n. waste or ruinous state ; 
leggja 1 e., to lay waste ; vera (liggja) 
i e., to be deserted or ruined. 

ey$i-, in compds., deserted, unin- 
habited; -borg, f. deserted town or 
castle ; -bygS, f. desert cou7it7y ; 
-dalr, m. desolate valley; -ey, f. 
desert island ; -Qall, n. wild {barre7i) 
77iou7itai7i ; -fjortSr, m. desolate firth ; 
-haf, n. a sea whose coasts are 
desolate ; -hua, n. pi. deserted divell- 
ings ; -j6r(5, f. deserted far7n ; -land, 
n. desert la7td; -liga, adv. i7t a 
desolate state ; -ligr, a. {i)pe7'ishable ; 
(2) sad, cheerless (mer synist si6r 
J)eirra veikligr ok -ligr) ; -mork, f. 
desert, wilder 7iess ; -ijotSr, n. desert 
clearing ; -skemma, f. a deserted 
bower ; -sker, n. desolate rock, 
skerry ; -skogr, m. wild wood ; 
-ataSr, m. barren^ desolate place'. 




-tr6?5, f. deserted fen {for cattle) ; 
-veggr, m. rtcinoiis walL 

eyt$la, f. adder, =^e.<S\a.. 

Ey-firStngar, m. pi. the men of or 
from Eyjafirth ; -firzkr, a. belonging 
to Eyjajirth. 

eyfit, adv. poet, not at all (e. hefi ek 
fe) ; eyfit eitt, nothing at all. 

eyg(5r, a. = eygr, 

eygja (-Sa, -c5r), v. (i) to furnish 
with a loop or eye (e. snoruj ; (2) /^ 
look (til e-s, at one). 

eyglo, f. ''the everglowing\ poet. 
the sun. 

eygr, a. having eyes of a certain 
kind', vel e., with fine eyes', mjok e., 

eyja-ina(5r, m. islander. 

eyjar-endi, m. point of an isla7td\ 
-engi, n. jneadozu along a river ; 
-kalfr, m. a small island close to a 
larger one ; -matSr, m. islander ; 
•nef, n. = -endi ; -skeggi (pi. -skegg- 
jar), m. = -ma3r ; -skekill. -skiki, m. 
strip of an islafid, small island', 
-Blind, n. = eyjasund ; -vist, f. stay in 
an island. 

eyja-sund, n. a strait between 
islands (oil eyjasund ok fir6ir). 

eyjottr, -di.full of islands. 

eyk-hestr, m. cart-horse, 

eyki, n. vehicle, cart. 

eykja-fo&r, n. fodder for eyk(i)r ; 
-gerfi, n., -reiSi, m.=eykrei5i. 

eykr (-jar, -ir), m. beast of draught. 

eyk-reiSi, m. harness of an eykr. 

eykt, f. (I) half-past three o'clock, 
p.m. (var t)at nasr e. dags) ; (2) ti7ne 
of three hours (J)a er J)ogn hafdi verit 
DJer hdlfa e.). 

eyktar-heigr, f. = nonhelgr ; -staSr, 
m. the place of the sun at half-past 
three, p.m. (sol sezt 1 -sta3) ; -ti5, f. 
= n6nti6. 

eykt-heilagr, a. to be kept holy 
from eykt {half-past three) of the 
preceding ^aj, = n6nheilagr. 

ey-land, n. island '^ -lendingr, m. 

eyma (-da, -t), v. (i) to cofn- 
miserate, pity ; e. sik, to lament ; 
(2) impers., eymir af e-u, one feels 
sore after something. 

eymd, f. (i) misery, wretchedness ; 
sjd. e. i. e-m, to pity one ; (2) stingi- 
Jiess, meanness. 

eymdar-dagr, m. day of distress ; 
-ligr, a. piteous, pitiful; -orS, n. pi. 
wailing, lame?itatio7i ; -ticS, f. time of 
distress or tribulation ; -ticSindi, n. 
pi. disastrous news-, -timi, m. = -tid. 

eyra (pi. eyru), n. ear (eyrum hlySir 
gestr, en augum skoclar) ; setja hnefa 
vi6 e. e-m, to give one a box on the 
ear ; leiSa e-n af eyrum, to get rid of 
one ; koma e-m til eyma, to come to 
one's ears, of news ; hafa nef i e. e-m, 
to put the nose in ofie's ear, to whisper 
to one, of a tell-tale. 

eyrar-tangi, m. point of a gravel- 
ba7ik (eyrr). 

eyra-runa, f. poet, mistress, wife. 

eyrendi, -indi, n. ; see ' erendi '. 

eyrir (gen. -is, pi. aurar), m. (i) 
ounce of silver, the eighth part of a 
77tark (dtta aurar i mork) ; hringr, er 
stendr sex aura, a ring weighing or 
worth six aurar ; verdr y^i. at h^lfri 
mork vaSmdla e., then the eyrir is 
equal to half a 7nark in wad77ial', 
e. brendr = e. brends silfrs, an ounce 
of pure silver; (2) ottnce (svd. var 
haglit stort, at hvert haglkornit va 
^y^i) > (3 ) money in general, property ; 
Ijosir aurar verSa at longum trega, 
bright silver bri7tgs long woe ; illr af 
aurum, a miser-, gefin til aura (= til 
fjar), wedded for 77io7iey ; hann vissi 
ekki aura sinna tal, he knew not the 
tale {extent) of his riches ; lausir 
aurar, opp. to ' fastr e.', 7novables, 
chattels (lond ok lausir aurar) ; fri3r 
eyrir (= fritt fe, kvikfe), cattle ; (4) 
77ioney, curre7icy ; Flosi spurdi 1 
hverjum aurum hann vildi fyrir hafa, 
asked in what 7noney he wished to be 

ejrris-lDot, f. a fine of an eyrir; 
-kaup, n. a bargain to the a7nount of 
an eyrir ; -lag, n. the worth of an 
eyrir (-lag lerepts) ; -land, n. Ia7id 
yielding a rent of an eyrir ; -skatSi, 
m. loss to the amount of an eyrir ; 
-tiund, f. tithe of an eyrir ; -tollr, m. 
toll of an eyrir ; -J)ungi, m. the weight 
of an ounce. 




eyrna or 0ma, gen. pi., see 
*erendi 3'. 

eyrna-blat$, n. lobe of the ear ; 
-bora, f. orifice of the ear ; -bunatSr, 
m. ornament of the ear ; -gull, n. ear- 
rings -heill, a. having sound ears \ 
-lof, n. vain praise ; -mark, n. ear- 
tnark, on sheep and cattle. 

eyrr (gen. eyrar, dat. and ace. 
eyri ; pi. ejrrar), f. sand- or gravel- 
bank, either of the banks of rivers (dr- 
eyrar, dals-eyrar) or of a small point 
of land running into the sea, a spit. 

eyr-silfr, n. qtiicksilver^ inercury. 

eyr-skdr (ace. -skaan), a. galloping 
over the gravel-banks. 

eyroggr, a. = 0ruggr. 

Eystra-salt, n. the Baltic. 

eystri, a. compar. more eastern ; hit 
eystra, the eastern way. 

ey-vana, a. 7nuch used to. 

ey-verskr, a. pertaini7ig to the 
Orkneys, from the Orkneys. 

ey-vit, adv. = eyfit ; ey-vitar (for 
' ey vaettar '), adv., ey-vitu, adv. notj 
not at all. 

ey-J)olinn, m. the rivet in a clasp 

faSerni, n. {\) fatherhood, paterfiity ; 
ganga vi6 f. at e-m or e-s, kennast 
f. e-s, to acknowledge or admit 
paternity ; at f. eda m65emi, o?i 
father's or mother's side ; var hann 
Ijoss ok fagr eptir f. sinu, like his 
father ; (2) patrimony. 

fa?Sir (gen., dat. and ace. fotSur, pi. 
fe?5r), m. fat her. 

faSma (atS), v. to embrace; refl., 
faSmast, to ejnbrace one another. 

fatSman, f. embracing. 

fa6m-lag, n. embrace \ -lagast, v. 
refl. = fadmast ; -leggjast, v. refl. = 
leggjast i faSma, faSmast. 

fatSmr (-s, -ar), m. (l) the out- 
stretched or embracing ar?ns ; sofa 
(^iggja) 1 faSmi e-m, to sleep {lie) in 
one's arms ; leggjast 1 faSma, to e??t- 
brace each other ; fallast 1 faSma, to be 
set off agaifist each other, balance 
each other (m^lin voru 1 dom lagin, 
ok fellust vigin 1 fadma) ; (2) bosom 
(legg hond J)ina 1 sjdlfs t)ins faSm) ; 
(3) a measure oi \tng\.h, fatho?n. 

fagna (at5), v. (i) to rejoice in a 
thing (f. e-u, f e-u or af e-u) ; (2) f. 
e-m, to welcome one^ receive one with 
good or bad cheer (var honum l)ar vel 
fagnat) ; (3) f. vetri, jolum, sumri, to 
rejoice^ make a feast, at the beginning 
of winter ^ Yule, swnmer. 

fagnac^ar-atbur^r, m. joyful event ; 
-dagr, m. day of rejoici7ig', -efai, n. 
matter of joy ; -eyrendi, n. joyful 
message', -eyru, n. pi., heyra e-t 
-eyrum, to hear with joy ; -fullr, a. 
joyful; -fundr, m. joyful meeting; 
-gratr, m. weeping for joy ; -heit, n. 
joyful promise; -kras, f. dainty; 
-kvetSja, i. joyful greeting; -lauss, 
a. joyless J wretched, poor; -lof, n. 
praise frojn a joyous heart (syngja 
-lof gu6ij ; -lut$r, m. truittfet of joy ; 
-mark, n. sign of joy; -ortJ, n. pi. 
joyful words; -dp, n. shout of joy \ 
-raust, f. voice of joy ; -rdS, n. happy 
resoliction; -saga, f. jOyful news, = 
feginsaga ; -saa.iliga, didv. joyfully; 
-samligr, a. joyous, joyful ; -skru(5, 
n. rai7nent of joy ; -statSr, m. place 
of joy ; -syn, f. joyful sight ; -sasll, 
a. (i) happy ; (2) graceful, gracious ; 
-songr, m. song of joy ; -ti(5, f. time 
of joy; -tit5indi, n. pi. joyful, glad 
tidings; -timi, m. = -ti5; -veizla, f. 
joyful feast; -vist, f. abode of joy; 
-51, n. joyous banquet. 

fagnatJr (gen. -ar), m. (i) joy (eilifr 
f.) ; (2) welcome, greeting; (3) hos- 
pitable entertainment (gerSu henni 
fagnaS J)d viku alia) ; 61 ok annar f., 
ale and other good cheer ; (4) kunna 
ser i)ann fagnao, to be quite satisfied 




or content (kunni hann s^r t)d pann 
fagnaS at girnast ekki d Sviakonungs 

fagna-fundr, m.=fagna5arfundr. 

fagr (fogr, fagrt ; com p. fegri), a. 
fair ^ fine ^ beatiiiful ; f. synum, alitum, 
fair to see ; fagrt veSr, fair {fine) 
weather:, f. songr, beautiful {sweet) 
song\ fagrt kvseSi, a fine poem ; talaSi 
fagrt, en hug6i fldtt, spoke fair^ but 
thought false. 

fagr-buinn, pp. beautifully dressed, 
equipped', -endi, n. pi. costly, fair 
things ; -eygr, 2..fai7'-eyed \ -fertSugr, 
a. graceful, virtuous : -flekkottr, a. 
fairfiecked (of a snake) ; -gali, m. 
flattery (bera -gala d e-n, sli i -gala 
vi6 e-nj ; -gloa, a. fair-glowing-, 
-groenn, a. bright or light greeti ; 
-hdrr, a. fair-haired', -hljotSandi, 
pr. p. sweet-sounding', -hljotSr, a. 
sweet-voiced', -hljomandi, pr. p.= 
-hljodandi ; -klseddr, pp. fair-clad ; 
-leikr, m. beauty, = fegrd ; -leitr, a. 
of fair complexion, beautiful; -liga, 
3.dv. fairly, beautifully ', -ligr, a. (i) 
fine-looking, handsome ; (2) agreeable 
(-lig J)j6nasta) ; -limi, m. */«?>- 
branch ', ^ w<?^^ (poet.) ; -laBti, n. 
blandishment', -mdll, 2i. fair-spoken; 
-mdlugr, a. = -mdll ; -maoli, n. fair 
language; -meBltr, a. = -md,ll ; -oitSr, 
a. fair-spoken, bland; -rauSr, a. 
light-red; -B'k&v&^r, pp. fair-shapen ; 
-skrifatSr, pp. finely drawn, decorated 
with fine figures; -skryddr, pp. 
dressed in fine clothes ; -variOr, 
pp. wearing fine clothes (of a lady) ; 
-vaxinn, pp. of fair stature; 
-yndi, n.= -endi ; -yrtSi, n. p\. fair 
words ; -yrSr, a. = -or6r. 

fala (aS), v. to detnand for purchase 
(f. e-t af e-m or at e-m ; f. til e-s). 

falda (feld ; f61t, f61dum ; faldinn), 
V. to array with a woman's hood (f. 
e-n or e-m e-u, or med or vi3 e-u) ; 
f. sik motri, med or vi5 motri, to hood 
oneself with a motr ; Brandr var 
faldinn, Brand had on a woman^s 
headgear; hjdlmi faldinn, wearing a 

falda (aS), \.{i) to hood (see prec.) ; 
(2) to fold ; fd mer skyrtu J)ina, en ek 

skal f. hana saman, / shall fold it up ; 
falda aptr, to unfold, 

falda-feykir, m. a magical dance in 
which the hoods (faldarj fiew ofiF' the 
ladies'' heads. 

fald-lauss, a. hoodless. 

faldr, m. {\)fold; (2) hem of a gar- 
7)1 ent ; kyrtill hlaSbuinn 1 fald nidr, a 
kirtle laced down to the hems ; (3) a 
sort of {woman's) head-gear, hood. 

fall, n. {1) fall; f. er fararheill, a 
fall bodes a lucky jourtiey ; koma e-m 
til falls, to cause one to fall; foil 
berast d e-n, o?ie begins to reel or 
stagger ; (2) fall, death in battle (1 
flotta er f. verst) ; (3) carcase of a 
slaughtered a?iimal (cf. 'nautsfall', 
*sau3arfair) ; (4) frequent deaths 
from plague (ef myss g0r6u mein i. 
mat e6a kl£e5um, ^d kom f. i Jjser) ; 
(5) heavy sea (reis f. mikit allt frd 
grunni) ; (6) sin, transgression ; (7) 
downfall, ruin, decay ; f, engla, the 
fall of angels ; gozin eru at falli 
komin, the estates are dilapidated; 

(8) quantity {of a vowel or syllable) ; 

(9) gramm., case. 

falla (fell ; f611, f611um ; fallinn), 
V. (i) to fall; eigi fellr tre vi6 fyrsta 
hogg, a tree falls 710 1 with the first 
stroke ; f. af baki, to fall fro)n horse- 
back ; f. d kne, to fall on one" s knees ; 
f. dfram (d bak aptr), to fall forwards 
{backwards) ; f. flatr, tofallp7-ostrate ; 
f. til jarSar, to fall to the grou7id ; 
refl., Idta fallast (=sik falla), to let 
oneself fall (f)d let Loki f. 1 kne 
Skada) ; (2) to drop dow7i dead, be 
killed, fall {in battle) ; {^) to die of 
plague (fellu fdtoekir menn um allt 
land) ; {4) to fiow, run (of water, 
stream, tide) ; sserinn fell ut frd landi, 
ebbed; fell sjor fyrir hellismunnann, 
the sea rose higher than the cave- 
77iouth ; si3an fell sjor at, the tide 
rose ; J)eir sd l)d 6s mikinn f. i sjoinn, 
fall into the sea ; ^ d fell {a river 
fiowed) \\6 skdla Asolfs ; var skipit 
svd hladit, at inn fell um soxin, that 
the sui rushed i7t at the prow ; (5) of 
clothes, hair, to fall, hang dow7i ; 
hdrit fell d herSar honum aptr, the 
hair fell back on his shoulders ; letu 




kvennv^Sir um kne falla, they let 
wojnen's dress fall about his /c?iees ; 
(6) to fall, calm down (of the wind) ; 
fell vedrit {the storm fell) ok gerSi 
loo-n ; (7) to fail, be foiled', sa ei6r 
fellr honum til utIegSar, if he fails i?t 
taki?ig the oath, he shall be liable to 
outlawry ; f. d verkum sinum, to 
have been caught red-ha?ided, to be 
justly slain ; f. or fallast at mdli, 
sokn, to fail in ofie's suit\ f. fra mali, 
to give it up ; fallinn at fraendum, 
bereft of kins7nen ; doemi ek fyrir 
drdp bans fallnar ySrar eignir, / sefi- 
tence yo2cr estates to be fo? felted for 
his slaughter; retl., ef gerdarmenn 
Idta fallast, if the umpires fail to do 
their duty; J)d fellust ollum Asum 
orStok ok sv^ hendr, then voice and 
hands alike failed the Gods ; fellust 
J3eim allar kveSjur, their greetings 
died on their lips ; vill sd. eigi fallast 
lata andsvor, he will riot fail or 
falter in replying; (8) to fall out, 
happen ; mer fell sva gsefusamliga {it 
befell me so luckily), at; stundum 
kann svi. at f., at, sometitnes it may 
so happen that ; {()) to be had or pro- 
duced (J)at j^rn fellr 1 firSi peim ; Jsar 
fellr hveiti ok vin) ; (10) with adv., 
e-m fellr e-t t)ungt, lett, a thing falls 
heavily, lightly zcpon 07ie (petta mun 
ySr t>ungt f.) ; fell J)d, keisaranum 
J)yngra bardaginn, the battle turned 
against the emperor; e-m fellr e-t 
naer, it falls ?iigh to 07ie, touches one 
nearly ; benni lell meinit svd nasr, at, 
the illness fell on her so sore, that; 
mer fellr eigi firr en honum, // 
touches me no less than him ; hormu- 
liga fellr oss nu, at, it falls out sadly 
for tcs, that; (11) to please, suit; 
kvaS ser {jat vel f. til aftekta, said 
that it suited him well for draiving 
revenue frofn ; honum fell vel 1 eyru 
lofsord konungs, the king's praise 
was pleasant in his ears; jarli fellst 
t)at vel i eyru, the earl was well 
pleased to hear it ; mun mer ilia f., ef, 
/'/ will displease me, if; fell vel i. 
meS t^eim, they were on good terms ; 
refl., honum fellst pat vel 1 skap, // 
stilted his 7nind welly he was pleased 

with it ; fellst hv^rt o3ru vel ( ge3, 
they loved each other; (12) with 
preps, and advs., f. af, to fall, abate 
(fell af vindr, byrr) ; f. d e-n, to befall 
one ; Jjser fellu lyktir i., at, the end 
was, that ; f. 1 e-t, to fall into ; f. i 
brot, to fall in a fit; f. 1 ovit, to 
faint, SW0071 ; f. 1 villu, to fall into 
heresy ; f. 1 vald e-s, to fall into 
ojie's power; fell veSrit 1 logn, the 
stoj'm cahned down ; f. niSr, to fall, 
d?-op ; mitt kva^cJi mun skjott nior f., 
my poem will soon be forgotten ; fell 
sva niSr J)eirra tal, their conversation 
dropped, they left off talking ; f. 
saman, to fall in with, agree; J)6 at 
eigi felli allt saman me3 ^€\xx\, though 
they did not agree ifi everythiiig ; f. 
til, to occur, happen, fall out ; ef 
au6na fellr til, if luck will have it so ; 
litlu si6ar fell til fagrt lei6i, a fair 
wind cavie on ; oil |)ingviti, er til 
falla, all the fines that may fall in, be 
due', nema J)orf falli til, imless need 
be ; sem sakir falla til, as the case 
falls ; f, undir e-n, to fall to one's lot 
(of inheritance, obligation) ; arfr fellr 
undir e-n, devolves upo?t one ; f. ut, 
to recede, of the tide (pd er ut fell 
sj 6 r i n n ) ; f . V i 3 drar, to fall to at the oars. 

fallerast (atS), v. refl., (i) to be mis- 
taken ; {2) to prove false ; (3) /<? fall 
(with a woman). 

fall-hsBtt, a. n., e-m verSr -hsett, one 
staggers, is ifi danger of falling. 

f alligr, a. pretty, hafuisome ( f. litr). 

fallinn, pp. ( i ) svd. f . , such-like,^ so 
made or constituted (hvi man hinn 
sami ma3r svd. f.) ; svd. f. orskurdr, a 
decision as follows; (2) vel, ilia f., 
well, ill-disposed (hann var vaenn 
ma3r ok vel f.) ; fitted, worthy (bezt 
til konungs f.) ; at hann v^ri betr til f. 
at deyja fyrir {)d sok en faSir bans, 
that he more deserved to die than his 
father did; (3) neut., fallit, ^/; ok 
haztti \)i. er honum J)6tti f., stopped 
whe?i he thought ft ; kalladi vel til f., 
said it was qiiite right; (4) suited to 
one (e-m) ; eigi })ykki mer l^er su fer6 
vel fallin, / thi?ik this journey will 
not do for thee. 

fall-jaki, m., -jokull, m. ice-berg \ 




•sott, f. flagiie (ef falls6tt kemr I fe 
manns) ; -staSr, m. a place to fall 
upon (leita s^r -staSar) ; -valtligr, 
-valtr, a. unsteady, changeable, un- 
certain (-valtr fagnaSr J)essa heims). 

fair (-S, -ir), m. the socket of a 
spear-head^ into which the shaft fits 

fair, 2i/for sale, to be sold', eiga 
(hafa, Idta) fait, to have a thing for 
sale ; mer er e-t fait, / a7n willing to 
part with; J)eir er mer eru falastir 
til l)ungs hlutar, whom J wotild most 
willingly let si{ffer. 

fals, n. fraud, deceit, imposture. 

fals-, in compds., false, fraudulent, 

falsa (a5), v.{i) to falsify, forge (f. 
rit, bref, innsigli) ; (2) to defraud, 
impose upon (f. e-n) ; f. e-t af e-m, to 
get a thing frotn one by fraud (vil ek 
eigi, at t)u falsir fe af minum Jiegnum) ; 
to spoil (f. brynju). 

falsaSr, p.p. false, falsified^ adul- 
terated (f. gu5, f. drykkr). 

falsara-domr, va. fraud, imposture. 

falsari, m. impostor, deceiver. 

fals-blandaSr, pp. blended with 
fraud, guileftil ; -br6f, n. false deed ; 
-brotSir, m. false friar ; -greifi, m. 
false count (Heinrekr -greifi) ; -gu5, 
m. false god ; -heit, rv. false protnise ; 
-kona, f. false woman, ha7'lot\ 
-konungr, ra. false, self-made king; 
-kostr, m. false virtue ; -kristr, m. 
false Chi'ist ; -lausliga, adv. without 
fraud ; -lauss, a. guileless ; -laus 
md,li, good money ; -laust kaup, a 
bargain in good faith; -laust, adv. 
= -lausliga ; -leysi, n. sincerity, 
honesty ; -liga, adv. falsely ; -ligr, 
a. false ; -maBr, f. harlot ; -ottr, a. 
deceitful; -peningar, m. pi. false 
money ; -po--.toli, m. false apostle ; 
-pusa, f. unfaithful wife ; -saraliga, 
adv. = f alsliga ; -samligr, a. false, 
fraudulent ; -silfr , n . bad {adulterated) 
silver ; -spamaSr, m. false prophet ; 
-tru, f. false doctrine^ heresy ; 
-vdttr, m. false witness; -vilnan, 
f. deceitful hope ; -vitni, n. false 
witness {evidence) ; -vitr, a. crafty, 

fambi, m./^^/: cf. ' fimbul-fambi '. 

fang, n. {i) grasp, hold; ii. f. i. e-m 
or af e-m, to get hold of one (fekk 
engi l)eirra f. i. mer) ; sd J)eir, at {jeir 
fengu ekki f. af Erlingi, they saw that 
they could not catch E. ; {2) wrestling, 
grappling (taka f. vi6 e-n, ganga til 
fangs) ; ganga d f. viO e-n, g. 1 f. e-m, 
to grapple with one, provoke one; 
fangs er vdn af frekum ulfi, it is hard 
to deal with a huttgry wolf; (3) the 
space between the artns, the breast 
and arms ; kom spjotit 1 f. honum, 
the spear pierced his breast; reka i f. 
e-m, to throw in one's face ; hafa e-t 
1 fangi ser, to hold in one's arms, to 
have in one's power ; taka 1 f. s^r, to 
take into one^s arms (tok manninn i 
f. s^r ok bar ut) ; fcerast e-t i f., to 
undertake a thing, take upon oneself; 
fcerast e-t or fangi, to throw off, 
refuse; (4) catching fish, fishing \ 
halda (fara) til fangs, to go a-fishing\ 
take, catch, draught (f. pat, er peir 
dttu bdSir) ; (5) foetus in sheep and 
cows (ef gradungr eltir f. or kii) ; (6) 
pi., fong, baggage, luggage; fong ok 
fargogn, luggage and carriage ; pro- 
visions (oil voru f. hin beztu) ; bord 
meS hinum beztum fongum, a table 
with the best of cheer ; (7) pi. means, 
opportunity ; engi f. eru onnur a, 
there is no other choice ; hafa f. i. e-u, 
to be enabled to do a thing (hofdu eigi 
f. d at reka langt fl6ttann) ; af (eptir) 
fongum, to the best of one's power, 
according to one's meatis. 

fanga (a$), v. to capture (dSr en 
hann var fangaSr) ; f. dau5a, to catch 
one's death, die. 

fanga-brekka, f. wrestling ground 
(at the Althingi). 

fangaSr, a. having means {{'ong) for 
doing a thitig. 

fanga-far, a. short of means or pro- 
visions ; e-m verQr -fdtt, falls short 
of provisions ; -kvi?5r, m. a body of 
jurymen taken at random ; -lauss, a. 
void of means or provisions ; -leysi, 
n. want of stores ; -litill, a. vile, not 
worth fetching; -rac5, n. device, ex- 
pedient ; g66r, fljotr -rdSs, ready, 
quick at expedients. 




fangari, m. wrestler. 

fanga-stakkr, m. wrestling jerkin ; 
-vdttr, m. a witness taken at random ; 
-vitni, n. testimony of a -vattr. 

fang-brogS, n. pi. wrestling (takast 

fangelsi, n. prison, jail. 

fang-hella, f. a sto?ie set on edge on 
a turestling-ground. 

fangi, m.. prisoner (rare). 

fanginn, pp. captured; fig. enticed. 

fang-litill, 3.. yielding little produce ; 
-staSr, m. a place to grasp or lay 
hold of \ {■k -sta3 d e-m, to get a hold 
of one ; Ijd -staSar d sdr, to let 07ieself 
be caught. 

fangs-ti5, f. wedding season. 

fang-sasll, a. having a good grasp, 
lucky ; -taka, f. taking a hold (in 
wrestling) ; -vinr, m. an antagonist 
in wrestling (poet.). 

fann-hvitr, a. snow-white ; -mikill, 
a. snowy. 

fantr ^-s, -ar), m. (i) servant, foot- 
man (fant se ek hvern i. hesti, en 
lendir menn ganga) ; (2) la?idlouper, 

far, n. (i) a means of passage, ship ; 
bjarga fari d floti, to save a vessel 
afloat ; in compds., a trading vessel 
(Islands-far, Englands-far) ; {2) pas- 
sage ; taka (fd, rd5a) ser fari or far, 
to take a passage in a ship ; beiSast 
fars, to ask for a passage ; synja e-m 
fars, to de7iy 07ie a passage ; banna 
e-m f., to forbid one to sail (cf. ' far- 
bann'); (3) trace, print, track 
(Sveinki rak lomb sin til fjoru 1 
forin) ; villast hundarnir farsins, the 
hounds lose the track ; of et sama f., 
071 the sa7ne subject ; (4) life, conduct, 
behaviour', 1 fari konungsins, i7i the 
king's character; (5) state, co7idition 
(gefa J)eir eigi gaum um hennar far) ; 
f. veSranna, the course of the winds ; 
at fornu fari, of yore, of old. 

fara (fer ; for, forum ; farinn), v. 
(l) to 7nove, pass alomi, go ; gekk 
hann hvargi sem hann for, he walked 
wherever he went; f. heim (heim- 
an), to go ho7ne {fro7n home) ; 
f.^ d fund e-s, to visit 07te ; fjold ek 
for. / travelled i7iuch ; hann sagSi, 

hversu orS foru me6 {)eim, what 

words passed between the7n ; absol., 
to go begging (omagar, er ])ar eigu at 
f. i t)vi t^ingi) ; (2) with 'fer3, leiQ' or 
the like added in ace, gen., or dat. ; 
f. leiSar sinnar, to go one^s way,p7-o- 
ceed on one's jour 71 ey (= f. ferSar 
sinnar or ferSa sinna, f. ferS si'na, f. 
for sina, forum sinum) ; f. J)essa fer3, 
to 7nake this journey ; f. fullum dag- 
leiSum. to travel full days-jour7ieys; 
f. stefnufor, to go a-su77i7noni7ir ; f. 
bonordsfor, to go a-wooi7ig; f. sigrfor, 
to go on the path of victory, to 
t7'iu772ph ; f. g66a for, to 77iake a lucky 
journey ; fig., f. osigr, to be defeated; 
f. mikinn skaSa, to suffer great 
da77iage ; f. hneykju, skomm, to incur 
disgrace ; f. erendleysu, to faili?i one's 
errand ; with the road in ace. (f. fjoll 
ok dala) ; (3) f. buSum, bygSum, 
vistum, to 7nove, change one's abode ; 
f. eldi ok arni, to 77iove one's hearth 
a7id fire; (4) f. einn saman, to go 
alone ; f. eigi ein saman, to go with 
child [ — i. med barni) ; (5) with infin. ; 
f. sofa, to go to sleep (allir menn voru 
sofa farnir) ; f. vega, to go to fight ; 
f. leita, to go seeking (var leita farit) ; 
(6) with an adj., &c. ; f. villr, to go 
astray ; f. haltr, to walk la7ne ; f. 
vanstiltr, to go out of one's 77ii7id; f. 
duldr e-s, to be unaware of; f. and- 
vi'gr e-m, to give battle; f. leyniliga 
(leynt), to be kept secret; eigi md 
l)etta svd f., this can7tot go on i7i that 
way; fjarri ferr y^dX, far f7077i it, by 
7t0 7neans; for J)at fjarri, at ek vilda, 
/ was far fro77i desi7-i7?g it; {7) to 
tU7'n 07it, e7id; for |3at sem likligt var, 
it turned out as was likely (viz. ended 
ill) ; svd for, at, the e7id was, that ; 
ef svd ferr sem ek get til, if it turns 
out as I giiess ; a somu leiS for um 
aSra senclimenn, it went the sa7ne 
%uay with the other 7nessengers ; (8) 
to fare well, ill ; biSja e-n vel f, to 
bid one farewell; (9) to suit, fit, esp. 
of clothes, hair (ekki l)ykkir mer kyrt- 
ill pinn f. betr en stakkr minn ; hdrit 
for vel) ; impers., for ilia d hestinum, 
it sat ill on the horse; (10) impers., 
e-m ferr vel, ilia, one behaves or acts 




well, ill\ honum hafa 611 mdlin 
verst farit, he has behaved worst in 
the whole matter ; e-m ferr vinveitt- 
liga, one behaves in a friendly way ; 
(ii) refl., esp. of a journey; forast 
vel, ilia, to go well, ill \ foist peim 
vel, they got on well ; forst t»eim ^-k 
seint um daginn, they got along 
slowly ; recipr., farast hjd, to pass 
one another withotct 7neeti?ig, = i. i. 
mis ; f. 1 moti, to march against one 
another', (I2) f. e-t hondum, to touch 
with the hands, esp. of a healing 
touch, =f. hondum um e-t (bi6 hann 
f. hondum meinit) ; f. land herskildi, 
brandi, to visit a land with * wa?'- 
shield\ with fire, to ravage or 
devastate it (gekk sidan ^ land upp 
me6 li6i sinu ok for allt herskildi) ; 
(13) to overtake (An hrismagi var 
t)eirra skjotastr ok gat farit sveininn) ; 
tunglit ferr solina, the moon overtakes 
the sun ; i.hx hana Fenrir fari, before 
F. overtakes her; (14) to ill-treat, 
treat cruelly ; menn s^ ek pd, er 
mjok hof6u hungri flirit horund, that 
had chastened their fiesh with much 
fasting; {15) to put an end to, 
destroy ; f. ser (sjdifr), to kill oneself; 
f. lifi (fjorvi) e-s, to deprive 07ie of 
life ; t)u hefir sigr vegit ok Fdfni 
(dat.) um farit, killed F.; (16) to 
forfeit (f. londum ok lausafe) ; (17) 
refl., farast, to perish ; f. af sulti, 
hita, moedi, to die of hunger^ heat, 
exhaustio?i ; of a ship, to founder 
(forst par byrQingrinn) ; to be drowned 
(alls forust J)ar niu menn) ; J)d. er 
baeSi himinn ok jor5 hefir farizt, w//<?/z 
heaven and earth shall have passed 
away ; ferst nu vindtta ykkur, your 
friendship is done with ; f. fyrir, to 
come to no2ight (at siQr muni fyrir f. 
nokkurt storrasSi) ; (18) with preps, 
and advs., f. af klaeSum, to take off 
one's clothes ; f. at e-m, to tnake an 
attack upon, to assault (eigi mundi 1 
annat sinn vasnna at f. at jarlinum) ; 
f. at e-u, to mind, pay heed to ; ekki 
fer ek at, {jott l^u hafir svelt J)ik til 
fjdr (// does not ^natter to me^ 1 do 7iot 
care, though) ; to deal with a thing, 
proceed in a certain way ; svd skal at 

s6kn f,, thus is the pleading to be 
proceeded with ; f. at logum, ulogum, 
to proceed laivfully, tmlawfully ; f. 
mjiikliga at, to proceed gently ; her 
skulu vi6 f. at me6 rd.5um, act with 
deliberation ; impers. with dat., to do^ 
behave; ilia hefir mer at farit, I have 
done my business badly ; to go in 
pursuit {search) ^(vikingar nokkurir 
{)eir sem f6ru at fdfongum) ; f. at 
fuglaveiQum, to go a-fowlifig; f. at f^, 
to tend sheep ; f. 6. e-n, to come upon 
one ; sigu saman augu, J)d. er dauQinn 
for i., when death seized hijn ; f. d. 
hasl or hccli, to step back, retreat ; f. 
eptir e-m, to follow 07te ; f. eptir e-u, 
to go for, go to fetch (Snorri go6i 
f6r eptir likinu ; f. eptir vatni) ; to 
accom7}iodate oneself to, co/form to 
(engi vildi eptir o3rum f.) ; t)au or5 
er eptir fara, the followi7ig words ; f. 
fram, to go on, take place; ef eigi 
ferr gjald fram, if no pay7ne7it takes 
place ; veizlan ferr vel fram, the feast 
we7it on well; spyrr, hvat par foeri 
fram, he asked, what was going on 
there ; f. fram rdSum e-s, to follow 
one's advice ; allt mun pat sinu fram 
f., it will take its own course ; kvd.6u 
pat engu gegna ok foru sinu fram, 
took their ow7i way; segir honum, 
hversu peir foru fram, how they acted \ 
f. e-t fram, to do, perfor77i a thi7ig ; 
spyrr hann, hvat mi se fram faranda, 
what is to be do7ie ; f. fyrir e-t, to 
pass for, be take7i for (fari sd fyrir 
niSing, er) ; refl., farast fyrir, to co7ne 
to nought (forst pat fyrir) ; f. hjd. ser, 
to be beside oneself; f. 1 e-t, to go into 
(f. 1 tunnu) ; f. 1 sseng, rekkju, to go 
to bed ; f. 1 sess sinn, sagti sitt, to take 
one's seat ; f. 1 klseSi, to put 07t 
clothes, dress \ f. 1 vdpn, brynju, to 
put 071 a7'77iour ; f. i lag, to go right 
or straight agai7i (pd foru brynn 
hans 1 lag) ; f. 1 voxt, to i7icrease ; f. 
1 purQ, to wane ; f. 1 hernaS, viking, 
to go a-freebooti7tg; nu ferr 1 uvaent 
efni, 710W matters look hopeless ; to 
happen, occur (allt pat, er i hafSi 
farit um nottina) ; f. me3 e-t, to 
wield, handle, 77ia7tage\ for Hroptr 
med Gungni, H. wielded {the spear) 




Gungnir ; f. nieS go5or9, to hold a 
godord ; f. me3 sok, to manage a 
lawsuit ; to practise, deal in ; f. med 
rdn, to deal in robbery ; f. me6 spott 
ok hd6, to go scoffing and mockitig ; 
f. med galdra ok fjolkyngi, to practise 
sorceyy ; to deal withy treat, handle 
(t)u munt bezt ok hogligast meS hann 
fara); f. af hljoQi med e-t, to keep 
matters secret ; f. me3 e-m, to go 
with one, follow one (ek skal me6 
ySr f. me3 allan minn styrk) ; f. me3 
e-u, to do {so and so) with a thing, 
to deal with, manage ; hvernig J)eir 
skyldu f. me5 vdpnum sinum, what 
they were to do with their weapons ; 
sd maSr, er med arfinum ferr, who 
manages the i?theritance ; f. me9 
milum sinum, to manage one's case ; 
f. vel me6 sinum hdttum, to bear 
oneself well ', undarliga fara munkar 
J)essir me6 ser, these moiiks behave 
strangely ; f. me6 barni, to go with 
child', impers., ferr me6 J)eim heldr 
fdliga, they are on indifferetit terms ; 
f. or landi, to leave the country ; f. 
or klasSum, fotum, to take offi one's 
clothes, undress ; f. saman, to go 
together J to shake, shudder ; for en 
forna fold oil saman, shivered all 
through; to conctir, agree (hversu 
ma t)at saman f.) ; f. til svefns, to go 
to sleep ( = f. at sofa) ; f. um e-t, to 
travel over (f. um fjall) ; f. hondum 
um e-n, to stroke or touch one with 
the hands (hann for hondum um t^d, 
er sjukir voru) ; f. morgum orSum 
um e-t, to dilate upon a subject ; f. 
myrkt um e-t, to keep a fnatter dark ; 
f. undan, to excuse oneself {ixova doing 
a thing), to decline, reftise (hvat berr 
til, at Jdu ferr undan at gera mer veizl- 
una) ; bor6 fara upp, the tables are 
removed ; f. lit, to go from Norway to 
Iceland; to come to a close, run out 
(foru svd ut Jjessir fimm vetr) ; f. utan, 
to go abroad (from Iceland) ; f. vi6 
e-n, to treat one, deal with ofie in a 
certain way ; margs d ek minnast, 
hve vi6 mik foruS, / have many 
things to remember of your dealings 
with me ; f. yfir e-t, to go through ; 
nu er yfir farit um landndm, now an 

account of the settlements has been 
given ; skjott yfir at f., to be brief 

fara-bok, f. a book of travels, an 
itinerary ; -hagr, m. travelling cir- 
cumstances or condition. 

farald, n. {mode of) travelling, in 
the phrase, hverju {or me6 hverju) 
faraldi {how, by what means) hann 
haf5i t)ar komit. 

farandi (pi. -endr), m. traveller, 

farand-kona, f. beggar-woman. 

far-angr (gen. -angrs), m. luggage. 

farar-bann, n. = farbann ; -beini, 
xi\. furthering one's journey ; -blomi, 
m. travelling with pomp ; -broddr, 
m. the front of a host ; -buinn, pp.= 
farbuinn ; -dv51, f. delay ; -efni, n. 
pi. equipinent ; -eyrir, m. money for 
travelling; -gogn, n. pi. necessaries 
for a journey ; -greitSi, m. convey- 
ance ; -haft, n. hindrance, stoppage ; 
-hestr, m. nag, horse ; -leyfi, n. 
leave to go ; -mungat, n. ale for 
use on a journey ; -nautr, m. = 

fararakjota-laust, adv. without 
means of conveyance. 

farar-slgoti, m. means of convey- 
ance ; -snuSr, m. speed on a journey ; 
-stafr, m. walking-stick ; -talmi, m. 
hindrance, delay in one's journey. 

far-bann, n. prohibition of sailings 
embargo ; -bauti, m. ogre ; -beini, 
m. = fararbeini ; -borSi, m., in the 
phrase, leita ser farborSa, to take pre- 
cautions (so as to get safe and sound 
out of a danger) ; -buinn, pp. pre- 
pared to sail, ready for departure. 

fardaga-helgr, f. the Sunday in 
fardagar ; -skeiS, n. the time of far- 

far-dagar, m. pi. removing days (four 
successive days in summer, at the 
end of May, old style) ; -drengr, m. 
sea-firittg man ; -flotti, a. fugitive, 
exiled', -fuss, a. eager for depart- 
ing', -fysi, f. eagerness to depart or 

farga (a5), v. (i) with ace, to press ; 
(2) with dat., to destroy^ make away 

far-gfflfa, f. good luck on a journey ; 
-gogn, n. pi. luggage, baggage ; -g0rvi. 




n. travelling-gear \ -hir^ir, m. ferry- \ 

-fari, m. sea-farer, voyager, only in j 
compds. (Dyflinnar-fari, Englands- 
fari) ; traveller (Jorsala-fari). 

farinn, pp. (i) gone, undone', J)i er 
farnir voru forsiofiumenn Troju, when 
the defenders of Troy were dead and 
gone ; hans tafl var mjok svd farit, 
his game was almost lost ; farinn af 
sulti ok moeSi, fatnished and ex- 
hausted ; f. at e-u, destitute of (f. at 
vistum, lausafe) ; tungl farit, a ^ dead' 
moon, new 7noon ; sol var skamt 
farin, the sun was little advanced, 
not long risen ; l)d var dagr alljos ok 
s61 farin, broad day and the sun high 
in the sky ; (2) so and so conditioned ; 
vel andlits f., vel f. i andliti, well- 
favoured ; mjok aldri f., strickeft in 
years ; vel ordi {or orQum) f., well- 
spoken, eloquent ; impers., e-m er e-n 
veg farit, one is so and so ; er eigi 
einn veg farit ugsefu okkar, otir ill- 
luck is not of one piece ; veQri var 
J)annig farit, at, the weather was such 
that ; hversu landinu er farit, what 
the condition of the cottntry is ; henni 
er J)annig farit, at hon er mikil ey, 
long, // (viz. the island) is so shaped 
that it is laige afid long; fig., of dis- 
position, character; cr honum vel 
farit, he is a well-disposed matt ; J)eim 
var ulikt farit at morgu, they were 
unlike in many respects ; undarlis^a 
er y3r farit, jk^ are strange men ; add- 
ing the prep, til : nu er annan veg til 
farit, now matters are altered; nii er 
svd til farit, at ek vil, now the case is, 
that I wish ; (3) ^ fornum vegi, 07i 
the high-road (ef maOr andast a for- 
num vegi) ; hann kom heim af 
fornum vegi, frotn a jowney. 

far-kona, f. beggar-woman. 

farkonu-sott, f. a kind of disease. 

far-kostr, m. a vessel, a ship ; 
-lami, a. unable to go further on a 
journey ; -leiga, f. passage-money ; 
-lengd, f. jourftey, travels ; -Ijoss, a. 
light enough for travelling (nott 
var J)d farljos) ; -log, n. pi. nautical 
law ; -ina^r, m. sea-faring man, 
seaman, travelling 7nerchant. 

farmanna-butSir, f. pi. merchant 
booths ; -log, n. pl.= farlog. 

far-m.6vSr, a. weary from travelling, 

farmr (-s, -ar), m. freight, cargo 
(bera, flytja farm af skipi) ; load (in 
general) ; (2) contents (maSrinn finnr 
fotuna med sinum farmi). 

far-nioet5a, f. tiredness or weariness 
from travelling. 

farna?5r (gen. -ar), m. furtherance^ 
speed (til farnaSar mer ok til ferSar) ; 
J)ar til er hon kynni nokkurn farnaS, 
till she had learned how to get on in 
the world. 

far-nagli, va. plug (in a boat). 

farnast (aS), v. refl., f. vel, to speea 
well ; to be fortunate. 

far-nest, n. provisions for a journey 
(i bagga hans var farnest hans). 

farning, i. ferrying over, passage 
(veita e-m f.). 

farnmgar-ma(5r, m. = ferjuma3r. 

farningr (gen.-s), m. = farning. 

far-rak, -rek, n. strait, dilemma ; 
at t)u komir aldri siSan 1 shkt farrak, 
in such a strait', J)at hafdi f'orSi 
ordit til farreks, at, that mishap haa 
befallen Thord, that. 

farri, m. landlouper, vagrant, 

far-skip, n. ferry-boat. 

fars-kostr, m. = farkostr. 

far-snilli, f. nautical art ; -synjan, 
f. refusing to ferry one over. 

far-ssBla, f. good speed, prosperity 
happiness', -saBlast (d), v. refl., tc 
speed well, have luck ; -saBld, f. = 
-Sccla; fridr ok farsasld, peace am, 
happiness ; -seell, a. (i) speeding wel 
in voyages (svd, farsasll, at hann kauj 
ser jafnan hofn) ; (2) prosperous 
-saelliga, adv. prosperously ; -saBlligr 
a. prosperous, advantageous, usefu, 
(farseelligir hlutir). 

fars£Blu-lauss, a. (i) luckless; {2 

far-tdlmi, m. = farartalmi ; -tekja 
f. taking a passage in a ship ; -vegr 
m. (l) track (manna farvegr) ; (2 
channel, bed of a river; (3) road 
journey (langr farvegr) ; -l)egi, m 

fast, 2id.\. firmly, fast (sitja, standa 
binda, halda f.) ; sofa f., to sleep fast. 




drekka f., to drink hard\ leita f. 
eptir, to urge, press hard\ rySjast 
um f., to make a hard onslaught ; 
leggja f. at, to close with one (in a 
sea-fight) ; telja f. i. e-n, to give one 
a severe lesson, 

fasta (a (5), v. to fast, abstain from 
food ; f. t^urt, to fast on dry food. 

fasta, f. {\) fist, fasting] (2) season 
appointed for fasting {n\\i vikna f.). 

fasta-eign, f. real property, opp. to 
* lausafe ', * lauss eyrir ' ; -far, n., only 
in dat., (ij fastafari, eagerly, co7i- 
stantly \ -goz, n. = fasta-eign. 

fast-eygSr, -eygr, a. firm-eyed ; 
-gar^r, m. fastness, stronghold ; 
fastgarQr er fyrir, there are great 
obstacles in the way, -haldr, a. (l) 
tenacious, saving; (2) steadfast, con- 
stant (fasthaldr i. sinni fyrirastlan) ; 
-heitinn, a. tme to one's wo7'd\ 
-heldi, f. (i) closeness, parsii7iony ; 
(2) tenacity, constancy, -hendr, a. 

fasti, m. poet.yfr<? ; foera e-n i fasta, 
to briftg one into a strait. 

fastla, adv.=fastliga. 

fast-liga, adv. firmly, strongly, 
trua -liga, to believe firmly ; e-t horfir 
-liga, it looks hard, difficult', vera -liga 
kominn, to be set fast ', -ligr,, 
Jirtn, strong; -lyndr, 2,. firm, strong- 
minded; -mdll, a. trusty; -meeli, 
n. pi. fast e?igagement (binda e-t 

fastna (at5), v. (i) to pledge, promise 
solemnly (f. e-m logbot) ; (2) to be- 
troth (fastnaQi MorSr Hruti dottur 
sina) ; f. sdr konu, to engage a wife ; 
refl. fastnast, to be betrothed. 

fastnaSar-mal, n. = festarmdl ; -61, 

fastnaSr (-ar), m. betrothal. 

fastnandi (pi. -endr), m. betr other. 

fast-naemr, a. (i) close-fisted; (2) 
firm, trusty (-naemr vi6 vini sma). 

fast-orcSr, a. true to otie's word. 

fastr, a. [l) fast, fir fji, sticking fast 
to the spot; hrutr f. {held fast, en- 
tangled) d, meSal vida ; f. d velli, 
standing fast (in battle) ; standa f. 
fyrir, to stand fast {firm) ; (2) close, 
close fisted; f. ok fegjarn, close a?id 

covetous ; f. af e-u, sparing of (f. af 
drykk); (3) of a meeting : J)ders6kn- 
ar{)ing er fast, during the session ; 
(4) firtn, fxithficl (fast heit, loforS, 
fost tru) ; fuUr ok f., definitive, per- 
manent (J)essi grid skulu vera full ok 
fost); (5) stro7ig, hard (f. bardagi) ; 
fast atkvsefli, hard syllable (ending in 
a double consonant) ; (6) til fasta, 
fast, firmly ; r^6a, msela, heita til 
fasta, to make a firtn agreejnent. 

fast-ratSinn, pp. deter?nined {-ri.6\nn 
1 e-u) ; hafa e-t -raSit, to have tnade 
up one's mind [about] ; -riki, n. strong 
ride, tyranny ; -settr, pp. fast-rooted 
(-sett villa) ; -tekinn, pp. determined, 
resolved (hafa e-t fast-tekit me6 ser, 
-tekinn i e-u) ; -toekr, a. headstro7ig, 
stubborn ; -utSigr, a. staunch, fir77i of 
77ii7id; -u^Ugaf 3.dv. firmly ; -uSligr, 
a. = -u3igr ; -vingr, a. steadfast as 
f ri e7id, = vinfastT ; -yrcSr, a. = -or6r. 

fat, n. (i) vat, vessel, pail (kona 
vildi bera vatn en hafSi ekki f.) ; eitt 
fat {basket) meS vinberjum ; (2) h(g- 
gage, baggage (bera fot sin i. skip, 
bera fot 1 land) ; (3) article of clothing, 
gar77ient, pi. (fot), clothes, dress (hann 
haf6i fot sin i fangi ser, en sjdlfr var 
hann naktr). 

fata, f. pail, bucket. 

fata (at5), v. to step, = {et3.. 

fata-buningr, m. apparel; -bur, 
n. wardrobe ; -g0rvi, n. luggage, gear ; 
-hestr, m. pack-horse ; -hirzla, f. 
wardrobe ; -hruga, f. heap of clothes ; 
-kista, f. clothes-chest. 

fatlaSr, pp. i7npeded; fjotri fatlaSr, 

fat-lauss,, a. (l) withoict clothes,^=» 
klae5lauss ; (2) without luggage. 

fatl-byrtSr, f. a burde7i fastened with 
straps (cf. 'fetill'j. 

fatnatSr (gen. -ar), m. clothing. 

fat-prutSr, a. dressy, finely dressed', 
-pryt5i, f. dressiness. 

fatr, n. i7/tpedi7ne7it, delay. 

fatrast (atS), v. refl. to be entangled 
or i77ipeded in a thing (fatrast mjok 
fyrir honum). 

fats-toturr, m. tatters. 

fattr, a. {easily) bowed backwards. 




fatt-skolptatSr, a. with uptur?ted 

fauska-groptr, m . diggi?ig dry logs 
out of the earth for fuel. 

fauskr (-s, -ar), m. a rotten dry log 
(fuinn fauskr, forn fauskr). 

fax, n. ?nane\ poet., vallar fax, the 
field's inane^ wood. 

faxatJr, pp. maned, having a mane. 

fd (f8B ; fekk, fengum ; fenginn), 
V. (i) to grasp with the hands , get 
hold of\ hon hefir fengit einn stein, 
she has taken a stone ; {2) to take, 
capture (fengu l)eir Gunnar) ; (3) /^ 
get^ gai?i, win ; sd faer er frjdr, he 
that woos wins ; fd flj63s dst, to win 
a woman''s love ; hann ba6 konunnar 
ok fekk heitit hennar, he asked the 
woman in 7narriage and got the 
promise of her hand; fd sitt eyrindi, 
to acco77iplish one's errand \ fd haerra 
hlut, to get the better of it ; fd goSar 
viStokur, to get a good reception ; 
fd skilning d e-u, to get k7iow- 
ledge of\ (4) to suffer, endure \ fd 
usigr, to be defeated \ fd skaSa, to 
suffer har7n ; fd uvit, to fall senseless, 
to faint ; fd lifldt, to fall lifeless ; ii. 
bana, to come by one's death ; {{) to 
get, procure ; hann fekk sdr gott 
kvdnfang, he got a good wife ; (6) to 
give, deliver to one, put into 07ie's 
hands ; fd mer [give me) leppa tvd or 
hdri J)inu ; fdit nu konungi festu {give 
the king bail) J)d er honum liki ; fd 
e-m sok, to charge one ; var sd sveinn 
fenginn f hendr okkr, delivered i7ito 
our hands; fd e-m e-t at geyma, to 
give a thing into 07te's charge ( = fd 
e-m e-t til geymslu) ; (7) with pp. 
following, to be able to ; fd e-n veiddan, 
to be able to catch one ; hon fasr me6 
engu moti vakit J)d, she could by no 
77ieans awaken the77i ; J)eir munu mik 
aldri fd sott, they will never be able 
to overco77ie 77ie ; fengu J)eir honum 
ekki ndt, they could not catch hi77t ; 
skaltu hvergi ii. undan hokat, thou 
shall have no chance of sneaki7ig 
away ; hann fekk {jo eigi viss or^it, 
he could not make out for certai7i ; (8) 
with gen., to get, take, gain, win ; 
l)eir fengu fjdr mikils, they took a rich 

booty, vel er J)ess fengit, it is well 
earned, well done ; hann var eigi 
skdld, ok hann haf^i ei t)eirrar listar 
fengit, he had not received that gift ; 
fd ver^ar, to take a meal; hann fekk 
ser sveitar {he raised a band) ok 
g0r^ist illvirki ; fd konu, to get a 
wife, 77iarry (hon var dtjdn vetra, ei 
f^orsteinn fekk hennar) ; (9) to co7i- 
ceive, of sheep and cattle {(i. bursar, 
lambs); (10) to touch, affect; J)at 
fekk mikils hinum hertekna manni, 
it touched the captii'e deeply ; pd faer 
f^orbirni svd mjok {Th. was so much 
77ioved), at hann graetr; (11) impers., 
07ie can get or fi7id ; vdpn svd go^, at 
eigi faer onnur slik, that the like are 
7wt to be got; at varla fdi vitrara 
mann, that a wiser ma7t is ha7'dly tc 
be found; also, one 77tay or ca7i (dc 
something) ; J)at skip faer vel varit 
eldi, that ship can well be guardea 
agai7ist fire; (12) with preps.; fd ai 
sdr (with infin.) to bri7ig oneself to ; 
peir fengu af verra, they got the worst 
of it; id, at veizlu, bruokaupi, bloti, 
to get provisio7is for a feast (hann fekk 
at bloti miklu) ; sd dagr er at jolum 
skal fd, the day whe7i preparatio7is 
are to be made for Yule (cf. ' atfanga- 
dagr ') ; f d d e-u, to get hold of, grasj> 
with the hand; fa^ir Mo^a fekk ^ 
t)remi, the father of M. caught hola 
of the bri7n ; fd a e-n, to touch, affeci 
one, tnove (opt ii. d horskan lostfagrir 
litir) ; Idta e-t d sik fd, to be {deeply) 
affected by, take it to heart ; drykki 
faer d e-n, the dri7ik i7itoxicates oni 
(er drykkr fekk d Hdkon jarl) ; ii 
i e-t, to take hold of, grasp with the 
hand (= fd d e-u) ; for^u^u fingrum, 
fengu i snoeri, they took hold of the 
strings ; fd e-t or e-s til, to get, pro- 
C2cre (var kirkja gor ok kennimanna 
til fengit) ; fd e-n til at g0ra e-t, to get 
07ie to do a t/wig; Jjeir fengu menn 
til at ry^ja skip sitt, they got 7nen tc 
clear their ship ; fd til e-s, to lay hola 
of; J)ar var fjold fjdr, fengu til margir, 
there was wealth of 77ioney, and 77ia7iy 
took a share of it; (13) refl. , fdst 1 e-u, 
to be busy, exert oneself, engage in a 
matter (drottningin mdtti t)ar ekki i 




fdst) ; Helgi leita^i pi., ef Siguier 
vildi i fast vi^ {>orvald, t/S. would try 
with Th. ; segir hana Ijuga ok fist i 
rogi, and deal ift slander ; fist vi(5 
e-t = f. i e-u ; f. vi6 e-n, to have to do 
with, to contend with one (H. segist 
{)d vilja . . . fdst eigi vi3 fjdnda J)enna) ; 
to wrestle {grapple) with one (skaltu 
fdst vi6 blimann varn). 

fa (fd, fdcSa. fdt^r), v. to dra^v, 
paint \ fd riinar, to draw runes or 
magic characters ; ver hofum fd6a 
unga bruQi d. ^^■Z'gy we have painted 
the young bride on the wall \ gulli 
fd3r, gilded. 
fd-bygSr, pp. thinly peopled. 
fMoema-mikill, a. uncommonly 
great (hogg fadoema-mikit). 
fa-doemi, n. pi. exceptional things \ 
vera me6 fddoemum, /<? be exceptional, 
portentous; -dcemiligr, a. exceptional, 

fadoemis-heimska, f. extraordinary 
fd-einir, a. pi. only a few (=fdir 
einir) ; -froSr, a. ignorant ; -froet5i, 
f. want of knowledge, ignorance. 
faga (a5), v.{\) to adorn, embellish 
(gjorS f^gu6 me8 brogSum) ; (2) to 
polish, clean = faegja (hun fagar ok 
J)vaer foetr Jjeirra allra) ; (3) to take 
care {charge) of, to tend (f. farsselu- 
lausa, sjuka); (4) to cultivate (f. rangan 
itrunad) ; f. jorQina, to till the earth ; 
(5) /<? worship (f. heiQin go6). 
fdgan, f. worship (f. gu6a). 
faganar-niat5r, m. worshipper. 
fdgandi (pi. -endr), m., fagari, m. 
cultivator, worshipper (vingards fdg- 
andi, fdgari skur6go6a). 
fd-glyjat$r, pp. of little glee, sad. 
fdgu-ligr, a. neatly polished. 
fa-gaetr, a. scarce, rare, U7icom7non ; 
-heyrSr, pp., -heyriligr, a. unusual; 
-hjuatSr, a. few in fa7nily (var Jjar 
fahJLiat) ; -hsefr, a. of little use. 
fai, m. image /figure. 
fdinn, a. polished, stai^ied. 
fa-katr, a. sad, ifi low spirits. 
fak-hestr, m. = fakr. 
fd-klaeddr, pp. having few clothes 
on, thifily clad. 
fdkr (-8, -ar), m. horse (poet.). 

fa-kunnandi, f., -kunnasta.f. ignor' 
ance\ -iLunnigr, Si. ignorant ; -kunn- 
leikr, m. = -kunnasta ; -kunnligr, a. 
unusual, rare; -kynsl, n. pi. -kynstr, 
n. shocking accident. 
fdla, f. giantess, hag, witch. 
fd-ldtr, a. silent, reserved; -leikr, 
m. coldness, melancholy (taka fdleika 
ok ugleSi) ; -liSa, a. indecl., -Iit5a5r, 
-lic5r, a. 7ulth few followers ; -liga, 
adv. coldly yioW me6 Jjeim heldrfdliga) ; 
-ligr, a. cold, reserved. 
falka-kaup, n. purchase of falcons ; 
-veit5r, f. catching of falcons. 
falki, in.falcofi. 

fdlma (a5), V. to ftwible, grope about 
(f. hondum, saxi) ; f. til e-s, to try to 
get hold of one (Hrappr vildi f. til 
min) ; (2) to flinch (f. af hraezlu). 

fa-ljTQdi, n. steadfastness, faithful- 
ness ; -lyndr, a. steadfast, faithful, 
opp. to 'fjollyndr' ; -maligr, a. chary 
of words, reticent ; -menni, n. few 
people ; -mennr, a. havijig few fol- 
lowers (fara famennt) ; -mesltr, a.= 
-mdligr ; -nefndr, pp. seldom men- 
tioned; -nytr, a. of little use; -or?$r, 
a. sparing of words. 

fdr (fa, fatt ; compar. faari or faerri, 
supeil. faBstr), a. {i) fe7u ; me3 fa 
lidi, vi6 fd menn, with few men ; fdir 
( = fd-ir menn i,_/"^z£/ ; fiir einir, 07ily a 
few ; 1 fam ordum, in few words ; the 
sing, often instead of plur., esp. in 
old sayings (far er fagr, ef grastr; 
f. bregSr hinu betra, ef hann veit hit 
verra) ; neut. fatt, few thifigs (fdtt 
veit sd er sefr) ; var eigi bo6it faera en 
hundraQi, no fewer than a hundred 
were invited; fdtt af {)eirra monnum, 
only a few of their 7nen ; with gen., 
fdtt manna, feiu 7nen ; fatt gods, but 
little good; peir ug5u fdtt at ser, they 
feared little for their ow7i safety ; 
with numerals, fdtt 1, less th i7i, short 
of, save; vetri fatt i fjora \\<g\i, forty 
years all but 07ie, thirty-ni7te years ; 
litit fatt i fimm tigi vetra, little short 
of ffty years; halfum eyri fdtt i atta 
merkr, eight 7narks less half an 0U7ice ; 
sex menn it faesta, six 7ne7t at least; 
(2) cold, reserved, ifi low spirits = 
fdlatr ; var pa. Gunnarr vi6 hana leng' 




fdr, Tuas cold to her for a long time ; 
neut. fdtt, coolness ; var fdtt um meQ 
J)eim broeSrum the brothers were on- 
indifferent tertns ; fatt var me5 peim 
Hruti um samfarar, there was a cool- 
ness between H. and his wife : hvd.rt 
er var i milli J)eirra mart e6a fatt, 
whether they stood on good or bad 
terms ^ were frietidly or not. 

far, n. (l) bale, harm, mischief', lesa 
f. um e-n, to speak foul calumnies of 
one; af iix\,from evil passion ; ef ek 
vissa Jiat f. fyrir, if I could foresee that 
bale ; full skal signa ok vi3 fdri sja, 
and so prevent har?nfro7n it; t)at er 
f. mikit {'tis a bad omen), ef t)u foeti 
drepr ; (2) dangerous illness (Id hann 
i pessu fari naer viku) ; {'^)f rated, false 

fa-ra?5r, a. perplexed, helpless. 

far-hugr, m. wrath, grudge ; -kuldi, 
m. piercing coldness (-kuldi veSrs) ; 
-leikr, m. disaster; -liga. adv. (i) 
wrathfully; (2) abo77iinably ; -ligr, 
a. harmful, disastrotis ; -ramr, a. ter- 
ribly strong. 

fars-fuUr, a. ill-natured, malignant. 

fars-skapr, vn. fierceness. 

fdrs-kona, f. wickedwoman ; -ma8r, 
m. wicked man. 

far-s6tt, f. pestilence; -verkr, m. 
severe pain ; -^ri^vUr\.baleful weather, 
tempest; -yrt5i, n. i^\.foul hmguage. 

fd-roeddr, pp. little spoken of (J)ar 
var fdrcett um) ; -roetSinn, a. chary of 
words ( = f^mdligr, faorQr) ; -s6nn, 
a. seldom seen, rare ; -sinni, n. loneli- 
ness, isolation ; -skiptinn, a. little 
meddling, quiet ; -skruSigr, -skruS- 
ligr, a. meagre, poor; -skyrliga, 
adv. foolishly (spyrja faskyrliga) ; 
-skyrligr, 3.. foolish, silly; -staSar, 
adv. in few places ; -tala(5r, pp. ( i ) = 
-ordr ; (2) having few vowel-sounds ; 
-tiSindi, n. pi. rare occurrence ; 
-ti?iliga, adv. rarely; -ticSligr, a., 
-tic5r, a. uncommon, rare ; -tcekdomr, 
m. poverty ; -toeki, n. want, poverty ; 
ganga d fdtoeki, to go a-begging. 

fatcBkis-domr, m. = idtoekdomr ; 
-folk, n. poor folk; -land, n. land 
of affliction ; -litS, n. poor people ; 
-maSr, m.poor man. 

fatcek-leikr, m. poverty ; -liga, adv. 
poorly ; -ligr, a. poorly, poor. 

fa-toekr, a. poor ; -toekt, f. poverty ; 
-vinga^r, pp. having few frie?ids 
(hafa fdvingat) ; -vitr, a. unwise, 
foolish, silly ; -vitr a, -vizka, f. un- 
wisdoni, folly ; -vizkr, a. = favitr ; 
-visa, 2i. foolish. 

f6 (gen. :Qar) n. (i) cattle, esp. 
sheep ; l)eir raku feit {the sheep) upp 
i. geilarnar ; gaeta fjar, to herd or 
tend sheep ; ganganda fe, live stock, 
opp. to ' dautt fe ', or ' liggjanda fe,' 
valuables, money ; (2) property, 7noftey 
(hvart sem fe t»at er land e6r annat 
fe) ; fyrirgora fe ok fjorvi, to forfeit 
property and life ; fe er fjorvi firr, 
life is dearer than 77ioney ; fe veldr 
frasnda rogi, 7noney 77iakes foes oj 
kins77ien ; afla ser fjar ok fra2g6ar 
(frama), to gain wealth a7id fa77ie; 
her er fe J)at {the motiey), er Gunnarr 
greiddi ; J^iggit t)at, herra, fe er i t)vi, 
the7-e is value in it ; pi. fe (dat. fjdm), 
property, 7neans. 

f6aut5nu-ma^r, m. a i7ian lucky with 
his sheep ; f6-boS, n. offer of 7nofiey. 

f6b6ta-laust, adv. without any co7n' 
pensation being paid. 

f6-br6g5, n. pi. devices for i7iaking 
77ioney ; -boetr, f. pi. co7npensation, 
esp. as we7'egild, opposed to * mann- 

fe^gar, m. pi. father and son {or 
sons) ; vi5 f. we, father and son ; vin 
jDeirra Sturlu feQga, a friend of Sturla 
a7id his father. 

feSgin, n. (i) father or mother 
(hvdrttveggja feSginit) ; (2) ^l.parents; 
vdrra fyrstu feBgina, of our first 
paretits ; f. e3a na-frasndr, parentis or 
7iear kinsfolk ; hjd feSginum sinum 
ok forellrismonnum, by his parents 
a7id forefathers. 

fet5ma (a^), v. to span or encompass 
with the artns, 

fecSr, m. father, = fa6ir. 

fe^r-betrungr, m. = foQurbetrungr. 

feSr-land, nfiatherland, = foSurland; 
-munir, m. pi. patri77iony. 

f6-drengr, m. open-handed man 
(-drengr goQr vi3 sina vini) ; -drjugr, 
a. rich in sheep and cattle. 




f6-fang, n. booty \ -fastr, a. close- 
/isted, = i2iS\.Y af fe ; -fatt, a. n. in want 
of inoney (e-m er or verSr fdfatt) ; 
-fellir, m. loss of sheep (from plague 
or starvation) ; -festi, f. closejisied- 
ness\ -fletta (-tta, -ttr), v. to strip 
{one) of money, cheat {one) ; -frekr, 
a. greedy for ?noney ; -fong, n. pi. 
booty, plimder, spoil, cf. ' fefang ' ; 
-gefinn, pp. give ft for (and to) gain. 

fegin-leikr, iw. joyfiilness. 

feginn, a. glad, joyful ; verQa f. to 
rejoice ; fegnari en fra megi segja, 
happy beyond description ; with dat., 
Ingi konungr var6 honum hinn feg- 
nasti, king Ingi was delighted with 
his cofning', iliu f. ver J)u aldrigi, 
never rejoice in mischief; taka vi6 
e-m fegins hendi, to receive one joy- 
fully, with heart and hand\ finnast 
d fegins degi, to meet on the day of 
joy, at the resurrection. 

fegin-saga, {. joyful new ^', -samliga, 
2i^v. joyfully ; -samligr, 2.. joyful. 

f6-girnd, -girni, f. avarice ; -gjald, 
Ti. payment, fne; -gjarn, a. covetous, 
avaricious ; -gjof, f. gift of moftey ; 
-gl0ggr, a. close-handed; -g6c5r, a. 
good, current (1 fe'godum peningum). 

fegra (at5 or -tSa), v. to embellish, 
beautify ; kanna si6u manna ok f. 
to improve, better; ekki t^arf pat 
orSum at f. the7-e is no use trying to 
extemmte it; f. um e-t, to inend, 
polish up. 

fegrt5, f. beauty (f. solarinnar). 

fegrtSar-fullr, a. beautiful; -lauss, 
a. void of beauty. 

f6-grit5, n. pi., security for property ; 
-gyrtSill, m. mo7iey-bag, purse (worn 
on the belt) ; -gastni, f. saving habits ; 
-gofugr, a. blessed with wealth ; 
-hirSir, m. (i) herd, shepherd; (2) 
treasurer; -hirzla, f. (i) treasury; 
(2) treasure. 

f6hirzlu-hus, n. treasure-house ; 
-inat5r, m. treasurer. 

f^-hus, n. (i) = fj6s, cattle-house; 
(2) treasury. 

feigtS, f. approach, foreboding, or 
sign of death (t)u sdtt l^egar i dag 
feigdina d honum). 

feigt5ar-greip, f. hand of death. 

feig-ligr, a. (i) looking * fey like*; 
(2) boding death. 

feigr, a. fated to die, fey ; ekki mi. 
feigum forSa, there is 710 saving, or 
rescuing, a *fey ' 7nan ; standa, ganga 
feigum totum to tread on the verge of 
rui?i ; msela feigum munni, to talk 
with a 'fey ' ?nouth ; vilja e-n feigan, 
to wish one's death. 

feikn, a. awful, terrible. 

feikn, f. portent, terf'ible thing. 

feikna-litJ, n. terrible host; -veSr, 
n. fearful weather, tempest. 

feikn-stafir, m. pi. baleful runes, 
evils, ctirses. 

feilast, V. refl. to falter, be timid 
(Sinfjotli let ser ekki feilast). 

feima, f. bashful girl. 

feita (-tta, -ttr), v. to fatten, 

feiti, {.fatness. 

feiting, {.fattening, 

feit-leikr, xn. fatness,-= feiti. 

feitr, Si.fat. 

f§-katr, a. pioud of one's wealth ; 
-kostnatSr, m. expenditure, expense; 
-kostr, m. = -kostnaSr; -krokar, 
m. pi. ' money-crooks ' ; viz. wrinkles 
about the eyes, marking a greedy man 
(syndist HallfreSi fekr6kar i augum 

fel, f. the folded skirt of a cloak (?). 

fela (fel ; fal, falum ; folginn), v. 
(i) to hide, conceal (f^lu J)eir gullit 1 
Rin ; J)aer austr ok vestr enda fdlu) ; 
fel sverS J)itt, sheathe thy sword; 
yrkja folgit, to use obscure phrases (in 
poetry) ; impers., fal J)a syn (ace.) 
mini J)eirra, they lost sight of one 
another; (2) f. e-m e-t, to niake over^ 
to give in trust or charge to one; 
hann fal 65ni allan J)ann val, he gave 
all the slain to Odin ; mey frumunga 
fal hann {entrusted to) megi Gjuka ; 
f. e-m e-t d hendi, to commit a thing 
to one's charge, to comtnend ; fdlu sik 
ok sdHr sinar gu5i almdttkum a hendi, 
they commended themselves and their 
souls to God Almighty; f. e-t undir 
ei6 sinn (J)egnskap sinn), to vouch 
upon one's oath {upon one's honour) ; 
f. e-t undir e-m, to put under one's 
charge; er und einum m^r oil um 
folgin hodd Niflunga, the whole hoard 




of the Niflungs is in my hands alone', 
man hdr oil vdr vindtta undir felast, 
all our friendship will depend upon 
this ; f. e-n a brott, to put one out for 
alimentation ; f. e-n inni = f. e-n i. 
brott ; sd boandi, er hann fair sik 
inni, the man with whom he boards 
and lodges \ f. bufi6 inni at e-m, to 
put out [^cattle, sheep) to one to keep ; 
(3) refl. felast, to hide oneself (morg 
leyni t)au, er f. mdtti i) ; f . i faomi e-m, 
to be locked in one's ar?ns ; f. i. hendi 
e-m, to put oneself in another's hands, 
enter his service (Kolskeggr falst k 
hendi Sveini Dana-konungi). 

f6-lag, n. fellowship, partjtership ; 
eiga -lag saman, to be partners -, eiga 
(hafa) felag vi5 e-n, hafa fdlag e-s, to 
be in partnership with one ; leggja 
felag vi3 e-n, to enter into partnership 
with one\ leggja til fdlags, to co?t- 
tribute to a co7?imon fund \ skipta til 
fi61ags, to share in partnership. 

f61aga-erft$, f. a partner's inheri- 

f6-lagi, m. (i) partner, shareholder 
of any kind ; also used of married 
people, partner, 7nate (hvat segir J)u 
mer fra Hruti, felaga pinum) ; ek vil 
skilja vi6 felaga minn, I wish to part 
with my mate\ {2) fellow, mate, cojji- 
rade ; g66r (gamansamr) felagi, a 
good {fnerry) fellow ; felagi minn ok 
Iraendi, my comrade and kinsman. 

felag-leikr, m. frietidli7iess ; -ligr, 
2i. friendly, kind (e-m, vi5 e-n). 

lelags-bii, n. joint household; -f6, 
n. common fund ; -g0rc5, f. (i ) entrance 
into partnership; (2) contf-ac t (nemdi 
annan veg hafi mselt verit 1 feg0r6 
J)eirra) ; -hross, n. a horse owned in 
partnership with others. 

f61agskap-ligr, a.=felagligr. 

f61ag-skapr (gen. -skapar), m. (i) 
fellowship, partnership; (2) com- 
panionship, friendship ; g0r6ist {)ar 
brdtt -skapr godr, they soon became 
inti?nate friends ; binda saman lag sitt 
ok -skap, to enter into close alliatice. 

f61ags-lagning, f. entering into 
partnership; -mat$r, m. partner; 
-vfiBtti, n. a witness in matters of a 

f6-lauss, a. penniless, poor ; -laust, 
adv. gratis,— kauplaust ; -lat, n. loss 

of money. 

feldar-blacS, n. = -skaut ; -dalkr, m. 
cloak-pin ; -roggvar, f. pi. the long 
hairs of the outside of a cloak ; -skaut, 
n. the skirt of a cloak ; -slitr, n. tatters 
of a cloak. 

feldr (-ar, -ir), m. cloak. 

feldr, ^^. fitted; vera vel (ilia) f. til 
e-s, to be well {ill) fitted for a thing; 
neut., I)er er ekki felt at, /'/ is not fit 
for thee to. 

f6-leysi, n. want of money ; -ligr, a. 
valuable, handsofne (esp., ekki feligr) ; 
-litill, a. (i) short of money ^ poor; 
(2) of little value (fdlitill skogr). 

feljottr, a. shabby, rough (verja 
feljott sem laki). 

fell, n. ^felV, {isolated) hill, moun- 
tain. Cf. 'fjair. 

fella (-da, -dr), v. (i) to fell, fnake 
fall; f. vi6, to fell timber; i. segl, to 
take down saib; (2) to kill, slay (in 
battle) ; f. e-n. frd landi, to slay or 
dethro7ie (a king); f. fena6 sinn, to 
lose 07ie's sheep or cattle fro7n cold or 
hu7iger; (i) to cause to cease, abolish 
(f. blot ok blotdrykkjur) ; f. roedu sina, 
to close 07ies speech ; f. nic5r, to put an 
end to, abando7i,give up (f. nidr J)ann 
dtrimaS); (4) f. heitstrenging i. sik, 
to bring dow7i 07i one's head the curse 
for a b7'-oken vow ; (5) to tongue and 
groove, to fit; f. stokk d, horn, to put 
a board 07i the ho7'7is of a savage bull; 
(6) fig., f- ^st (hug) til e-s, to turn one's 
77ii7id {love) towards one, to fall in 
love with ; f. basn at e-ra, to address 
prayer to 07ie, to beg of one ; f. sik vi6 
e-t, to fit oneself to a thing; f. sik 
mjok vid umroeSuna, to take a war7n 
pa7't in the debate. 

fella, f. (i) fra7nework, a fra77ied 
board; (2) 77iouse-trap. 

felli-hur$, f trap-door ; -kapa, f a 
ki7id of plaid. 

felling, f. ( I ) felling, knockmgdown ; 
(2) joi7ii7ig , framing. 

fellir, m. death, esp. of cattle. 

felli-sott, f. sudde7i illness; -vetr, 
m. a hard winter whe7i the cattle die 
of cold or hu7iger. 




fellu-jam, n. wrought iron. 

felma-fullr, a. alarmed, frightened. 

felmia l-mta, -mtr), v, to be in a 
state of fright and alarm (fari menn 
stilliliga ok felmti eigi) ; {&\\w\x ^ frigh- 
tened (fara f.); e-m verSr felmt vi5, 
one gets frightened. 

felmtr, m. sudden fear, fright (slaer 
felmt d e-n). 

f6-rQat!r, m. moneyed man ; -mdl, n. 
pi. money-matters ; -mikill, a. ( i ) 
moneyed, rich ; (2) valuable, costly ; 
-mildr, a. open-handed ( = mildr af 
fe) ; -missa, f. loss of property ; 
-munir, m. pi. valuables, property ; 
-muta, f. bribe in money ; -meBtr, a. 

fen (gen. pi. fenja), n. bog, quag- 
mire (myrar ok fen). 

f6na (atS), v. impers., e-m fenar, one 
gains (fenaSi J)er nu). 

fena8r (gen. -ar), m. sheep, cattle. 

fengi, n. <^^c'/j, = herfang ; -liga, adv. 
advantageously (dreyma -liga). 

fenginn, ^^y^. fitted (vel til e-s f.). 

fengi-saell, a. making a good haul. 

feng-litill, a. of little value. 

fengr (gen. fengjar), m. (i) haul, 
take ; (2) gain, booty (verSr litit til 
fengjar) ; (3) store, supply. 

feng-samr, a. inaking large pro- 
vision ', -semi, f. being fengsamr. 

fe-niSingr, m. miser. 

fenjottr, a. boggy (cf. *fen*). 

fenna (-ta, -t), v. to cover with snow ; 
impers., fennti fe, the sheep were 
snowed up. 

f6-nyta (-tta, -ttr), v. to ttirn to 
account, make tise of (-nyta. ser e-t) ; 
-nytr, a. that will bring in motiey, 
-penningr, m. penny-tvorth, money ; 
-pynd, f. extortion ; -rd^, n. pi. advice 
in money matters ; -rdn, n. plunder. 

f6rans-d6mr, m. court of execution. 

fer6, f. (i) journey (gera ferd sina 
heiman); vera i fer6 med e-m, to 
travel with one ; (2) conduct, behaviour 
(kurteiss i ferQ). 

fer^a-ma§r, m. traveller, 

ferSar-broddr, m. van ( = farar- 
broddr) ; -buinn, pp. ready for a jour- 
ney, -leyii, n. leave to travel. 

ferSast (ac5), v. refl. to travel. 

ferSa-stafr, m. walking-staff, pil- 
griin^s staff. 

fer^ugr, a. ready (eigi var hann f. 
at fara f)essa ferd). 

fer-elningr, m. a fish four ells long\ 
-falda (ac5), v. to make f ou7 fold, mul- 
tiply by four ; -faldr, a. fourfold ; 
-foetingr, a quadruped', -foe ttr, a. 
four-footed', -hyrndr, a. with four 
corners, square. 

f6-rikr, a. rich, wealthy, 

ferill (dat. ferli), m. (l) track, 
trace', (2) vera d ferli, to be on the 
?novey out of bed; (3) traveller {\^g-, 

ferja (a8, old form far^a, farSr), 
V. to ferry over a river or strait, 

ferja, i. ferry-boat, large boat. 

ferju-dr, i.ferrytnan's oar; -bui, ni, 
one who lives near a ferry ; -karl, m. 
ferry77ian, boatman ; -niac5r, m. = 
-karl; -skattr, m. ferry toll; -skip, 
n. = ferja ; -smicS, f. making a ferja. 

fer-liga, adv. monstrously; -lig- 
leikr, m. monstrosity ; -llgr, a. mon- 
strous, hideous ; -likan, n. monstrous 
shapcy monster; -liki, n. = -likan. 

ferma (-da, -dr), v. to load, lade (f. 
skip af e-u). 

ferming, f. confirmation. 

fernir (fernar, fern), a. distrib. {a 
set of) four. 

fer-skeyta, (-tta, -ttr), v. to square ; 
-skeyttr, square; -strendr, 2^. four- 
edged, four-sided ; -tugandi, a. for- 
tieth; 'tugfaldr, a., for/yf old ; -tugr, 
a. (l) forty years old; (2) measuring 
forty [el Is, fathoms, etc.); fertug dr^pa, 
a poem of forty verses ; -flBrtJr, 2l. four- 

fe-samr, a. lucrative ; -sdtt, f. agree- 
ment as to payment ; -sekr, a. fined, 
sentenced to a fine ; -sekt, f. fine ; 
-sinki, f. niggardliness; -sinkr, a. 
niggardly ; -sjoSr, m. bag of mo7iey ; 
-sjukr, a. greedy of money ; -skaSi, 
m. loss in 7noney ; -skipti, n. division 
of property ; -skjdlgr, a., feskjdlg 
augu, eyes squinti7ig towards money ; 
-skortr, m. shortness of 7noney; 
-skuld, f. money debt ; -skurtSr, m. 
detri7nent ; -skygn, a. covetous ; 
-skylft, a. n., e-m er feskylft, one has 




many expe7ises to defrays -snautSr, 
2t..poori7i money ^ penniless'^ -snikja, 
-snikni, f, intruding as a parasite, 
begging \ -snutSr, m. lucre \ -sparr, 
a. sparing, close-fisted \ -spjoll, n. pi. 
spells to get wealth. 

festa ("Sta, -str), \.{\) to 7nake fast, 
fasten (f. skip, bdt, hval) ; (2) to hang 
up { — {. upp) ; f. a g^lga, to hang on 
the gallows ; f. ut til J)erris, to hang 
out for drying \ f. e-t vi6 e-t, to fasten 
to a thing', (3) in various fig. phrases, 
festa truna6 d e-t, to believe in ; f. hug 
vi6 e-t, to fix the fnind upon ; f. yndi, 
to feel happy (in a place) ; f. e-t 1 
minni, to fix iti the memory ; also 
absol., f. kvasdi, to learti a poein by 
heart ; (4) to settle, stipulate ; f. sdtt- 
mdl, to 7nake a settled agree7ne7it ; f. 
jdrn, to pledge oneself to the ordeal of 
red-hot i7'07t; (5) to betroth (f. e-m 
dottur sina) ; (6) impers. to cleave, 
stick fast (spjotit festi i skildinum) ; 
eld festir, the fire catches, takes hold; 
bein (ace.) festir, the bone unites (after 
a fracture) ; (7) refl., festast, to grow 
to, stick fast to (nafnit festist vi5 
hann) ; bardagi festist, the battle closes 
up fast. 

festa, f. bail, pledge (svardagi ok f.). 

festar-auga, f. loop or eye at the end 
of a rope (festr) ; -endi, m. end of a 
7-ope ; -fe, n. dowry ; -garmr, m. 
chain-dog; -hald, n. holding the rope; 
-hundr, m. = -garmr ; -hsBll, m. peg 
for a rope; -kona, f. betrothedwo)na7i ; 
-matSr, m. betrothed 7nan ; -mal, n. 
pi. bet7-otJial, affia7ice ; -meBr, f. = 
-kona; -penningr, m. pledge, bail; 
-vdttr, m. a witness at a betrothal; 
-vaBtti, n. evidence to a betrothal; 
-61, n. bet)-othal-ale. 

f6-sterkr, a. wealthy, rich. 

festi-liga, 2idy. fir7nly, violently. 

festing, f. ( I ) fixing, fasteni7ig ; (2) 
fir77iament; festning, f., festningar- 
himinn, m. = festing 2. 

festr (gen. festar, dat. and ace. 
festi; pi. fegtar), f. (i) rope, cord, 
cable (for mooring a ship to the shore) ; 
(2) pi. betrothals (festar fara fram). 

festu-matSr, m. bail, surety. 

f§-88Bla, f. wealth ; -ssbU, a. wealthy; 

-saett, f. an agree77ient as to payment 
(of weregild) ; -sok, f. suit, action for 

fet. n. (i) pace, step; gans^a (stiga) 
feti {, to go a step forwa7d; fara 
fullum fetum, to go at full pace ; fetum 
(dat.) as adv. at a pace ; (2) as a 
measure, yi?^/. 

fata (fet, fat, — ),v.{\)to step,fi7id 
one's way (f. Iei6, heim) ; (2) poet, 
with in fin., hve ek yrkja fat, how I 
7nanaged to i7iake 77iy poem. 

fe-taka, f. taki7ig {receiving) money. 

feti, m. blade of an axe. 

fetill (dat. fetli ; pi. fetlar), m. strap 
(of a shield or sword). 

f6-vani, a. short of money ; -vdn, f. 
expectancy of 77ioney ; -vsBnliga, adv. 
in a 77ia7i7ier pro7ni sing profit; -vaBn- 
ligr, a. p7ofitable ; -vaenn, a. = -vaen- 
ligr; -voxtr, m. increase in one's pro- 
perty, gain, profit. 

feykja (-ta, -t), v. (i) to blow, toss 
(f. e-u) ; (2) to rush (hann feykir inn i 

f(§-t)urfi, a. i7i need of 7noney. 

fiSla, {.fiddle ; fiSlari, m. fiddler, 

fiSratSr, 2i. feathered (of arrows). 

fiSri, m. feathers, plumage. 

fimbul-fambi, m. 7nonstrous fool; 
-IjocS, n. pi. 7nighty songs ; -tyr, m. 
mighty god; -vetr, m. the great and 
awful winter; -J)ulr, m. the mighty 
sage or speaker. 

fim-leikr, m. ni77ibleness, agility; 
-liga, adv. ni77ibly ; -ligr, a. nimble. 

fimm, card, nwmh.five. 

fimr, a. nitftble, agile (f. vi6 leika). 

fimt, f. 7iu7tiber of five. 

fimtan, card, rvamh. fifteen. 

fimtandi, ord. nwmh. fiftee7tth. 

fimtan-sessa, f. a ship with fifteen 
rowers' benches. 

fimtar-domr, m. the Fifth or High 
Court {of law) in the Icela7idic C0771- 

fimtardoms-eiSr, m. the oath to be 
take7i i7t the Fifth Cou7't ; -log, n. pi. 
the i7istitution of the F. C; -mal, n. 
an action before the F. C. ; -stefaa, f. 
a citation before the F. C. 

fimtar-tala, f. the 7iu77iber of five, 

fimti, ord. numb.yf/?/!. 




fimtugr, a. {\) fifty years old\ (2) 
measuring fifty {ells, fathoins). 

fimtungr, m. the fifth part. 

fingr (gen. fingrar or fingrs ; pi. 
fingr), m. finger (fingr digrir) ; rdtta 
e-m f., to point one's finger at. 

fingr-brjotr, m. wrong move (in 
chess) ; -gull, r\. finger-riftg of gold', 
-mjor, a. t/iinfingered. 

fingrungr (-s, -ar), ts\. finger-ring. 

Anna (finn ; fann, fundum ; fund- 
inn), V. (i) to fi7id (J)a fundu {)eir 
Hjorleif dauSan) ; (2) to ineet one (ok 
vildi eigi f. Hdkon konung) ; (3) to 
visit, to interview (gakk Jju at f. kon- 
ung); (4) to find out, invent (ninar 
munt J)u finna) ; (5) to discover (ok 
fundu jDar land mikit) ; (6) fig. to find, 
perceive, ?totice, feel (fundu Jjeir J)d 
br^tt, at); (7) f. e-m e-t, to fitid fatdt 
with, blame (J)at eitt finn ek Gunn- 
laugi, at) ; (8) with preps., f. d e-t, to 
come across, fall in with ( = hitta d 
e-t) ; impers., fann J)at d, it could be 
perceived', fann litt a honum, hvdrt, 
it was little to be seen whether^ etc. ; 
f. at e-u, to find fault with, censure, 
blame', f. e-t til, to bring forward, 
give as a reason (hvat finnr I)u til 
pess?) ; (9) refl., finnast til e-s, to be 
pleased with', impers., fannst Grimi 
fdtt til hans, Grim was little pleased 
with him ; lata ser litit um finnast, to 
pay little heed to, rather dislike ; Olvi 
fannst mikit um hann, Olvir admired 
him much. 

Finna, f. Finn woman. 

Finnar, m. pi. Finns (usually the 
early non-Aryan inhabitants of Nor- 
way and Sweden ; not identical with 
the modern Lapps or Finns). 

Finn-fert5, -for, f., -kaup, n. travel- 
ling or tradi7tg with the Finns ; 
-^oXkxi^n.fabtiloiis 7nonster\ -kona, 
f. = Finna; -land, n. Finland; -lend- 
ingar, m. pi. the Finns ; -mork, f. 
Finmark ; -skattr, m. tribute paid by 
the Fin?ts. 

finnskr, a. Finnish. 

firar, m. pi. poet, men, people, 

firin-verk, n. pi. poet, aboininations. 

firn, n. pi. abomination^ monstrous 

firna (at$), v. to blaine, reproach (f. 
e-n e-s, e-n um e-t). 

firna-, gen. pi., used as an intensive 
prefix with adjectives and nouns ; 
-djarfr, a. very daHng', -frost, n. 
awful frost] -fullr, a. awful \ -harSr, 
a. viole7it. 

firr, adv. com par., first, adv. superl., 
see ' fjarri '. 

firra (-6a, -t5r), v. (i) f. e-n augum, 
to lose sight of\ (2) to deprive one of 
(f. e-n e-u) ; (3) /<? save, defend (f. e-n 
amaeli) ; (4) refl. to keep away from, 
shu7i, avoid (firrast fund e-s). 

firri, a. zov[vi^2iX. farther ofiF\ {€ er 
fjdrvi firra, money is less dear than 
life. Cf. 'fjarri'. 

firrlng, f. shtinning, 7'e7noval. 

fiska (atS), V. to fish (= fiskja). 

fiska-kaup, n. purchase of {dried) 
fish ; -stoS, f. fishing-place ; -stong, 
f. = fiskistong ; -ver, n. = fiskiver. 

fisk-bein, n. fish-bone ; -bleikr, a. 
pale as fish ; -gengd, f. shoal offish ; 
-hryggr, m. fish-spine. 

fiski (gen. fiskjar), f. fishing ; roa, 
fara til fiskjar, to go a-fishi7ig. 

fiski-batr, m. fishing-boat ; -fang, 
n. catch offish ; pi. (-fong), stores of 
fish ; -gengd, f. shoal of fish ; -karl, 
m..fisher7nan ; -'kJifL^vci. fishing-jacket ; 
-ligr, 2i. fit for fishing', -Icekr, m. a 
brook full offish, fish-brook ; -matJr, 
m. fisherman. 

fiskinn, a. good at fishing. 

fiski-roSr, m. rowi7ig out for fish ; 
-saga,', -skali, va. fisher- 
77ta7i's hut', -skip, n. fishing-boat; 
-stong, f. fishing-spear; -veiSr, f. 
catching of fish ; -ver, n. fishing 
place or station. 

fiskja (-ta, -t), V. to fish (= fiska). 

fiskr (-S, -ar), m. fish ; flatr f., 
heilagr \., fiat-fish, halibut. 

fisk-reki, m. ''fish-driver'* (a kind of 

fit (pi. fitjar), f. (l) webbed foot of 
swi7)i77ii7ig birds ; fiipper {of a seal) ; 
(2) meadow-land on the banks of a 
lake or river. 

fita, f. fat, g7ease. 

fitja (atS), V. to web, knit (hann Idt f. 
saman fingrna). 




fitja-skarrmr, a. having short flip- 
pers (selr ekki fitjaskammr). 

fitna (a (5), v. to become fat. 

fifil-bleikr, a. dandelio7i-yellow. 

fifill, m. dandelion. 

fifl, n.fool, clown, boor. 

fifla, f. ivanton girl, romp. 

fifla (-da, -dr), v. to beguile^ seduce ; 
refl., fiflast, to act as seaucer. 

fiflingar, m. pi. beguilei7ient. 

fifl-megir, m. pi. monsters^ giants, 

fiflska, i. foolishness^ folly. 

fiflskii-fullr, ?i. full of folly, 

fifl-yr'Si, n. t^\. foolish language. 

fifrildi, n. butterfly. 

fikjast (t), V. refl. to have an eager 
desire (d. ^-\,for a thing). 

fill (-S, -ar), m. elephant. 

finn, 2i.flne, smooth (rare). 

fitons-andi, m. spirit of prophecy 
heathe?! soothsayiftg. (From med. L. 
Phiton for Python.) 

fja?>raSr, 3.. feathered ( = fiSraSr). 

fja($ra-spj6t, n. = fja6r-spj6t. 

fjatSr-broddr, m. point of a spear- 
blade', •■la.Q,mv,m. feather-coat; -lauss, 
2i.fe other less ; -sarr, a. ''feather-sore^ 
moulting', -spjot, n. a kind of spear. 

fjala-brii, f. a bridge of planks 
(fjoi) ; -kottr, m. mouse-trap. 

f jal-hcgg, n. chopping-block. 

Qall, n. mountni7i,fell. 

fjalla-dalr, m. dale, valley \ -gol, 
n. light breeze from the mountains ; 
-syn, f. motmtain-view. 

fj all-berg, n. crag, precipice] -bygtS, 
f. district a^nong fells', -dalr, m. dale 
in the fells ; -fertS, f. mountain ex- 
cursion ; -garc5r, m. range of moun- 
tains', -hagi, m. ?nountain pasture', 
-ma(5r, m. a man searching the fells 
for sheep ; -rapi, m. dwarf-birch. 

fjalls-briin, f. brow {edge) of a 
mountain ; -hllS, f. mountain- side ; 
-niuli, m. a hill projecting between 
two valleys. 

fjall-stong, i.fellman's staff', -vegr, 
m. 7nountain road', -vindr, m. witid 
blowing from the mountains, opp. to 

fjara, f. (i) ebb-tide, ebb', {2) fore- 
shore, beach (var J)d skogr milli fjalls 
ok fjoru). 

fjara (a5), v. impers. to ebb; skip 
(ace.) fjarar uppi, fjarar undan skipi, 
the ship is left aground, or remains 
high and dry. 

fjar-borinn, pp. remotely related. 

Qar(5a-gol, n. a breeze blowing out 
of the firths. 

fjaroar-botn, m. boitoin or head of 
a firth ; -horn, n. creek at the head of 
a frth ', -iss, m. ice in a firth, land- 
ice', -kjaptr, m., -mynni, n. mouth 
of a firth. 

fjarg, n. heathen god (poet.). 

fjarg-hus, n. heathen temple. 

fjar-kominn, pp. by no means en- 
titled or obliged to (til e-s) ; -laegjast 
(5), V. refl. to withdraw {recede) from; 
-lasgr, 2.. far off, distant. 

fjarra-fleinn, m. landlouper (rare). 

fjarri (firr, first), adv. {i) far off 
(svd at f. flugu brotin) ; with d-dX. far 
from (solu f.) ; standa f. e-m, to stand 
far from one ; compar., firr, farther 
off; farit firr husi, keep off from the 
house ; allt er Ijorvi firr, life is the 
nearest {dearest) thing; firr meirr, 
farther aloof (bondamugrinn sat firr 
meirr); (2) fig., taka e-u fjarri, to 
take a thing coldly, show disinclina- 
tion, refuse (Ormr tok Jjvi ekki f.) ; ok 
er J)at ekki f. hennar skapi, it is ?iot 
far from her mind ; f. ferr J)vi, far 
from it, by no means; nu s^ ek eigi, 
at mer msetti firr um tara en J)^r, now 
I see not how I can fare worse than 
thou; {"i) far from, bereft of; f. feQr- 
munum, bej-eft ofjny patrimony. 

fjarski, m.fir distance ; vera (ligg- 
ja) 1 fjarska, to be {lie) afar off. 

fjar-stoec^r, Si.far off; -stoett er um 
afl vdrt, there is a great difference 
between our strengths; -synis, adv. 
at a great distance ; -toeki, n. refusal 
(hafa -toeki um e-t) ; -tok, n. pi. = 
-tceki ; -vist, f. living far off. 

fjd (early form fia), v. to hate ; refl., 
fjdst e-n = fjd. e-n, 

f jdSr, a. moneyed, rich (f. vel). 

fjanda-kraptr, m. fiendish power. 

fjandi (pi. fjandr), m. (i) enemy^ 
foe; gefat pinum fjdndum frid, give 
no truce to thy foes ; {2) fiend, devil. 

fjdnd-liga, adv. fiendishly; -ligr. 




a. fiendish \ -mat^r, m. foe-man \ 
-mcBli, n. pi. words of a foe ; -semi, 
f. etimity ; -skapat5r, a. hostile, ill- 
disposed (vi6 e-n). 

fjandskapar-fullr, a. full of hos- 
tility ; -maSr, m. = fjandmaSr. 
fjdnd-skapast (a5), v, refl. to show 
hostility towards (vi6 e-n, til e-s); 
-skapr, m. hostility^ enmity^ hatred 
(leggja -skap a e-n). 
fjar-aflan, f. making money ; -afli, 
rci. property ', -auSn, f. losing all ofie^s 
7noney ; -agirnd, -agirni, f. greed for 
money ; -belt, f. pasture for sheep ; 
-bon, f. asking for money, -bur^r, 
m. bribery ; -drattr, m . making money ; 
-eigandi, pr. p. wealtJiy (vel -eigandi) ; 
-eign, f. wealth, property ; -eySsla, 
f. spe7iding of mo7iey ; -eySslumaSr, 
m. spendthrift ; -fang, n. (^^^/j, phin- 
der (pi. -fong) ; -far, n. money affairs ; 
-forraS, n. administration {manage- 
ment) of one's money ; -framlag, n. 
laying out contributions of money ; 
-fiindr, m. ^find ' of ?noney ; -fotSr, 
n. -foeSi, n. fodder for sheep ; -gjald, 
n. payment; -gjof, f. ^z/? ^ money \ 
-geymsla, -gaszla, f. tending of sheep 
and cattle. 
fjargsBzlu-maSr, m., -ma6r mikill, a 
thrifty man. 

fjarhaga-ma(5r, m., g65r (litiil) 
-ma6r, a good {bad) manager. 
fjar-hagr, m. {management of on^s) 
money matters; -hald, n. (l) with- 
holding ones money ; (2) ad/ninis- 
tration of one's mo?iey ; -heimta, f. 
claiui for money owing one ; -hirzla, 
f.= fehirzla ; -hlutir, m. pl.= -munir ; 
-kostnaSr, m. expenses ; -Ian, n. loafi 
of money ; -lat, n. loss of money ; 
-leiga, f. retit; -missa, f. = -Idt ; 
-munir, m. pi. p7'operty, valuables ; 
-nam, n. seizure of money, plunder ; 
-orkumaSr, m. wealthy inan ; -pynd, 
{.extortion; -vkn^w. robbery; -reiSur, 
f. pi. mo7iey ^natters ; -rekstr, m. drove 
of sheep ; -reyta, f. cheatitig^ phinder ; 
-sekt, f. fine in mottey; -sjotSr, m. 
treasure ; -skat5i, m. loss in money ; 
-skakki, va. unjust sharing; -skipti, 
n. division of property ; -3tac5r, m. a 
{good or bad) investment; -starf, n. 

manc^gement of one's money matters ; 
-taka, f. seizure of money ; -tilkall, 
n. claim for money ; -tillag, n. con- 
tributioft in money ; -tjon, n. loss of 
money; -upptaka, f., -upptekt, f. 
seizure of on e s property ; -utl at, n . pi . 
outlay; -varSveizla, f. (i) adminis- 
tration {f?ianage?7ient) of another^ s 
property ; (2) = -geymsla ; -vdn, f. ex- 
pectation of money ; -ver(5r, a. valu- 
able ; -viStaka, f. receipt of mojiey ; 
-{)urfi, a. needi7tg money; -J>urft, f. 
need of motiey. 

fjon, f. hatted; reka e-n fjonum, to 
persecute ; vekja f., to stir up quarrels. 

fj6r-daga$r, a. having lain four 
days in the grave. 

fj6r(5unga-lok, n. the last quarter 
of a verse ; -mot, n. pi. the borders of 
the fjordungar (3); -skipti, n.^/^^V/t?// 
into quarters. 

fjor^ungr (-3, -ar), m. (i) the fourth 
part, quarter; f. rastar, a distance 
of about a fnile; (2) a weight = teti 
pounds; (3) in Iceland, one of the 
Quarters into which the whole land 
was divided (AustfirSinga-, Vestfird- 
inga-, NorSlendinga-, Sunnlendinga- 

fj6rc5ungs-d6m.r, m. Quarter [dis- 
trict] court; -Tn.ern\,xn.-^\. inhabitants 
of a Quarter ; -umagi, m. a pauper 
charged to a Quarter; -l)ing, n. 
Qtiarter {district} assembly. 

fjor-faldr, a. fourfold; -fcsttr, a. 

fjorir (fjorar, fjcgur), card. numb. 
four ; fjogarra vegna, to the four car' 
dinal points. 

fjortan, card, nxivc^. fou7'teen. 

fjortandi, ord. nnmh. fourteenth. 

fjortan-sessa, f. ship with fourteen 

fjos, n. cow-house, byre ; vera 1 fjosi, 
to attend to the cows ; -dyrr, f. pi. 
door of a cow-house ; -gata, f. path 
to a cow-house; -hlav5a, f. a barri 
connected with a cow-house. 

fjuk, n. drift i7ig snow-storm. 

fjuka (fyk ; fauk, fukum ; fokinn\ 
V. (i) to be drifted {tossed, blow7i) ty 
the wi7id; tok f d at f., // began to snow 
and drift ; var fjukanda ve6r, there 




was a [drifting) snow-storm ; nu er 
fokit i flest skjol, noiv 7nost places of 
shelter are s?iowed up ; no refuse is 
left ; (2) fig. to fly off (fauk af hof- 
u6i6) ; lata fjuka 1 kveSlingum, to let 
satiric verses fly. 

fjiik-renningr, m. drifting s7iow ; 
-vicSri, n. snow-storjn, 

fjotJr (gen. fjatSrar, pi. fjaSrar), 
f. {i) feather, quill', draga f. um e-t, 
to slur over a thing] {2) fin or tail of 
a fish ; (3) blade of a spear. 

fjol (gen. fjalar, pi. fjalar, fjalir), 
f. deal, board. 

fjol-, used as a prefix, much, mani- 
fold', -bei^ni, f. hard begging, i?tsist- 
ance; -breytinn, a. changeable, whim- 
sical', -byg^r, pp. thickly peopled. 

fjold, f. multitude, great number, 
much ; f. ek for, / have travelled far. 

jgdldi, m. 7nultitude', f. manna, skipa, 
a great nufnber of me?t, ships. 

fjolga (at$), V. to make more nume- 
rous-, impers., fjolgar e-t, and refl., 
fjolgast, to beconie numerous, increase 
in number. 

fjolgan. f. increase in number. 

fjol-hcftSatSr, a. many- headed. 

fjol-kunnigr, a. skilled in magic. 

fjol-kyngl, f. the black art, witch- 
craft, wizardry, sorcery. 

fjolkyngis-folk, n. wizard-folk', 
-it)r6tt, f. magic art ; -kona, f. sor- 
ceress, witch ; -vet5r, n. gale produced 
by sorcery. 

fjollottr, a. mountainous. 

fjol-lyndi. n. looseness, fickleness', 
-lyndr, a. loose, fickle-, -margr, a. 
very many-, -malugr, a. tattling-, 
-menna (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to fnake 
numerous, increase itt nionber', (2) to 
crowd, 7neet in crowds ; -menni, n. 
7nany people, cro2vd-, -mennr, a. 
numerous, with many people (riSu 
menn -mennir til t>ings) ; fjol-menn 
veizla, a great banquet', kemr J)ar 
-mennt, many people-, -maBli, n. (i) 
common talk (fara, foera, 1 -maeli) ; 
(2) slander', -or$r, a. talkative', -ra^r, 
a. fickle, loose ; -roeSinn, a. = -or5r ; 
-roeSr, a. much talked of-, gerist (er) 
-rcEtt um e-t, it is much talked of-, 
-skrutSigr, a. dressy, -skyld, f. im- 

portant business ; -skylda, f., -skyldl, 
n. much business, duties ; -skyldr, a. 
important (-skylt embsetti). 

fjor (dat. fjorvi), n. life ; eiga fotum 
fjor at launa, to make the heels save 
the head. 

fjor-baugr, m. ^ life-money^ 

fjorbaugs-gartJr, m. the lesser out- 
lawry ; -matSr, m. one sentenced to 
this-, -s5k, f. a case involving this. 

fjor-brot, n. ^\.death-st}uggle (ligg- 
ja, vera, i -brotum). 

fjortSr (gen. fjart5ar, dat. firt5i; pi. 
fir (Sir, ace. fjorSu), m. firth, inlet. 

fjor-gjafi, m. one who saves another's 

Fjorgyn (gen. -jar), f. Mother-earth. 

fjor-lag, n. death, slaughter (verSa 
e-m at -lagi) ; -lausn, f. (i) release 
from life ; pola -lausn, to suffer death ; 
(2) ransom for one's life (yEsir bj66a 
fyrir sik -lausn) ; -Idstr, m. loss of 
life, death ; verSa e-m at -lesti, to 
cause ofie's death ; -ratS, n. plotting 
against one's life, 

fjcrra^a-sok, f. a case ofiySxxiJS. 

fjorratSs-mal, n. a suit for fjorraS. 

fjor-segi, m. '' life-muscle\ the heart \ 
-sjiikr, a. da?igerotisly ill. 

fjorsungr, m. a kind offish. 

fjoru-grjot, n. the gravel {pebbles) 
on the beach ; -mdl, n. ( i ) low-water 
mark, (2) foreshore^ beach ; -steinn, 
m. pebble. 

fjotra (at5), v. to fetter; f. best, to 
hobble a horse. 

fjotra-brot, n. pi. fragments of a 

fjotrar-bora, -raiif, f. a hole in a 
sledge through which the strap goes. 

fjotur-lauss, a. unfettered. 

fjoturr (gen. ijoturs and fjotrar, 
pi. fjotrar), m. (i) fetter, shackle 
(setja e-n i fjotur) ; (2) the straps of a 
sledge (sle3a-fjotrar). 

flatSra (atS), v. to fawn (f. at e-m). 

flag-brjoska, n. cartilage of the 

flagS, n. female monster, ogress^ 
giantess ; opt eru flogd i fogru skinni, 
oft lurks a witch under a fair skin. 

flagt$-kona, f. ogress = trollkona. 

flagna (atSj, v. to flake {scale) off. 




flag-spilda, f. slice cut. 

flaka (-ta, -t), v. to gape, esp. of 
wounds (f. sundr af sdrum). 

flaki, m. wicker-work shield (for 
defence in battle). 

flakka (acS), v. to rove about (as a 

flakna (at5), v. to flake off, split. 

flat-liga, adv. = flatt (fara -liga = 
fara flatt, see 'flatr'); -nefr, 2i. flat- 
nosed (a nickname). 

flatr, a. {\)flat, level (um sletta dali 
ok flata vollu) ; f. ^sk.r, flat flsh, hali- 
but ; (2) flat, prostrate (falla f., kasta 
s^r flotum ni8r) ; draga e-n flatan, to 
drag 07ie flat on the ground', (3) of 
the flat side of a thing ; breg6a flotu 
sverdinu, to turn the sword flat ; styra 
a flatt skip e-s, to steer on the broad- 
side of another's ship ; (4) neut. flatt, 
as adv., fara f. fyrir e-m, to fare ill, 
be worsted. 

flat-saeng, f . bed made on the floor, 
shakedown ; -vegr, vn.flat side (telgja 
-veg i. tr6). 

flaug, f. {i) flying, flight (taka flaug 
sem fuglar) ; allt er i. for ok flaugum, 
in a commotion ; (2) vane. 

flaugar-skegg, n. the tail of a vane. 

flaug-traucSr, a. = flugtrauSr. 

flaum-osi, a. rushing heedlessly on. 

flaumr, m. eddy, violent stream. 

flaum-slit, n. pi. breach offfiendship. 

flaust, n. poet. ship. 

flautir, f. pi. a kind of whipped milk. 

fla (flaB ; flo, flogum ; fleginn), v. 
(i) to flay (f. belg, hu6 af e-m) ; f. e-n 
kvikan, to flay alive ; (2) to strip ; 
f. e-n af or or klaeSum, to strip one of 
his clothes ; f. e-n at gripum, to strip 
one for his money. 

fla (pi. flar), {.float of a net. 

flar (fla, flatt), a. false, deceitful', 
masla fagrt, en hyggja flatt, to speak 
fair, but think false. 

fld-ra$, n. deceit, fraud', -rdSr, a. 
false, deceitful', -raBtSi, n. = -rdtS. 

fleinn (-s, -ar), m. {i) pike ; {2) fluke 
of an anchor (akkeris- fleinn) ; (3) dart, 
shaft (fljugandi fleinn). 

fleipa (atS), v. = fleipra. 

fleipr, n. babble, tattle. 

fleipra (atS), v. to babble, prattle. 

fleiri, a. compar., flestr, a. super!. 

( I ) more, most ; fleira 113, 7nore troops ; 
mun Jjat flestum manni ufcEra |)ykkja, 
it will seem impossible to most people ; 
neut., fleira, flest, more, ?nost things 
(ekki sag6i hann honum fleira ; flest 
i {jessu brefi) ; with gen., fleira manna, 
more people (cfr. * margt manna ') ; 
pi., hinir voru J)6 miklu fleiri, rnore 
numerous; flestr allr (vel flestr), flestir 
allir (vel flestir), ahnost all (flest allt 
stormenni ; flest oil hof); (2) 7nore 
co7nvninicative, hearty; hann gerdist 
vi6 hann fleiri ok fleiri, more and?nore 

fleki, m. = flaki. 

flekka (at$), v. to stain, pollute. 

flekk-lauss, a. unspotted, immacu- 
late (foei'dr af flekklausri mey). 

flekk-ottr, 2.. flecked, spotted. 

flekkr (-s, -ir), ra. fleck, spot, stain. 

flenging, f. scourgitig { = \i\\hs\.xok.2i). 

flengja (-da, -dr), v. to scourge. 

flenna (-ta, -tr), v. to set wide open. 

flenn-eygr, a. with distended eye- 
lids, open-eyed. 

flensa (ac5), v. to kiss (?). 

flesk, fleski, n. pork, ham, or bacon. 

fleski-sneit5, f. slice of bacon. 

flestr, a. superl., see ' fleiri '. 

flat (gen. pi. fletja), n. the raised 
flooring along the side-walls of a hall 
{to sit or lie on) together with the 
be7iches thereon. Also in pi. 

fletja (flet, flatta, flattr), v. to 
* make flat'' , cut open (f. J)orsk) ; refl., 
fletjast, to stretch oneself, lie flat on 
the ground. 

flet-rotS, n. * clearing the house.* 

fletta (-tta, -ttr), v. (i) to strip (f. 
e-n klasSum or af klseSum) ; f. e-t af 
e-m to strip {something) off one', (2) 
to strip, pltmder. 

fletta (atS), v. to braid, plait. 

fl6tta, f. = flettingr. 

fletting, f. stripping, plunder. 

fl6ttingr, m. braid, plait. 

fley, n. poet, a kind of swift ship. 

fleygi-gaflak, n. javelin ; -kvittr, 
m. loose rumour, vague report. 

fleygja (-tSa, -t5r), v. (i) to tnake fly 
(f. haukum) ; (2) to throw (f. e-u). 

fleygr, a. cible to fly. 




fleymi, n., fleymingr, m.jesty sport ; 
hafa e-t i fleymingi, to make sport of. 

fleyta (-tta, -ttr), v.{\)to set afloat^ 
launch (f. skipum) ; (2) to lift slightly 
from the ground. 

flikki, n.fl'tch of bacon. 

flikkis-sneitJ, f. slice of bacon. 

flim, n. lajnpoon, libel (in verse). 

flim-beri, m. lafnpooner. 

flimska, f. mockery. 

flimta (atS), v. to lampoon, satirise. 

flimtan, f. lampooni7ig, satire. 

flis (pi. -ir), f. splinter^ chip. 

fljotS, n. poet, woman. 

fljot, n. (i) = flot (2) ; vera d fljoti, to 
be afloat ; (2) river., lake. 

fljota (flyt ; flaut, flutum ; flotinn), 
V. (i) to float on the water (hann sd 
t)ar f. langskip tjaldat) ; (2) to run, 
stream ; (3) fig. to float about, spread 
(of news); (4) to be flooded, to floiv 
(flaut 1 b;63i golf allt) ; flaut hann allr 
i tdrum, he was bathed in tears. 

fljot-leikr, m.fleetness, speed', -Hga, 
adv. ( I ) speedily ; (2) readily, promptly ; 
-ligr, a. speedy. 

fljotr, a. swift, speedy ; neut., fljott, 
as adv. swiftly, quickly ; sem fljotast, 
as soon as possible, at once. 

fljot-toekr, a. quick at apprehending 
(-toekr d e-t) ; -virki, f. quickness in 
working', -virkr, a. quick in working. 

fljuga (flyg ; flaug, flugum ; flcg- 
inn), V. (l) to fly (for svd hart sem 
fugl flygi) ; (2) fig. of weapons, sparks, 
rumours, etc. (spjotit flaug yfir hann ; 
gneistarnir flugu) ; (3) f. d e-n, to fly 
at or on one. 

flog, n. flight, flying, = flug. 

flogall, a. lively, brisk, volatile. 

flokka-drdttr, m, raising of bands. 

flokkr (-S, -ar), m. (i) body of men 
(f. eru fimm menn) ; (2) company, host 
(J)eir gengu allir 1 einum flokki) ; (3) 
band, troop, party ; hefja, reisa, flokk, 
to raise a band; fylla flokk e-s, to join 
one's party, to side with one ; (4) sho7't 
poem, without refrains (opp. to ' drapa '). 

flokks-foringi, -hcf(5ingi, m. cap- 
tain, leader; -maSr, m. a fnan be- 
longing to a party (flokkr). 

flokk-stjori, m. = flokksforingi. 

flot, n. {l)faty dripping {irom. cooked 

meat); {2) floating; koma i. f, to be 
set afloat : vera i. floti, to be afloat. 

flota (atS), V. to float, laimch (f. e-u). 

flota-holmr, ra.floaiing islet. 

flot-brusi, m. floating jar, poet. 
boat; -fundinjif pp. found afoat. 

floti, m. {\) float, raft; {1) fleet. 

flotna (atS), v. to get afloat ; f. upp, 
to float up, come to the surface. 

flo (gen. floar; pi. floer), f. layer, 

flo (gen. floar ; pi. flosr), f. a flea, 

floa (at$), V. to flood, be flooded. 

flotJ, n. {i) flood, inundation, deluge ; 
{2) food, food-tide; at floSi, at fioS- 
um, at high-water. 

floi, m. (i) fnarshy moor; (2) bay, 
larg3 firth. 

floka-hetta, f . felt hood ; -olpa, f . 
felt coat ; -stakkr, m. felt jacket ; 
-trippi, n. a foal or yotmg horse 
with a matted coat. 

floki, m. (i) matted hair or wool, 
felt ; (2) cloudlet (skyfloki). 

flokinn, a. entangled, inatted. 

flona (atS), v. to become warm. 

florr, n\. floor of a cow-house. 

flotta-buinn, a. ready to fee ; -gjarn, 
a. eager tojlee, craven ; -ma^r, m. one 
who flees ; -menn, the flying host ; 
-rekstr, m. pursziit of the fly'mg host ; 
-stigr, m. path cf flight. 

flotti, m. {D flight; leggja d flotta, 
to take to flight ; stDkkva e-m i. flotta, 
to put to flight; (2) reka flottann, to 
pjtrsue the flying host. 

flug, n. [i) flight (= flugr) ; i. ferd 
ok flugi, all in motion ; (2) precipice. 

fluga (gen. pi. flugiia), f. {\) fly\ 
(2) lure, bait; koma flugu i munn 
e-m, to allure, entrap one ; gina (taka) 
vi6 flugu, to swallow the fly, to be 
allured, entrapped. 

fluga-bjarg, n., -hamarr, m. beetling 
crag, precipice ; -straumr, m. violent 
and rapid stream. 

flugtSi, a pret. of a lost verb flyggja, 
hon flugQi oil, she shuddered all over. 

flug-dreki, viv. flying dragon ; -dyr, 
r\. flying insect; -liga, adv. swiftly, 
-ormr, va. flying snake. 

flugr (gen. -ar), m. ( I )y?/;^y^/ (= flaug) ; 
beina flug, to spread the wings for 




flight \ (2) flight (=fl6tti); trauSr 
flugar, slow to take to flighty bold. 

flug-sjor, m. deep sea ; -skjotr, a. 
very swift ; -stigr, m. steep path. 

flugu-matSr, m. hired bandit, assas- 
sin ; -mannligr, a. having the look of 
an assassin. 

flug-vapn, n. javelin, dart. 

flutning, f. (i) transport, carriage 
of goods, conveyance of persons', (2) 
statement, report (cf. flutningr). 

flutningar-matSr, m. one engaged in 
conveying goods. 

flutningr (-s, -ar), m. (i) = flutning 
(i); (2)= flutning (2); (3) pleading 
(f. m^ls). 

flutnings-maSr, m. a spokesman, 
pleader (-ma6r okkarr vi6 konung). 

fliitS, f. low skerry, reef flooded by 
the sea (a flu3 e6a skeri). 

fliir, n. {i) flower', {2) flour. 

flytSra, {.flounder. 

fly gill, m. flying apparatus. 

flyka, f. phantom, ghost. 

flykkjast (t), v. to crowd. 

flypja (flusta), v. to split, cut in 
slices (at flysja epli). 

flytja (flyt, flutta, fluttr), v. (i) to 
carry, convey (f. voru til skips) ; {2) to 
recite, deliver (f. or i. fram kvjeQi) ; 
f. md.1 e-s, to plead one's cause, inter- 
cede for one; f. (fram) sitt erendi, to 
state one's erra?id; (3) to perfo7'7n (f. 
jdrnbur6, skirslu) ; f. forn, to bring a7i 
offering; (4) refl., flytjast, to flit, re- 

flytjandi, (i ) pr. p., f. eyrir, movables, 
chattels', (2) m. (pi. -eTL^Jc), promoter, 
pleader (f. mdls). 

flyja (fly; flySa ; flyiSr, flytSr), v. 
(l) to flee, take flight (f. a land upp) ; 
f. undan e-m, to flee from one pur- 
suing; (2) with ace, f. land, to flee the 
country ; uhoegt mun forlogin at f., it 
will be hard to avoid what is fated. 

flyta(-tta,-tt),/^ hastenii. ferc3inni) ; 
f. ser, to speed oneself inake haste. 

flytir (gen. -is), m. haste, speed. 

flaema (-da, -dr), v. to drive away 
ignominiously (f. e-n brott). 

FlaBmingi (pi. -jar), m. Flefning. 

flaemska, f. Flemish {language). 

fla3mskr, a. Flemish. 

flsBrcS, {.falsehood, deceit. 

flaBrSar-fullr, a. deceitful ; -ortJ, n. 
pi. false {but fair) language ; -sam- 
ligr, a. deceitful', -stafir, m. pi false- 
ness, deceit. 

flaBrtSari, m. impostor. 

flaertS-lauss, a. sincere '^ at -lausu, 
faithfully, honestly. 

flasrcSr, pp. adulterated, poisoned (f. 
er drykkrinn). 

flsBrtS-samligr, -samr, a. false^ de- 
ceitful ; -vitni, n. false witness. 

floetSa (-ddi, -ddr), v. (i) to flood 
over ; impers., pa floedir uppi, they are 
overtaken by thefloodtide ; (2) impers., 
floe5ir, the tide lises. 

floetSar-bakki, m. a bank covered at 
high-water; -mal, n. flood-tnark; 
-sker, n. a reef flooded at high-water ; 
-urtS, f. rocks reached at high-water. 

floetSi-bakki, m. = floedar-bakki ; 
-sker, n. = flae6ar-sker. 

floeSr (gen. -ar, ace. and dat. -i ; pi. 
-ar), {.flood-tide. 

floeja (floetSa, flotSa; floeit, floit), 
V. = flyja. 

floekjast (t), v. refl. to be e7ttangled; 
{. fyrir e-m, to cross one's path, to be 
constantly in one's way. 

floer, m. ivar77ith, heat, = hiti. 

flogra (a$), v. to flutter. 

flokr, n. roa77iing about. 

flokra (a6), v. to roa77i about. 

flokta (-kta, -kt), v. ( i ) to flutter and 
fly about; {2) to roa77i, wander. 

floktan, {.fluttering, roa77iing about. 

fnasa (acS;, v. to sno7t with rage. 

fnasan, f. S7iefzi7ig, snorti7ig. 

fnysa, fncBsa (-ta, -t), v. to sneeze ; 
f. eitri, to blow out poiso7t. 

fogl (-S, -ar), m. = fugl. 

folald, n. you7igfoal. 

fold, f. earth ; d foldu (dat.) on earth. 

fold-vegr, m. = fold. 

foratS, m. (i) dangerous place or 
situation , abyss, pit ; (2 j ogre, 7710ns ter 
(J)u ert et mesta f.). 

foraSs-har, a. terribly tall ; -illr, 
a. abo)7ii7iable ; -vetSr, n. abo77iinable 

foracta, f. pretext; finna e-t til 
fordttu, to plead as ones excuse. 

for-beini, va. furtherance; -berg, n. 




projecting rock ; -bergis, adv. down- 
hill'^ -bo5, Xi. prohibition (leggja -bo6 
d e-t) ; -bot5a (atS), v. (i) to for bid 
(= fyrirbjoda) ; (2; to put tifider an 
interdict; -brekkis, adv. down-hill; 
-brekkt, a. n. down-hill \ -bcenir, f. 
pi. evil wishes, imprecatio7is (bi6ja 
e-m forboena). 

forSa (atS), v. (i) to put forth (forS- 
u6u fingrum); (2) to save; f. fjorvi, 
lifi, f. ser, to save one's life; (3) refl., 
forSast, to shun, avoid, escape ; f. fund 
e-s, to shun one. 

fortSi, m. help, aid. 

fortSum, adv. formerly ; f. daga, in 
former days. 

for-dyri, n. vestibule (= anddyri). 

for-dasSa, f. witch, sorceress. 

fordastSu-matSr, m. wizard, sorcerer ; 
-skapr, m. witchcraft, sorcery ; -verk, 
n. execrable deed. 

for-doema (-da, -dr), v. to condemn. 

for-dcemi, n., -dooming, f. con- 

for-ellrar, m. pi. forefathers, ances' 
tors ; -ellri, n. coll. = forellrar (ulikir 
sinu forellri). 

forellris-menn, m. pi. = forellrar. 

for-fat5ir, m. (i ) forefather ; (2) pre- 
decessor; -fall, n. hindrance, draw- 
back ; -flotti, a. exiled,fugitive ; ver3a 
-flotti fyrir e-m, to flee before one ; 
-ganga, f., -gangr, m. ^ going before^ 
help, support. 

forgangs-matSr, m. leader, guide. 

for-gartSr, va.fore-court (of a house); 
vera i. -gorSum, to be wasted and 
squandered, of stores ; -gipt, f. pay- 
ment for alimentation ; -gisl, m. hos- 
tage ; -gisla (atS), v. to give {a person) 
as hostage. 

forgongu-m.at5r, m. leader = for- 

for-hleypi, n. ; hafa e-n at -hleypi, 
to use one as a cafs paw. 

forhleypia-matSr, m. = forhleypi. 

for-hugatSr, pp. premeditated, afore- 
thought ; -hugsan, f. design, purpose. 

for-hus, n. porch. 

foringi (pi. -jar), m. leader. 

forka (aS), v. to punt {a ship). 

for-kast, n. fodder {hay) thrown 
before cattle ; -kirkja, f. church-porch ; 

-kostuliga, adv. very finely ; -kolfr, 
m. leader, chief. 

forkr (-S, -ar), m. pole, staff, stick. 

for-ku^r (gen. -kunnar), f. easier 
desire ; e-m er -ku6r i. e-u, one desires 
eagerly ; gen., forkunnar, remarkably, 
exceedingly (-kunnar vasnn, mikill) ; 
-kunn(ar)liga, adv. (i) fervently 
(biSja forkunnliga) ; (2) exceedingly 
(forkunnliga friSrj ; -kunnligr, a. ex- 

forlag, n. ( I ) p?'ovision for living, 
means of subsistence ; (2) settlement 
{in life, by marriage) ; (3) pi. forlog, 
fate, destiny, 

for-lag$r, pp. done 7uith, forlorn ; 
-lendi, n. the land between sea and 
hills ; -Ijotr, a. exceedingly ugly ; 
-lyta (-tta, -ttr), v. to blame. 

for-log, n. pi., see ' forlag '. 

form, n. forin, shape (rare). 

for-maSr, m. leader, chief; -maSr 
konunga, the forejnost among kings ; 
-mannligr, a. leader-like ; -m^ali, m. 
(i) preamble; (2) stipulation (me3 
pvilikum formala, sem) ; {t,) foreword; 
{i^ prayer; -menntr, pp. well trained, 
highly skilled; -messa, f. matins ; 
-mikill, a. exceedingly great ; -m8Bl- 
andi (pi. -endr), m., -msBlari, m. 
spokesman; -masli, n. {\) pleading; 
veita e-m formasli, to plead for one, 
pray for one ; (2) prescribed form, 

forn, a. (i) old (f. vindtta, f. mjoSr); 
(2) aficient; fornir menn, the men of 
old; f. si5r, the old {heathen) ctistont, 
religion ; f. atrunaSr, the old creed, 
heathe7iis7n ; f. 1 skapi, inclined to old, 
or heathen, ways; hann var f. mjok, 
he was a great wizard; at fornu, til 
ioxxidi., formerly, i?i times past. 

fornatSr, m., see ' fornaSr '. 

for-nafn, n. pronoun. 

for-nam, n. obstacle, hold-fast. 

forneakja, f. (i) old tttnes; (2) 
heathenism ; (3) old lore, witchcraft 
(fara me5 forneskju). 

forneskju-klastSabuiiatSr, m. old- 
fashio7ied apparel; -m.atSi% m. sor- 
cerer, wizard. 

forn-fdguligr, a. old and worn-out ; 
-frocSr, a. skilled in old lore, versed 




in witchcraft ; -frcatSi, f. ancient lore, 


forn-konungr, m. ancient king; 
-kvetSinn, pp. said of old \ hit -kveSna, 
the old saw ; -kvaB^Si, n. old poem ; 
-ligr, a. old'looking, old-fashioned; 
fornlig frasSi, old lore ; -matSr, m., 
7nan of the olden time ; -msBli, n. old 
saw ; -maBltr, pp. = -kvedinn ; -ortSr, 
a. swearing; -saga, f. old [mythical) 
tale; 'Sk.alA,n. ancient scald; -spjoll, 
n. pi. old lore ; -spurcSr, pp., gera e-n 
fornspiir5an at e-u, to do a thing 
without asking one's leave ; -titSindi, 
n. pi. old tales ; -vinr, m. old friend ; 
-yrtSi, n. old saw. 

for-rd$, n. (i) ?nanagement, superin- 
tendence ; (2) admini strati 071^ guar- 
dianship ; -rdcSandi (pi. -endrj, m. 
overseer, manager. 

forracSa-matSr, forratJa-maSr, m. 
manager, head man ; -ma6r i. skipi, 
captain of a ship. 

for-rikr, a. exceedingly rich. 

for-rastSi, n. = for-rd.d, 

fors, n. vehemence, wrath. 

fors (pi. -ar), m. waterfall. 

for-sat, f. ambush ; -senda, f., -send- 
ing, f. dangerous mission. 

fors-fall, n. torrent. 

fors-fullr, a. wrathful, vehe?nent. 

for-sja or -sjo, {. foresight. prevision. 

forsjd-lauss, a. (i) improvident ; (2) 
helpless ; -ley si, n. want of foresight ; 
-liga, adv. with foresight, prudently ; 
-ligr, a. prudent. 

for-sjall, a. prudent, foresighted. 

forsja-matSr, m. overseer, manager. 

for-skdli, m. ante-chamber, entrance- 
hall; -skepti, n. handle of a hamtner 
or axe; -skop, n. pi. ill fate; -smd 
(-smdi, -smatSa, -smd(5r), v. to de- 
spise ; -smdn, f. disgrace ; -smit5r, 
m. 7naster-smith ; -spa, f. prophecy ; 
-spdr, a. foreseeing, p7'ophesving\ 
-spell, n. heavy loss; -statSa, f. 
shielding, p7'otectio7i ; msela e-m for- 
st66u (vi6 e-n), to say a good word 
for one ; -stjori, m. overseer, leader ; 
•stjorn, f. rule, 7na7iage)7ient. 

forstjornar-macSr, m. tnanager, 

for-stotS, f. = -stada ; -stofa, f. = 

-skdli ; -st6rr, a. exceeding tall; 
-strejrmis, adv. down sirearn, opp. 
to ' andstreymis * ; -syn, {.foreboding; 
-synn, a. {\) fore sighted; (2) second- 
sighted; 'Q8diUn. front bench; -soela, 
f. shade (from the sun) ; -sogn, f. (i) 
prophecy; (2) superi7itendence ; (3) 
dictation, i7istruction (eptir hinna 
vitrustu manna forsogn). 

for-taka, v. to deny ; fortaks-ort5, n. 
word of co7itradiction. 

for-tjald, n. curtain, bed-curtain; 
-tolur, f.- pi. persuasion{s), represe7i- 
tations; -vaoi, m. a fo}'d before a 
projecting cliff; -vetSjacSr, pp. for- 
feited; -verari, m. forebear^ prede- 
cessor; -verk, n. (ij work done in 
a7iother's service ; (2) harvest of hay ; 

(3) hireling's work ; gera ekki for- 
verkum vi3 e-n, not to treat one 

forverks-litill, a. able to do but little 
forverk ; -matSr, m. able work7nan. 

for-vitSa, a. indecl. overco7ne in a 
fight; -vitSris, -vindis, adv. before 
the wind', -virki, n. = -verk (i); 
-vist, f., -vista, f. i7tanage77ient ; 
-vitinn, a. curious; -vitna (atS), v. 
to p7y into, enquire about (forvitna 
e-t or um e-t) ; refl., forvitnast e-t, 
um e-t, til e-s, to e7tqui7-e about; 
impers., e-n forvitnar e-t, one is 
curious to k7tow ; -vitni, f. curio- 
sity ; -vitri, a. very wise ; -yflast 
(d), V. refl. to shrink fro77i (e-s) ; 
-ynja, f. appearance, foreboding; 
-ysta, f. headship, leadership. 

forystu-geldingr, m. = -sauSr ; 
-lauss, a. unprotected; -sautSr, m. 

for-t)okki, m., -l)ykkja, f. dislike. 

foss (pi. -ar), m. waterfall; =fors. 

foa, f. she-fox. 

foam, n. gizzard. 

fotSr, n . fodder, foddering. 

f 65r a ( atS ) , ( I ) to fodder, feed ; ( 2 ) 
to fur or line (a garment). 

f6tSr-lauss, a. (i) fodder I ess ; (2) 

fol, n., foli, m.fool. 

folk, n. {i) folk, people; (2) the 
people of a household; (3) kinsfolk; 

(4) host; (5) battle (poet.). 





folk-drott, f. = folk (4) ; -orrusta, 

f. battle of hosts ^ great battle. 

folks-jatSarr, m. chief, lord. 

folk-skar, a. destructive to men ; 
-stjori, -valdi, m. captain ; -vdpn, 
n. pi. weapons ; -vig, n. great battle, 
war ; -vortSr, m, chief, captain. 

folska, {.foolishness, folly. 

folskr, B.. foolish. 

folsku-ferS, f. foolish expedition ; 
-ort$, n. ^\. foolish words', -verk, n. 
foolish {mad) act. 

forn (pi. -ir), f. (i) gift; (2) offering. 

forna (aS), \.{\)to offer as a present 
(f. e-m e-t) ; (2) to offer, bring as an 
offring{\.o God). 

fornaor, m., at iomz^i, furthermore , 
in addition, to boot. 

forn-fcBra (-tSa, -t$r), v. to bring an 
offering{^oxi\xn<gx fornfcerdi goSunum) ; 
-fcBring, f. offering. 

fost-brotSir, m. (i) foster-brother', 
(2) sworn brother ( = eiSbr66ir). 

fostbroetSra-lag, w.{\) foster-brother- 
hood', (2) sworn brotherhood {sverjsisi 
I fostbroeSra-lag). 

fostr, n. ( i) the fostering (of a child) ; 
(2) maintenance. 

fostra (at$), v. to bring up as a 
foster-child, be a foster-father to. 

fostra, f. (i) foster-mother; (2) 

f ostr-dottir, f . foster-daugh ter. 

f6str-fat$ir, va. foster-father. 

fostri, m. (l) foster-father', (2) 
foster-son ; {'^foster-brother ; (4) pi., 
f ostrar, foster-father and foster-son. 

fostr-jortS, f., -land, n. native 
country ; -laiin, n. pi. reward for 
fostering', -nian,n. nurse {bondmaid)', 
-motSir, vci. foster-mother', -maer, f. 
foster-daughter', -neyti, n. foster- 
parents ; -sonr, ra. foster-son ; -systir, 
{.foster-sister', -systkin, n. ^X.foster- 
brother{s) and sister {s). 

fota-afl, n. strength of the feet; 
-brik, {.footboa7'd (of a bed) ; -burtSr, 
m. gait; -festi, {.foot-hold; -fjol, 
{.foot-board; -gangr, m. trajnpling, 
din ; -hlutr, m. the nether part of the 

body ; -laBti, n. pi. kicking (of one 


fotar-mein, n. sore leg', -sdr, n. 

a wound in the foot ; -verkr, m. pain 

in the leg {foot). 
fota-spyrning, f. spurning with the 

feet ; -stapp, n. stamping with the 

feet; -J)ili, n. = -brik; -^vattr, m./(?<?/- 

f6t-bor(S, n. foot-board; -brot, n, 

fracture of the leg; -brotinn, pp. 

broken-legged ; -flmr, a. nimble^ 

footed; -gangandi, pr. p. walkings 

going on foot. 
fotgongu-herr, m., -litS, n. host oj 

footmen ; -matSr, m. a man on foot. 

footman, foot-soldier. 
fot-har, a. long-legged {=hi-{c£ttr) : 
-hrumr, a. weak-footed; -hvatr, a, 
swift-footed; -hogg, n. hewing one^i 

feet off; -hoggva {see hoggva), v. tc 
hew one's feet off; -lami, a. lame Oj 

foot; -langr, 2i. long-legged; -laug, f 

foot-bath ; -lauss, a. footless ; -lagr, 
a. low-legged, short-legged; -leggr 
m. the leg; -mdl, n. step ; -mikill, a 
big-footed; -mjukr, a. nimble- footed 
-pallr, la. footstool. 
fotr (gen. fotar, dat. fceti ; pi. foetr) 
m. (i) foot, foot and leg; sprettj 
(st0kkva) d fcetr, to start to ones feet 
vera i. fotum, to be out of bed, be tip 
skjota fotum undir sik, taka til fota 
to take to ones heels ; eiga fotum fjoi 
at launa, to save o?te's life by running 
away ; hlaupa sem fcEtr toga, to rut 
as fast as feet can carry; kominn a; 
fotum fram, off one's feet, decrepit 
hverr d foetr o6rum, o?ie after tlu 
other; {i)foot (as a measure), 
fot-sarr, 2i. foot-sore ; -siSr, a. 7'each 
ing down to the feet ; -skemill, m 

footstool ; -skritJa, f. sliding ; rennj 
-skriSu, to slide on the ice ; -skor, f 
footboard; -spor, n. foot-p7'int (stigj 
i e-s fot-spor) ; -stallr, m. pedestal 
-stirtSr, a. stiff-legged; -trotS, n 
trampling under feet ; -trotSa (se( 
trotJa), V. to trample uttder one's feet 
tread upon ; -veill, a. with a bad leg 
frakka, f. spear, lance (rare). 
Frakka-konungr, m. the king ^ 
the Franks. 
Frakkar, m. pi. the Franks. 
fram, adv. {i)foriuard; hann f^ll i 
i. fcEtr konungi, he fell forward on hi 




face at the king's feet \ f. rdtt, straight 
on ; koma f., to reappear ; (2) out of 
the house \ opp. to 'inn, innarr' (var 
hon dvalt borin f. ok innarr) ; (3) on 
the fore part, in fronts opp. to * aptr ' 
(maSr f., en dyr aptr) ; aptr ok i.,fore 
and aft, of a ship ; (4) joined with 
preps, and particles, bida f. d dag, f. 
a nott, to wait far into the day, or 
night \ bi'Qa f. urn jol, to wait till 
after Yule ; fyrir log f. in spite of the 
law\ f. undan eyjunni, off the island \ 
(5) of time, hversu er f. or6it, how 
late is it, what time is it? f. orSit 
dags, late in the day. 

frama (at5), v. to further ; f. sik, to 
distinguish oneself \ of a woman, in 
pp. neut., me6 barni ok mjok framat, 
a fid far advanced. 

frama-fert5, f. famous enterprise', 
-leysi, n. obscurity. 

framan, adv. {i) fro?n {on) the front 
side\ f. at borSinu, to the front of the 
table ; f. d (skipinu), on the fore part 
(of the ship) ; a stdlhufuna f., on the 
front of the steel cap ; (2) fyrir f., 
before, in the front of, with ace. (fyrir 
f. sldna) ; (3) f. til (= fram til), up to, 
until; nu lidr til J)ings f., // d?-ew 
near to the time of assenibly. 

framandi, pr. p. distinguishedj of 
distinction (f. menn). 

framan-vatr, a. wet on the fore- 
side', -vertSr, a. lying forward, fore- 
most; i. -verSri brekkunni,^^ the front 
of the slope ; i -vert nefit, on the tip of 
the nose. 

frama-raun, f. trial of fame. 

framar-la, -liga, adv. (i) in a for- 
ward position, near the front; (2) 
fully, highly, 7nuch. 

framarr, adv. compar., framast, 
adv. superl. (= fremr, fremst), (l) 
farther {farthest) on ; feti framarr, 
a step farther on', (2) more, 7nost 
(mun {Jm leitat ver6a her framarr 
en hvar annars staSar) ; miklu er sjd 
framarr {more prominent, superior) 
at hvivetna ; t)vi framarr sem, all the 
more as; konungr virSi hann framast 
allra sona sinna, most of all his sons. 
frama-skortr, m. lack of courage ; 
-verk, n. exploit, feat. 

fram-bot$ligr, a. that can be offered; 
-bogr, m. shoulder (of an animal); 
-bryggja, f. the gangway leading to 
the bow of a ship ; -burtSr, m. delivery 
(of a speech) ; -butJ, f., vera til litillar 
-bu6ar, to be of little lasting use ; 
-Tt>yggjar, -byggvar, m. pi. the me ft 
statiofted in the bow of a warship 
(opp. to 'aptrbyggjar'). 

framdrdttar-samr, a. putting one- 
self forward. 

fram-drdttr, m. (1) launching 
(-drittr skips) ; (2) support, maifi- 
tenafice ; -eggjan, f. egging on ; -fall, 
n. {\) falling on one's face ; (2) down- 
fall; (-fall drinnar) ; -farinn, pp. de- 
parted; -fertS, f. {course of) procedure ; 
-fertSi, n. (l) = -fer3; (2) conduct; 
-flutning, f. (i) fuaifitenance, sup- 
port; {2) pronunciatiofi; -flutningr, 
m. (i)= -flutning (i): (2) pleading; 
-fotr, m. fore-leg; -fuss, a. eager, 
willing ; -foeri, n. furtherafice ; 
-foerinn, a. putting oneself forward ; 
-fosrsla, f. support, fnaifitenance. 

framfoerslu-kerling, f. old pauper 
woffiafi ; -matSr, xn. pauper. 

fram-for, f. (i) advanciftg ; (2) 
death ; -ganga, f. (l) advaftcing; (2) 
boldness, courage ; -gangr, m. ( i ) ad- 
vaftcing in battle; (2) success; (3) = 
-ganga (2) ; -genginn, pp. departed, 
deceased; -gengt, a. n. brought about, 
successful; ver3a -gengt, to succeed; 
-girnd, f., -girni, f forwardness; 
-gjarn, a. striving forward, eager. 

framgongu-matSr, m. valiant maft. 

fram-heit, n. pi. fair promises for 
the future; -hleypi, n.forwardfiess, 
rashness; -hleypiligr,a.r<:^i•/^; -hlutr, 
m. fore part ; -hus, n. porch, efitty ; 
-hvass, a. forward, bold ; -hvot, f. 

frami, m. ( 1 ) boldness, courage ; (2) 
luck ; freista sins frama, to try one's 
luck; (3) distifiction, faffie (vinna sdr 
frama) ; (4) profit (maela e-t 1 sinn 

fraiQ-jdtan, f. profnise ; -kast, n. 
forecast, empty words; -kirkja, f. 
nave, opp. to 'songhiis', ^//(?/r, chan- 
cel ; -krokar, m. pi. exertion ; leggja 1 
-kroka, to exert oneself; -kvsema (-da. 




'^v) fulfil^ bring about \ -kvaemd, 
f . fuljihnent, success, prowess. 

framkvaemdar-lauss, a. tmavailmg, 
useless ; -ley si, n. inaction ; -maSr, 
m. ente7-prising man ; -mikill, -samr, 
a. enterprisi7ig. 

fram-kv8Bmr, a. ejgicacious. 

fram-lag, n. outlay, contribution ; 
-laga, f. advancing (with the ships in 
battle); -lei^is, 2.&^. further ^ next \ 
-leitSsla, f. conduct (-leidsla hans 
h'fdaga) ; -liSinn, pp. departed, de- 
ceased ; -ligr, a. excellent : framhgr 
ma3r, afne man ; -lundaSr, a. bold, 
courageous; -liitr, a. (i) be?iding for- 
ward; {2) prone (til e-s) ; -lyndr, a. 
= -lundaSr. 

frammi, adv. (i) out, away out; 
t)eir Leifr sitja f. 1 husam, near the 
outer door; standa f. fyrir e-m, to 
sta7id before one's face ; (2) hafa e-t 
f. or 1 f., to make tise of, einploy ; hafa 
kugan i f . \\h e-n, to try to browbeat one. 

fram-mynntr, a. with prominent 
mouth (mjok eygSr ok f.). 

framr (compar. fraraarri, fremri ; 
superh framastr, fremstr), a. (i) 
forwa7'-d, pro7ni7ient ; neut., framt, to 
such an extent ; treysta framt i., to 
put full trust in; compar. the fore- 
7nost of two ; til hins fremra austr- 
nims, to the fore pimipitig-r 00771 ; hit 
fremra, the place nearest the door, the 
road along the coast (foru sumir hit 
f. til Seljalandsmula) ; (2) fig., fremri 
e-m, superior to (ollum fremri) ; 
superl. foremost, best (fremstr at allri 
soemd) ; furthest back (hvat J)u fremst 
um veizt). 

fram-rds, f. course ; -reic5, f. riding 
071 ; -reitir, m. pi. ^ the fore-beds^ (in 
a garden) ; fig., hafa e-t a -reitum, 
to display, 7ncike a show of; -saga, f. 
delivery (-saga sakar) ; -snotSinn, a. 
bald on the forehead; -sokn, {.further 
prosecution of a case (-sokn sakar) ; 
-stafn, m. ste7n, prow ; -syn, {.fore- 
sight ; -syni, f. fore-sightedness ; 
-syniligr, a. foreseeing ; -synn, a. 
foreseeing, prophetic ; -scgn, f. state- 
ment; -vegis, 2l^\. further, for the 
future ; -visi, f. prophetic spirit ; 
-viss, a. prophetic, foreseeing. 

frautJ, n. froth (=fro3a). 

fra, prep, with dat. (i)y>w« (gangs 
f. logbergi) ; skamt f. dnni, a shon 
distance fro77t the river; (2) away 
fro77i (nokkut f. oSrum monnum) ; (3 
of time, allt f. eldin;^u, all along from 
daybreak ; dag f. degi, one day afte7 
a7iother; (4) fro77i a7nong, beyond 
gera sik auSkendan f. o3rum monn- 
um, to fnake oneself co7ispicuous 
(5) against; fr^ likindum, againsi 
likelihood; (6) of, about; er mer sva 
f. sagt konungi, / a77i told so aboui 
the king; (7) as adv. <2way ; hverfa 
f., to turn away ; til ok f., /<? and fro ; 
hedan 1 f., hence, he7iceforth ; J)ar ut i 
frd, secondly, next. 

fra-baeriligr, -baerr, a. surpassing \ 
-drattr, m. di7ninutio7t ; -fall, n. (ij 
falling off, receding (-fall sjofarins) ; 
(2) decease, death ; -fert5, f. departure. 

frag0rt5a-, gen. pi. from ' frdg0r3ir ' ; 
-licS, n. choice troops ; -niac5r, m. re- 
77iarkable 77ian ; -mikill, a. exceeding 
great (fjoturr f.). 

fra-gprtSir, f. pi. surpassing feats ; 
var ftat at -g0r6um, it was extra- 
ordi7iary ; -laga, f. ret7-eat (in a sea- 
fight ; cf. leggja frd) ; -lauss, 2,. free, 
clear (from a matter). 

fra-leikr, m. swiftness, briskness. 

fra-ligr, a. quick, swift. 

fran-eygr, a. with flashing eyes. 

frann, a. glea77iing, flashing (of ser- 
pents and weapons). 

frar (frari, frastr), a. swift, light- 
footed (frar a foeti). 

fra-saga, f. account, narrative. 

frasagnar-vertSr, a. worth relating. 

frd-skila, a. indecl. separated, iso- 
lated (-skila e-m) ; -skilliga, adv. 
out of the way, far off; -skilligr, a. 
= -skila ; -skilnatSr, m. separation. 

fra-scgn, f. (i) the act of relating; 
(2) = fra-saga. 

frdsogu-ligr, a. worth relating^ 

fra-vera, -vist, f. absence. 

fregn (pi. -ir), m. news, intelli* 
gence, infort7tation. 

fregna (fregn ; frd, frdgum ; freg* 
inn), V. (i) to hear of, be infor7ned 
of (l>rdndr frd andlat fo6ur sms) ; (2) 




to ask {{. e-n e-s) ; f. e-n rdSs, to ask 
one's advice. 

fregna (-da or -at5), v. = prec. 

freista (aS), v. (i) to tempt ^ make 
trial of, with gen. ; (2) to try ; f. i- 
prottar, to try a feat ; f. sin i moti 
e-m, to try one's strength against 
another ; with infin., f. at renna skei6, 
to try to run a race. 

freistan, freisting, f. temptation. 

freistinn, a. daring, trying. 

freistni, f. (l) temptation ; (2) trial. 

freka, f. rigour, severity, harshness ; 
med freku, harshly. 

frek-efldr, pp. forcible. 

freki, m. wolf (poet.). 

frekja, f. = freka. 

frek-liga, adv. harshly, immoder- 
ately ; -ligr, a. harsh, severe. 

freknottr, 2i.freckly. 

frekr, a. ( i ) greedy (f. til fjdr), eager ; 
(2) harsh f rigorous (frek log) ; nu 
skal ek vera y6r f. harSsteinn, a rough 

frelsa (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to free, de- 
liver, rescue (f. landit af hernaSi) ; 
(2) f. e-m e-t, to rescue {secure) a 
thing for one (til at f. honum sina 
f66urleif6) ; (3) refl., frelsast, to save 
oneself, escape. 

frels-borinn, pp.= frjdlsborinn. 

frelsi, n. {\) freedom \ (2) leisure-, 
{"h) privilege, immunity (f. kirkjunnar). 

frelsingi (-ja, -jar), m. freedman. 

frelsis-gj of, f. gift offreedojn (to a 

fremd, {.furtherance, honour. 

fremdar-fer$, f. glorious journey ; 
-lauss, a. inglorious ; -verk, n.feat. 

freuii, adv. only in the phrase, svd 
f., so far ; esp., sva f. er, not until, 
not before, only when ; seg pii svd f. 
frd ^\\, er {)essi dagr er allr, wait till 
this day is past before you speak of 
that ; svd. f. ef, z« case that. 

fremja (frem, framda, framicSr 
and framdr), v. fi) to further, pro- 
mote (f. kristni) ; f. sik, to disti?iguish 
oneself', (2) to perform, practise ; f. 
heiSni, to practise heathen worship ; 
f. sund, to swim ; (3) refl., fremjast, 
to gain distinction. 

fremr, adv. compar., fremst, adv. 

superl. more, most (= framarr, fram- 
ast) ; Jjeir er fremst voru, those who 
were foremost. 

fremri, a. compar., fremstr, a. 
superl., see ' framr'. 

frer or frpr, n. frost, frosty soil', f. 
var hart liti, // was hard frost ; esp. 
pi, bi6a fr0ra, to wait for frost ; 
-mdnatSr, m.frost-jnonth (December). 

frerinn, ^Y^.froze^i (f. skor). 

fress (pi. -ar), m. (i) tom-cat {eiga.ndi 
fressa, Freyja) ; (2) bear. 

frest, n. delay, respite ; d viku fresti, 
at the end of a week ; also pi., pott 
frestin vaeri long, although the delay 
was long; Ijd e-m fresta, to give one 
respite ; selja d f., to sell on credit. 

fres'a (atS), v. to defer, put off, with 
dat. (f. bru61aupi) ; absol. to tarry. 

frestan, f. delayi?ig, delay. 

freta (fret, frat, and at5j, v. to break 
wind (freta vi3). 

fret-karl, m. contemptible fellow. 

fretr, m. fart ; reka fret, to break 

fr6tt (pi. -ir), f. (i) news, intelli- 
gence ; (2) enquiry about the future 
(ganga til frettar vi5 e-n). 

fr6tta (-tta, -ttr), v. {\) to hear, get 
intelligefice; (2) to ask, enquire (f. 
e-n e-s or at e-u) ; f. tidenda, to ask 
for news ; f. e-n upp, to find one out ; 
(3) refl. /<? get about, be reported (t)etta 
frettist um herafiit) ; frettist alls ekki 
til bans, nothing was heard of him ; 
frettist mer sva til, I a?n told', frettust 
peir tiSenda, they asked each other for 
news ; frettast fyrir, to enquire. 

fr^ttinn, a. eager for news, inquisi- 
tive (um e-t, about a thing). 

freytSa (dda, -tt), v. to froth. 

freyja, f. lady ; the goddess Freyja» 

freyr (gen. freys), m. (i) lord; (2) 
the god Frev. 

Freys-gotSi, m. priest of Frey. 

friSa (atS), v. to pacify, restore to 
peace (f. riki sitt) ; f. fyrir e-m, to 
make peace for, intercede for one (vi3 
e-n, with another) : refl., friSast vi5 
e-n, to reconcile oneself to another. 

fritSan, f. pacifying. 

fr.tSar-bref, f. letter of peace ; 
-fundr, m. peaceful meeting', -g0rtS, 




f. conclusion of peace ^ truce, treaty \ 
-koss, m. kiss of peace ; -mark, n. 
token of peace ; -matSr, m. = fri3ma6r ; 
-stefiia, f. peace meeting ; -takn, n.= 

fri^-benda (-da, -dr), v. to fasten 
the sword in the sheath with friSbond ; 
-hotfi. peace-making] -brot, n. breach 
of peace. 

frits brots-maSr, m. peace-breaker. 

fritS-bond, n. pi. "peace-bonds^ 
(straps wound round the sheath and 
fastened to a ring in the hilt) ; spretta 
-bondum, to undo the peace-straps 
(before drawing the sword) ; -gjafi, 
m. peace-7naker ; -gjarn, a. peaceful ; 
-gaslur, f. pi. efiticements to peace 
(bera -gaelur a e-n) ; -g0r5, f. = fri5ar- 
g0r6 ; -heilagr, a. inviolate ; -helga 
(at5), V. to make inviolate ; -helgr 
(gen. -helgar), f. inviolability, protec- 
tion by law. 

fritSill, m. lover. 

frit5-kastali, m. asylum ; -kaup, n. 
purchase of peace. 

fritSla or frilla, f. a man^s 7nistress 
or concubine (friSlur attu peir broeSr). 

fritS-land, n.frieftdly country, place 
of retreat ; -lauss, a. outlawed, pro- 
scribed ; -leysi, n. insecurity ; -liga, 
adv. peacefully ; -ligr, a. peaceful, 

fritSlu-, frillu-borinn, pp. bastard- 
bor7i ; -lifnatSr, m., -lifi, n. fornica- 
tion, who7'edom ; -matSr, m. adultei-er-, 
-sonr, m. illegitijnate so7i ; -tak, n. 
in the phrase, taka -taki, to take as 

fritJ-matSr, va. peaceful 7nan, friend ', 
-mark, n. token of peace; -mal, n. 
words of peace ; bera -mdl milli manna, 
to act as pcace-7>iaker ; -mtaelast (t), 
V. refl. to sue for peace (ekki mun nu 
tja at friSmaelast). 

fritSr (gen. fritSar), m. (i) peace, 
personal security ; bidja e-n friOar, to 
sue for peace ; (2) love, friendship \ 
f rid at kaupa, to purchase {thy) love. 

fritS-samligr, a. peaceable ; -samr, 
a. peaceful ; -semd, -semi, f. peace- 
fulness; -slyoldr, m. truce-shield; 
bregSa upp -skildi, to lift the shield 
of truce ; -spilli, n. breach of peace ; 

-staSr, m. sanctuary in a temple^ 
asylum ; -stefna, f. = friSarstefna ; 
-stoll, m. chair of peace ; -seela, f, 
bliss of peace ; -ssbII, a. blessed with 
peace; ^ -vdn, f. prospect of peace; 
-vasnligr, a., -Yssn.tiy3i. giving pro77iise 
of peace. 

Frigg (gen. -jar), f. the goddess 
F7'iog (the wife of Odin). 

frilla, f. frillu", see friflla, fri6iu-. 

fria (atS), v. to deliver (f. e-n e-u) ; 
refl.. friast, to free oneself. 

fritSa (-dda, -ddr), v. to adorn. 

fri(5endi, n. pi. good or fine things; 
heita e-m fndendum, to make fair 

friS-leikr, m. personal beauty. 

fritSr (fritJ, fritt), a. (i) beautiful, 
handso77ie (f. synum) ; {2) fine (fritt 
li6, foruneyti) ; {-if) paid in kind ; tolf 
hundrud fri3, twelve hundred head of 
cattle i7ipay7nent; fjorir tigir marka 
fri3s, forty 77iarks of silver paid in 
cattle. Cf. ' ufriar.' 

Frisir, m. pi. the Frisians. 

friskr, a. Frisian. 

Fris-land, n. Frisia, Friesland. 

frja (-tSa, -tSr), v. to love; si f^r er 
frjdr, he that woos wins. 

lija-aptann, m. F7'iday evening. 

frjadaga-fasta, f. Friday fast. 

frja-dagr, m. Friday. 

frjadags-aptann, m., -kveld, n. 
Friday eve7ii7ig (cf. ' frja-aptann, 
-kveld ') ; -nott, f. Friday night. 

frja-kveld, n. (i) eve of Friday; (2) 
F?i /ay evening. 

frjdls, a. {i) fee, opp. to 'prasll' 
(f. madr) ; (2) f'ee, unhindered (Idta 
e-n fara frjdisan) ; eiga e-t at frjdlsu, 
to possess freely, without restraint. 

fqalsa (aS), v. to f-ee (=frelsa). 

frjalsan, f. resctte, preservation. 

frjdls-borinn, ^T^.f-ee-born ; -leikr, 
m. liberty ; -lendingr, m. fra7ikli7i ; 
-liga, 3.dv. freely ; -ligr, a. free, inde- 
pende7it ; -mannligr, a. appropriate to 
a free 77ian. 

frjd-myrginn, m. Friday morning \ 
-nott, f . Friday 7iight. 

frjo (dat. fijo and frjovi), n. = frae. 

fitjoa or frjova (atS), v. to fertilize \ 
refl., frjovast, 77iultipiy, be fertile. 




fi^6-ligr, Ta. fruitful. 

fijor (fijo, frjott), 2.. fertile. 

fqosa (frys ; fraus, frusum ; fros- 
inn ; also freri or fr0ri, frerinn or 
frprinn), v. to freeze^ esp. impers., 
fraus urn hann klasQin (ace), Mi? clothes 
froze on his body ; fraus inni skip (ace.) 
Erlings, Erlitig's ships were frozen in ; 
ve6r var kalt ok frjosanda, cold and 
frosty ; fryss haf allt optliga d vetrum, 
the whole sea often freezes in winter. 

frjo-eamr, a. fertile ; -semd, f. fer^ 
tility. friiitfuhiess. 

frot5a, i. froth (= frauS). 

froskr (-s, -ar), m.frog. 

frost, n. frost ; f. var veSrs, // was 
frosty weather; in pL, frost mikil ok 
kuldar, much frost and cold \ frost ok 
snjoar, frost and snow. 

frosta (atS), v. impers. to freeze^ — 
frysta (hvert haust, er f. tok). 

frosta- vetr, x^. frosty winter. 

frost-viSri, n. frosty weather. 

fro, f. relief {fro7n pain)y conifort. 

froa (a(5), v. to relievey with ace. 

froan, f. relief = fro. 

fro^-getSjatSr, -hugatSr, a. wise- 
minded, wise] -leikr, m. (i) know- 
ledge, information ; (2) magic, witch- 
craft ; -liga, adv. sensibly ; eigi -liga, 
foolishly ; -ligr, a. sensible. 

frotSr, a. knowi7ig, learned, well- 
informed (hon var fr66 at morgu) ; 
froSar boekr, instructive books. 

froi, m. relief, «= fro. 

fron, n. poet, land, country. 

frum-burtSr, m. the first-born, first 
child', -ferill, m. one making a first 
visit', -forn, i. first-fruit; -getinn, 

pp. first-born ; -getnatSr, -getningr, 

m, «= -bur6r ; -gogn, n. pi. the main 
proofs', -bending, f. the foremost 

rhyming syllable in a line ; -hlaup, 

n. personal assault ; -kveSi, m. 

originator : -kvitSr, m. the first ver- 
dict ; -smitS, f. first attejnpt (in any 

art) ; -sok, f. original cause ; -tign, 

f. the highest dignity ; -ungr, a. ve7y 
young; -vaxta, a. indecl. i?t one's 

prime ; -vattr, m. the first, 07'iginal 

witness; -verr, n\. first husband. 
fru (gen. fru, pi. frur), f. mistress, 

lady ( = freyja). 

frygtJ, f. blossomings excellence, 

frysta (-ti, -t), v. to freeze. 

fryja (fry, frytSa, fryt), v. (i) to- 
defy, taunt (hon fry6i honum me6 
morgum orSumj ; f. e-m hugar, to 
challenge one's courage ; l)essi klaeSi 
fryja ykkr foSur-hefnda, those clothes 
challenge you to revenge your father ; 
(2) f. d. e-t, to complain of; to egg 
{goad) on. 

fryja, f. taunt, reproach; verja sik 
fryju, to clear oneself of reproach. 

fryju-laust, adv. blamelessly, beyond 
reproach ; -ortS, -yrtSi, n. taunt (leggja 
-or6 d e-n). 

fryn-ligr, a., frynn, a. -pleasant 
{-looking)^ inviting (only with nega- 
tive, cf. 'ufrynn'). 

free (dat. frasvi), n. seed (= frjo). 

frsBgtS, {.fame, renown. 

frcBgtSar-fullr, a. glorious; -for, f. 
glorious journey ; -matSr, m. famous 
man ; -mark, n. badge of glory ; -sam- 
ligr, a. glorious ; -skot, n. famous 
shot ; -verk, n.feat, exploit. 

frasgi-ligr, a. creditable, honourable. 

fraBgja (-tSa, -$r), v. to jnake famous. 

fraegr, &. famous (f. konungr). 

frse-korn, n. seed of corn. 

freenda-afli, m. strength in kinsmen \ 
-balkr, m. body of kinsmen ; -gengi, 
n. = frasndlid ; -gipta, {.family luck ; 
-Idt, n. loss {death) of kiftsmen ; -rog,, 
n. strife among kinsmen ; -skomm, f. 
disgrace to on^s family; -styrkr, m. 
strength [hacking) of kinsmen. 

freend-balkr, m. = frasnda-bdikr ; 
-gofugr, a. having distinguished kins- 
men ; -hagi, m. native place ; -hoUr, 
d., faithful to one's kinsmen. 

fraendi (pi. frasndr), m. kinsman 
(also used of a brother and a son) ; 
ySrir fyrri fraendr. your ancestors. 

fr8Bnd-kona, f . kinswoman ; -leif ^, 
{.patrimony, inheritance (after a kins- 
7nan) ; -lit5, n. host of kinsmen, family ; 
-lingr, -macSr, m. = fraendi ; -margr, 
a. having ?na?iy kinsmen ; -maer, f. 
maiden kinswoinan ; -rikr, a. rich in 
kifismen ; -roekinn, a. attached to 
one's kinsmen ; -samliga, adv. kins- 
manlike, kindly; -semi, f. rejation- 
ship, kifiship ; ganga vi6 -semi e-s, to 




acknowledge one as a kinsman ; var 
%6h -semi meS peim, there was good 
fellowship between them, they lived on 
good terms as kiyismen. 

frsBndsemis-spell, n. breach of kin- 
ship, incest ; -tala, f. tracing of kin- 
ship ; vera i -tolu vi6 e-n, to be of 
kinship with one. 

frsend-skartS, n. loss of a kinsinan ; 
-storr, a. having great ki7ismen ; 
-sveinn, m. young kinsjnan ; -sveit, 
f. body of kinsinen ; -vig, n. slaying 
of a kinsman. 

frsBr, 2.. yielding fruit, = frjor. 

fraBs, f. hissing (Jju gerdir f. mikla). 

freeva (atS), v. to fertilize. 

froeSa (-dd, -ddr), v. to teach. 

froe^i, f. and n. {\) k7tozu ledge, learn- 
ing, lore ; i sumum frceQum, in some 
old records {poems) ; (2) charms, spells 
(t)au kv^Qu J)ar froeSi sin, en J)at voru 

froetSi-boekr, f. pi. books of know- 
ledge ; -fysi, f. love of knowledge ; 
-mat$r, m. learned man, scholar, hiS' 
torian ; -nam, -nsBmi, n. acquisition 
of knowledge, learning, studying. 

froeki-liga, adv. valiantly. 

froekinn, and froekn, a. valiant, 
brave; froek-leikr and froekn-leikr, 
m. valour, bravery, prowess. 

frcekn-liga, adv. = froekiliga ; -ligr, 
a. valiant-looking, brave. 

fugl (-S, -ar), m. bird (for hann svd 
hart sem f. flygi) ; hafa f. af landi, to 
meet with land-birds, to be 7iear land. 

fugla-drdp, n. bird-killing; -drit, 
n. bird's dung; -kippa, f. bundle of 
fowls; -\i^,n. flock of birds. 

fuglari, vci. fowler, bird-catcher. 

fugla-songr, m. singing of birds ; 
-veiSr, f. bird-catching. 

fugl-berg, n. fowling-cliff; -heill, 
f. augury ; -veicSr, f. = fuglaveiSr ; 
-ver, n. fowling-piace ; -l)ufa, f. k7ioll 
on which birds sit. 

full, n. the fill of a drinking-vessel, 
a toast (66ins-full, etc). 

full-, in zovsv^diS. fully, quite, amply ; 
-bakatSr, pp. full-baked; -borSa, a. 

indecl. with bulwarks of full height 

(of a ship) ; -byli, n. full provisions 
for a house ; -ferma (-da, -dr), v. to 

load full; -froegr, a. full fa77ious\ 
-gamall, a. very old'. -goSr, a. quite 
good; -g0ra (-tSa, -Sr), v. to fdfil, 
co7nplete, perform ; -g0rla (-gprva), 
adv. quite, fully; -gorr, pp. fully 
dojie ; -hugi, m, dauntless tnan^ hero ; 
-hyggja (see hyggja), v. to love dear- 
ly; -ilia, adv. very badly; -keyptr, 
pp. bought full dearly ; -kominn, pp. 
perfect; -kominn at 2.\d\\,full grown ; 
-komliga, adv. fully; -kosta, a. 
indecl. fidl-matched {of 7nan and 
wife) ; -kvsBni, a. well married ; 
-launat$r,pp./zif//y rewarded; -leiksa, 
a. indecl. quite enough to do (hafa 
-leiksa) ; -liSa, a. indecl. having 7nen 
{troops) enough ; -malinn, pp. fully 
ground; -mikill, ?l. full great. 

fullna (atS), v. to fulfil, finish. 

fuUnatSr (gen. -ar), n\. fulfihnent; 
hafa fullnaS or mdli, to obtain one's 
full clai7n (in a suit). 

fuU-numi, a. having learnt fully, 
beco7ne an adept in a thing (-numi 1 
goldrum) ; -noegja (-tSa, -t), v. to 
be suflicient, to suflice \ -ortJiim, pp. 
full-grown, of age. 

fullr, a. {\)full {{. e-s or af e-u) ; f. 
upp uMnbdiV, fiill of savageness ; f. eitri 
(dat.), full of poison ; (2) full, C07n- 
plete, entire ; full v\ss2i, Jfull certainty ; 
soekja mdl til fullra laga, to the full 
extent of the law ; halda til fulls vi6 
e-n, to stand on one^sfull fight against 
another ; hafa fullara hlut, to get the 
better of it ; at fullu, til fulls, fully, 

full-ratSa, a. indecl. fully resolved ; 
-r6tti, n. a gross insult for which full 
atonefnent is due ; -ryninn, a. fully 
wise; -raetSi, n. {\) full efficiency; 
(2) full match ; -rostt, pp. n. enough 
spoken of; -roskr, a. in full stre7igth ; 
-sekta (at$), v. to make one a full out- 
law ; -skri^a, a. indecl. at full speed ; 
-spakr, a. full wise ; -steiktr, pp. 
fully roasted; -seela, f. wealth, bliss ; 
-sasla fj^r, great wealth ; -ssell, a. 
blissful; -scBftSr, pp. quite dead; 
-scemdr, '^'^. filly honoured ; -tekinn, 
pp. -tekinn karl, a full chafnpion ; 
-titSa, a. m^^oX. full-grown ; full-tida 
2i\dr,full age. 




fullting, n. help^ assistance. 

fulltingja (-da, -drj, v. to lend help^ 
assist, with dat. 

full-triii, m. one in whotn one puts 
full confidence, patron [deity) ; -tyja 
(-tytSa), V. = -tingja ; -vaxta, a. in- 
<iitc\. full-grown) -vegit, ^^.n. having 
slain enough ; -vel, adv. full well ; 
-vir5i, x\. full price; -J)roskat5r, pp. 
full-grown, grown to full strength ; 
-l)urr, ?i. fully dry. 

fundning, {.finding, 

fundr (-ar, -ir), m. (i) finding, dis- 
covery (fundr fjarins, f. Islands) ; (2) 
meeting; fara, koma i. fund e-s, til 
fundar vi6 e-n, to go to visit, or have 
talk with, one ; {'i) fight, battle. 

fund-viss, a. qtiick to find. 

funi, m.fiame (f. kveikist af funa). 

fur a, {.fir, fir-tree. 

furtSa (-atS), v. {\) to wonder; (2) to 
forebode, with dat.; illu mun i., ef, it 
will bode ill, if 

furtSa, f. {\) foreboding, omen ; g65s 
(ills) f., good {bad) omen ; (2) strange 
[wonderful) thing; ekki er J)etta nein 
f., V/i- fiothing strange. 

furcSu-, in compds., very, wonder- 
fully ; -djarfr, a. very i?isoient; 
-heiEQBkr, a. very foolish ; -liga, adv. 
very, exceedingly (-liga har, mikill, 
vel) ; -ligr, a. wonderful, marvellous ; 
-sterkr, a. very strong; -vel, adv. 
wonderfully well. 

furu-kvistr, xa.fir bough. 

fussum, m\.tx].fie, with dat. 

fustan, n. fustian (for. word). 

fuinn, a. rotten, decayed. 

fulga, i. fee paid for ali?nentation. 

fulgu-fall, Xi. forfeit of the alimenta- 
tion fee ; -f§, n., -f6naor, m. sheep or 
cattle put out to fodder ; -matSr, m. 
boarder, one boarded out. 

full, a. [i) foul, stinking; fult egg, 
a rotten egg; (2) ^<g.foul, 7nean. 

ful-leitr, a. of foul appearance ; 
-liga, adv. meanly ; -mannligr, a. 
mean, paltry ; -mennska, f. paltri- 
ness, baseness. 

fulna (atS), v. to become stinking. 

ful-yrSi, n. "^X. foul language. 

funa (atS), v. to rot, decay. 

furr (gen. furs), (poet). 

fus-liga, adv. willingly. 

fuss, a. willing, eager [i. e-s or til 
e-s ; f. at fara, etc.) ; absol., f. {wil- 
lingly) vil ek mina hamingju til leggja. 

fygla (-da, -t), v. to catch fowl. 

fyl (gen. pi. -ja), n.foal or filly. 

fylgtS, f. (1) following, guidance; 
(2) support, help, backing; (3) party, 
followers ; body-guard (of kings and 
princes) ; halda fylgS, to wait upoti 
the king. 

fylgSar-lauss, a. without atten- 
dants, alone ; -matSr, m. follower, 

fylgi, n. following, support ; auka 
sdr f., to win followers. 

fylgi-kona, f. concubine, mistress, 

fylginn, a. attached to (f. e-m). 

fylgi-samr, a. = fylginn. 

fylgja (-t$a, -t), v. (i) to accompany, 
help, with dat. ; f. e-m at, f. e-s mdlum, 
to side with one, take one's part ; (2) 
to lead, guide one (y5r var fylgt i 
kornhlo3u eina) ; (3) to pursue [{. fast 
flottamonnum) ; (4) to follow, be about 
one (konungr le't sveininn f. m63ur 
sinni) ; (5) to follow, observe (f. e-s 
rddum, f. hirSsiSum) ; (6) to belong or 
pertain to (segl ok rei6i er fylgdu skip- 
inu) ; (7) lata f., to add; J)at l^t hann 
f., at, he added that ; (8) refl., fylgjast, 
to follow one another; fig. to hold 
together (hann bad sina menn f. vel, 
hold well together). 

fylgja, f. (i) guidance (beiSa e-n 
fylgju) ; (2) female guardian spirit ; 
attendant spirit in animal form (J)u 
munt vera feigr maSr ok muntu hafa 
set fylgju t)ina). 

fylgjandi (pi. -jendr), va. follower. 

fylgjari, m. = fylgjandi. 

fylgju-engill, m. guardian angel; 
-kona, f. (I) = fylgja (2) ; (2) = fylgi- 
kona ; -lag, n. concubinage ; -samr, 
a. = fylgisamr. 

fylgsni, n. hiding-place, 

fylja, i. filly. 

fylki (gen. pi. fylkja), n. (i) district, 
county, shire, in Norway (J)at er f. 
kallat, er gora md. af tolf skip) ; (2) 
battalion, host (in battle). 

fylking (pi. -ar), f. (i) battle array ; 
(2) host, legion. 




fylkingar-armr, m. wing of an 
army ; -broddr, m. vanguard of a 
host (i ondverdum -broddi). 

fylkir (gen. -is), m. chief, king. 

fylkis-konungr, m. chief of a dis- 
trict ; a petty king. 

fylkja (-ta, -tr), v. to draw tip {in 
battle array), with dat., or absol. 

fylla (-da, -dr), v. (i) to fill (f. e-t 
e-s or af e-u) ; (2) to complete, make 
up (f. t>at, er i. skortir) ; (3) to fulfil', 
(4) f. flokk e-s, to side with one; (5) 
refl , fyllast ahyggju ok hraedslu (gen.), 
to be filled with care and fear. 

fylli, f. 07ie''s fill (gefa e-m f. sina 
matar ok drykkjar). 

fylli-liga, 3.^v. fully. 

fylling, f. {i) filling; {p.) fulfilment. 

fyl-merr, f. a mare with a foal. 

fyrtSar, m. pi. 7nen, warriors (poet.). 

fyrir, prep., I. with dat. (1) before, in 
front of (ok vom fyrir honum borin 
merkin) ; f. dyrum, before the door ; 
(2) before one, in one's presence ; hon 
nefndist f. J)eim Gunnhildr, she told 
them that her name was G.; {"^ for; 
hann Idt rySja f. J)eim buSina, he had 
the booth cleared for them, for their 
7'eceptio7i ; (4) before one, in one's 
way ; fjorSr var6 f. J)eim, they cafne 
to a fjord; sitja f. e-m, to lie in wait 
for one; (5) naut. term, before, off; 

^ogj^- f- bryggjum, to lie off the piers ; 
f. Humru-mynni, off the Number ; 
(6) before, at the head of over; vera 
f. H(3i, to be over the troops ; vera f. 
mdli, to lead the case ; sitja f. svorum, 
to undertake the defence ; (7) of time, 
<^S0\ f- l>rem nottum, three flights 
ago ; f. stundu, a while ago ; f. longu, 
long ago ; vera f. e-u, to forebode (of 
a dream) ; (8) before, above, superior 
to ; Halfdan svarti var f. J)eim broeS- 
rum, H. was the fore7nost of the 
brothers ; (9) denoting disadvantage, 
har7n, suffering; t)u Icetr Egil vefja 
oil mdl f. per, thou let test E. thwart 
all thy affairs ; tok at eyQast f. henni 
lausa-fe, her mo7tey began to fail; 

(10) denoting obstacle, hindrance ; 
mikit g0ri J)er mer f. J)essu ma\\, yozi 
make this case hard for 77ie ; var6 
honum litit f. ]5vi, // was a S77iall 

matter for him ; Asgrimi l)6tti Jjungt 
fyrir, A. thought that things looked 
bad; (11) because of, for; hon undi 
sdr hvergi f. verkjum, she had no rest 
for paitis ; f. hrasSsIu, for fear ; ilia 
foert f . isum, scarcely passable for ice ; 
ga6u t)eir eigi f. veiSum at fa heyjanna, 
because of fishi7ig they neglected to 
i7iake hay ; f. J)vi at, because, since, 
as; ( 1 2 1 against ; gset pin vel f . kon- 
ungi ok hans monnum, guard thee 
well against the king and his 77ien ; 
beiSa griSa Baldri f. alls konar haska, 
agai7ist all ki7ids of harm ; (13) f. ser, 
of oneself; mikill f. ser, strong, power- 
ful ; minnstr f. ser, smallest, weakest ; 
(14) denoting 77ianner or quality, 
with ; hvitr f. hasrum, white with 
hoa7y hair; II. with ace. (i) before, 
in front of; halda f. augu ser, to hold 
{one's hands) before one's eyes ; (2) 
before, into the presence of; stefna 
e-m f. domstol, before a court ; (3) 
over; hlaupa f. bjorg, to leap over a 
precipice; kasta f. bor6, to throw 
overboard; (4) in one^s way, crossing 
one^s way ; rida d lei6 f. pa, to ride 
in their way, so as to 77ieet the7n ; (5) 
round, off; sigla f. nes, to weather a 
point; (6) along, all along; f. endi- 
langan Noreg, all along Norway, from 
one end to the other ; draga or f. odd, 
to draw the arrow past the point; 
(7) of ti77ie, f. dag, before day; f. e-s 
minni, before 07ie's 77ie77tory ; (8) for, 
071 behalf of ; vil ek bj66a at fara f. 
pik, / will offer to go for thee, in thy 
stead ; 16_;vorn f. mdl, a lawful defence 
for a case ; (9) for, for the be7iefit of; 
peir skdru f. pa melinn, they cut the 
ly7ne-grass for them (the horses) ; (10) 
for, instead of, in place of, as; (11) 
for, because ^(vilja Gunnar dauSan f. 
hoggit) ; {."^ivi oxb,f or thy words [inter- 
cessio7i) ; f. sina vinsseld, by reason of 
his popularity ; (12) denoting vahie, 
price; f. ^x']i.x v^^xVx, for three 77iarks ; 
f. hvern mun, by all mea7is, at a7iy 
cost ; (13) in spite of, against (giptast 
f. ra6 e-s) ; (14) joined with adverbs 
ending in -an, governing ace. (f. au- 
stan, vestan, sunnan, nordan, utan, 
innan, framan, handan, ofan, neSan) : 




f. austan, sunnan fjall, east^ south 
of the fell ; f. neSan bru, belo7V the 
bridge ; f. handan ^, beyond the river ; 
f. innan gard, inside the fe?tce ; III. as 
adverb or ellipt. (i) ahead, before, 
opp. to ' eptir ' ; p^ var eigi bins verra 
eptir van, er slikt for f., when this 
came first, preceded \ {2) first; mun 
ek far eptir gera sem \)tr gerit f., / 
shall do to you according as you do 
first ; (3) at hand, present, to the fore ; 
fong {)au, er f. voru, stores that were 
at hand) J)ar var f. fjoldi boSsmanna, 
a host of guests was already present 
(before the bride and bridegroom 
came) ; (4) e-m verdr e-t f., one takes 
a certain step, acts so and so ; Kolbeini 
vard ekki f,, K, was at a loss what to 
do ; e-t mselist vel (ilia) f., a thing is 
well {ill) spoken or reported of (kv^b'xi 
maeltist vel f.). 

fyrir-banna (aS), v. to forbid^ deny 
(e-m e-t) ; -bending, f . foreboding ; 
-bjotJa (see bjocSa), v. to forbid', -bo?5a 
(a$), V. to forebode ', -botSan, f. fore- 
boding', -botSning, f. forbidding', 
-bon, f. imprecation ; -burtSr, m. ap- 
peat-ance, vision ; -biia (see bua), v. 
to prepare ; -bunatSr, -buningr, m. 
preparation ; -doema (-da, -dr), v. to 
condejnn ; -fara (see fara), v. to de- 
stroy ; -fari, m. foi-eboding ; -folk, 
n. great folk, persons of distinction ; 
-furSa, f. = -fari ; -ganga, f, walking 
ahead, leading', -gefa (see gefa), v. 
to forgive ; -gefhing, f. forgiveness ; 
-g0ra (-tSa, -6r), v. to forfeit (-g0ra 
e-u) ; -heit, r\. p7'omise ', -huga (atS), 
v. to intend for (e-m e-t) ; -hugsa 
(aS), V. to pretneditate', -hyggja, f. 
forethought, care ; -koma (see koma), 
V. (i) to destroy, with dat. ; (2) avert, 
i)revent', -kona, f. woman of dis- 
tinction ; -konungr, m. distinguished 
king; -kunna (see kunna), v. to 
blame onefor{-k\innd. e-n e-s) ; -kvetSa 
(see kve^a), v. to refuse (e-m e-t) ; 
-lat, n. forgiveness-, -lata (see lata), 
V. (l) to let go, give up', (2) to for- 
give (e-m e-t) ; (3) to give way ; -latr, 
a. not exacting, yielding', -latsam,r, 
a., ekki -latsamr, stubborn ; -leggja 
(see leggja), v. to lay aside, forsake ; 

refl., -leggjast um e-t, to give it up', 
-leitinn, a. circumspect', -leitni, f. 
circumspection ; -litligr, a. co7i- 
te7nptible', -lita (see lita), v. to de- 
spise ; -Ijuga ' see Ijiiga), v. (i) to for- 
swear by /zVj(-ljuga tru sinni); (2 with 
ace. to slander', -mat5r, m. {\) fore- 
man, chief; (2) one who excels others; 
(3 ) predecessor ; -mannligr, a. distin- 
guished-looking ; -muna ( see muna ), 
V. to grudge one a thing (e-m e-tj ; 
-mfiBla (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to injure one 
by one's words (-masia e-m) ; (2) to 
curse; -nem.a (seenenia),v. (i)-nema 
e-m mal, to deprive o?ie of speech, 
make one silent ; (2) refl., -nemast e-t, 
to forbear ; -rasari, -rennari, vn. fore- 
runner ; -rum, n. the ' room ' in a ship 
of war before the ' lypting ', the ?niddie 
''room* of a boat. 

fyrirrums-raatSr, m. one stationed 
iti the fyrirrum. 

fyrir-sat, f., -sdtr, n. ambush ; -segja 
(see segja), v. to foretell; -setning, 
f. preposition ; -sjon, f. laughing- 
stock ; -skyrta,f. ^ fore-shirt\ apron ; 
-spa, f. prophecy; -sveija (see sver- 
ja), V. to forswear, renounce by oath ; 
-sogn, f. dictation, instruction ; -taka 
(see taka), \. {i) to deny, refuse; (2) 
to forbid; -tolur, f. pi. persuasion; 
-vari, m. precautio?t ; -vega (see 
vega), V. to forfeit by manslaughter; 
-vertSa (see verc5a), v. to collapse, 
vanish ; -verfia sik, to be destroyed; 
refl., -verdast, to perish, collapse; 
-vinnast (see vinna), v. refl., lata 
-vinnast, to be idle, forbear (doing a 
thing) ; -vist, f. leading, manage?nent; 
-aetlan, f. design, purpose. 

fymast (d), v. refl. {i) to get old, 
decay ; (2) to be forgotten (bans nafn 
rnun aldri f.) ; henni fyrndist aldri fall 
Olafs konungs, she never forgot king 
Olafs death. 

fyrnd, f. (i) age, antiquity ; 1 fyrnd- 
inni, in ti7nes of yore ; (2) decay, 
dilapidation (f. kirkjunnar). 

fyrnska, f. (i) age ; slitinn af fymsku, 
worn with age ; (2) witchcraft ; vita 
fymsku, to be skilled in witchcraft. 

fymsku-hattr, m. old fashion. 

fyrr, adv. (i) befote, sooner ; J)vi betr 




I)ykki m6r er ver skiljum f., t^e sooner 
we part the better ; sv^ sem f. sogdum 
ver, as we said before ; f. en, before 
(conj.), sooner than ; (2) rather. 

fyrri, a. compar. former \ fyrstr, 
a. superl. the first, foremost \ hinn 
fyrra hlut vetrar, in the early part of 
the winter \ hit fyrra sumar, the sum- 
mer before last', ydrir fyrri frsendr, 
your ancestors ; ver6a fyrri til e-s, at 
e-u, to be the first to do a thing', eigi 
fellr tre ^i5 hit fyrsta hogg, a tree 
does not fall at the first blow. 

fyrri, adv. ( = fyrr) before, sooner, 
rather (fyrri skal ek deyja, en). 

fyrr-meirr, 2l^-v. formerly^ informer 
times, previously. 

fyrrum, 2i^\. formerly, before. 

fyrst, adv. superl. ( i ) first ; gekk 
Hrutr fyrst [foremost) okkvaddi kon- 
unginn : sem f., as soon as possible ; 
f. i staS, directly, at once', (2) conj. 
(rare) as^ since. 

fyrsta, f., 1 fyrstunni, 1 fyrstu, iii the 
beginning, at first. 

fyla, f. {\) foulness, stink', (2) dirty 
fellow (= mannfyla). 

fysa (-ta, -tr), v. to urge (f. e-n e-s) ; 
impers., mik fysir, / a7)i eager, desire 
strongly (mik fysir til Islands, heim) ; 
refl., fysast, to desire, feel desirous or 
eager', also ellipt. (hann kvaQst eigi f. 
til Islands at sva bunu). 

fysi, f. wish, desire (= fysn, fyst). 

fysi-liga, adv. willingly, desirably ; 
-ligr, a. desirable, attractive. 

fysn, fyst, f. = fysi ; e-m er fyst i. 
at gera e-t, one is desirous of doing 
{or eager to do) a thing. 

festS, f. {i) fewness, scantiness', (2) 
coldness {in intercourse) ; f. er meS 
J)eim, they are on i?tdifierent terms ; 
laka f., to become melancholy. 

fsBgja (-tSa, -tSr), v. (i) to polish ; (2) 
to cleafise (f. sdrj. 

faBkka (at$), v. (i) to make few, re- 
duce in number', (2) refl., faekkast, to 
grow cold, unfriendly (heldr tok at f. 
me6 t)eim). 

feBla (-da, -dr), v. to frighten, scare 
(f. e-n braut) ; refl., faelast e-t, to be 
frightened at; hestar faeldust, the 
horses shied. 

fsBling, {.frightening. 

faelinn, a. shy, ti7nid. 

fasr, f. sheep. 

Fasr-eyingar, m. pi. the Faroe Islan' 
ders ; -eyjar, f. pi. the Faroe Islands. 

faBr-eyskr, a. Faroese. 

faeta, v. to have to do with (f. um e-t). 

faBtka, fsBtta (atS), v. = faskka. 

foetSa (-dda, -ddr), v. (i) to feed, 
give food to', {2) to rear, bring up 
( = f. upp) ; (3) to give birth to (fceddi 
Bergljot sveinbarn) ; (4) refl., fcedast, 
to feed, live on a thing (f. viQ e-t); 
to be born ; to be brought up ( = f. upp). 

foetSa, f., foetSi, (= foezla). 

foetSing, f. birth, delivery. 

fcetSingi (pi. -jar), m. native', vera 
f. i e-u landi, to be born in a country. 

foera (-cSa, -$r), v. {\)to bring, convey 
(f. f^ til skips); (2) to bring, present 
(f. e-m e-t) ; f. e-m hofuQ sitt, to sur- 
render to one ; f. e-m kvasSi, to deliver 
a poem ; (3) to remove (f. kirkju, f. bu 
sitt) ; (4) with preps., f. e-t at e-m, to 
inflict o?i one ; f. skomm at e-m, to 
sneer at one ; refl., foerast at, to bestir 
oneself', mega ekki at foerast, to be 
unable to do anythi7ig', f. d e-n, to 
mock one ; refl., foerast a foetr, to grow 
uP', f. e-n fram, to maintain, feed', i. 
e-t 1 hljodmaeli, to hush up ; f. e-n i 
kaf, to plunge one uftder wafer ; f. sik 
i aett, to vijidicate one's kinship (by a 
gallant deed) ; f. e-n ni6r = f. e-n i kaf; 
f. korn (sa6) ni6r, to put dow7i corn 
{seed), to sow ; f. e-t sundr, to split 
asunder', f. e-n til kristni, to convert 
to Christianity ; f. til retts mdls, to 
turn into prose ; refl., foerast undan 
e-u, to quit {release) oneself of ', f. upp, 
to put up (f. upp vef ) ; to lift up (f. upp 
0xina); to take out (f. upp mat or 
katli) ; f. lit budarveggi, to enlarge the 
walls of a booth. 

foertS, f. condition of the roads. 

foeri, n. (i) opportunity ; komast i f. 
vid e-n, to get a chance to attack one ; 
vera i foerum til e-s or um e-t, to be 
able to do a thing', (2) what one is 
able to ^^(ekki astla ek petta mitt f.); 
(3 ) fishing-line. 

foeri-ligr, a. (l) practicable, easy; 
(2) -ligr hestr, a strong horse. 




fcer-leikr, m. ability, strefigth. 

foerr, a. {i) able togoivoru {)eir allra 
manna bezt foerir baeSi d fceti ok a 
skiSum) ; (2) capable of being passed, 
passable, safe (PctlandsfjorQr var eigi 
f.); foert ve3r, weather Jit for t^-avei- 
ling\ skip iccrt, fit for use, seaworthy, 
(3 ) f . t i 1 e- s , capable of, able to do a thing. 

fcEzla, {.food, = fceSa. 

fotJur-arfr, m. inheritance after a 
father ; -bani, m. slayer of another' s 
father ; -betrun gr, m. one better than 
his father', -brotJir, vaf ather' s brother, 
uncle \ -bcetr, f. pi. weregild for a 
father \ -frsendi, m. kinsman on the 
father's side ; -gart5r, m. a father s 
house ; -gjold, n. pi. weregild for one' s 
father ; -hefndir, f . pi. reve7ige for 
one's father', -kyn, n. father s kin', 
skozkr at -kyni, 07i the father's side ; 
-leif, -leif t5, f. patrimony ; -ligr, a. 
fatherly ; -motSir, f. father's mother, 
grandJN other; -tun, n.= -garQr ; -aett, 
f. kinsfolk on the father's side. 

fol, f. thin coveriitg of snow. 

fol-leitr, a. pale-looking', -litatSr, 
pp. pale-coloured. 

folna (at$j, v. to grow pale (folnaSi 
ok hiseddist) ; to wither (gras folnar) ; 
kirkja fyrnd ok folnu6, decayed. 

folnan, f . withering, fadijig away. 

folr (ace. -van), a. pale ; f. sem aska 
(gras, ndr), pale as ashes {grass, a 

folskatSr), a. covered with folski. 

folski, m. 7uhite ashes. 

fonn (gen. fannar ; pi. fannir), f. 
(i) snow (hvitr sem f. nyfallin); (2) 

for (gen. farar ; pi. farar and farir), 
f. (i) journey, vera 1 f. me3 e-m, to 
be in company with o?te ; vera i forum, 
to be on trading voyages ; eiga skip 1 
forum, to own a trading ship ; (2) 
attack, assault (= atforj ; (3) fate 
(munt pu hafa farar Hakonar jarls) ; 
ver munum fara eina for allir, it will 
go with us all in the satne way ; (4) 
vera i. foru (forum), to be on the wane 
(lausafe bans var heldr i. forum). 

forlast (atS), v. refl. to fall into 
decay ; impers., e-m forlast, one grows 
weak (from age). 

fornutSr, m. = farnaSr. 

foru-kona, f. vagrant woman. 

fdru'l, a. rambli7ig, strolling about. 

f6ru-mat5r, m. vagrant, beggar', 
-mannligr, a. beggarly, -nautr, m. 
fellow-traveller, companion ; -neyti, 
n. (i) company, (2) retinue, -piltr, 
m. vagrant lad, beggar. 

fostu-dagr, m. {i) fist-day ; (2) Fri- 
day {= frjddagr) ; -dagrinn langi, Good 
Friday ; -inngangr, m. beginning of 
Lent, Shrove-tide ; -kveld, n. Friday 
evening; -titS, f., -timi, vi\. fast-time. 

foxottr, a. having a mane different 
i?i colour from the body (f. hestr). 


gabb, n. mocking, mockery. 

gabba (atS), v. to mock, make game 
of one (g. e-n). 

gadda (atS), v. to gore, spike. 

gadda-kylfa, f. club with spikes. 

gaddan, n. a kind of headgear {xdsz). 

gadd-hjalt, n. a sword-gua^'d end- 
ing in sharp points. 

gaddr (-s, -ar), m. (i) goad, spike; 
fig., var mjok 1 gadda slegit, at, it was 
all but settled that ; (2) hard snow, 

gafl, m. gable, gable-end. 

gaJlak, n. ' gavelock' , javelin, dart. 

gafl-hlat5, n. gable-end (= -veggr). 

gaflok, n. = gaflak. 

gafl-stokkr, vi\. gable-beam \ -veggr, 
m. gable-wall = -hla6. 

gagarr, m. dog (rare). 

gag-hals, a. with the neck thrown 
back (hirtir gaghalsir). 

gagl, n. small goose, gosling; bird; 
-bjartr, a. b7'ight as a goose ; -vitSr, 
m. '■bird-wood'. 

gagn, n. ( i ) advantage, use ; verSa 
e-m at gagni, to be of use to one ; er 
eigi mun vera g. 1, that will be of no 
use ; (2) produce, revenue, esp. of 
land ; (3) domestic utensils ; (4) lug- 




^<^ge ; (5) victory ; hafa (f^) g., to have 
i^gain) the victory; (6) ^\.g6gn, proofs, 

gagna (at$), v. to be of use to one 
(g. e-m) or for sofnething ; refl., gagn- 
ast, to avails be of use. 

gagn-autSigr, a. very productive (of 
land) ; well stored (bu -auSigt). 

gagn-dagar, see ' gangdagar'. 

gagn-dyrt, a. n. with doors opposite 
one another. 

gagn-foeriligr, -fcerr, a. penetrable, 

gagn-gort, a. n., only in the phrase, 
d -gort, straight. 

gagn-hollr, a. mutually kind. 

gagn-hrsBddr, a. much frightened. 

gagn-kvoS, f. counter'summons . 

gagn-laus3, a. useless, of no use 
(hann var g. flestum monnum). 

gagn-leiS, -leitJi, n. short cut. 

gagn-mfiBli, n. gainsaying. 

gagn-ortSr, a. speaking to the point, 
hitting the mark. 

gagn-samligr, a. useful, prof table ; 
-sarar, a. beneficent, kind, hospitable 
(-samr vi6 menn) ; -semd, f. hos- 
pitality, readiness to help. 

gagn-s6nn, pp. = -sser. 

gagn-skorinn, pp. (i) cut through ; 
(2) carved all over. 

gagna-ma^r, m. useful (beneficent) 
man ; -munir, m. pi. useful things ; 
veita e-m -muni, to help one. 

gagn-statSa, f. resistance ; -statSligr, 
a. contrary, opposed to (e-u). 

gagn-stigr, m. short cut. 

gagn-stoetSligr, a. = -staSligr. 

gagrnstocSu-fiokkr, m. adverse party; 
-matSr, m. adversary, opponent. 

gagn-ssBr, a. t7'anspare7it (glerit er 

gagn-sok, f. counter-action, counter- 

gagn-tak, n. saddle-strap. 

gagn-vart, prep, with dat. and adv., 
over against (sitja -vart e-m). 

gagn-vegr, m. short cut, = -lei3. 

gagn-vert, prep, with dat. and adv. 
over against, opposite (to). 

gagn-vaenligr, a. profitable. 

gala (gel ; gol, golum ; galinn), v. 
{i) to crow (of a cock), cryy screa?n ; I 

(2) to sing, chant ; g. galdra yfir e-m, 
to chant magic songs over one ; afl 
gol hann Asum, he chanted strength 
into the ^sir. 

gal, n. screaming, howling. 

galdr (gen. -rs, pi. -rar), m. (i) 
magic song, charm (gala, kve6a galdra 
yfir e-m) ; (2) pi. witchcraft, sorcery 
(galdrar ok gorningar). 

galdra-bok, n. book of magic ; -fullr, 
a. full of sorcery, -hritS, f. 7nagic 
storm ; -kind, f . foul witch ; -kona, 
f. witch, sorceress ; -list, f. magic art ; 
-lasti, n. pi. magical 7nu7nmeries ; 
-matSr, m. wizard ; -raumr, m. great 
sorce7'er ; -smitSr, m. so7'cerer. 

galdr-ligr, a. 7nagical. 

galeitS (pi. galeitSr and galei?5ir\ 
f. galley. 

galinn, pp. (i) enchanted; (2) mad, 
frantic (foru galnir sem hundar). 

gall, n. gall, bile ; sour drink. 

galla-lauss, 2i. faultless. 

gall-beiskr, a. bitter as gall; -bland- 
inn, pp. 77iixed with gall. 

gall-hartSr, a. hard as stone, 

galli, m. defect, fault, flaw. 

galti, m. boar, hog ( = goltr). 

gamall (gomul, gamalt), a. (i) 
old; i. gamals aldri, in his old age; 
opt er gctt |)at er gamlir kve6a, old 
771671^5 sayings are often good; (2) 
old, aged, ofi a certain age ; hve g. 
maSr ertu, how old art thou f tolf 
vetra (gen.) g., twelve years old. 

gamal-ligr, a. elde7'ly ; -menni, n. 
old 77ian ; -orar, m. pi. dotage f7'077i 
old age ; -oerr, a. i7i dotage. 

gaman (dat. gamni), n. ga7ne, sport, 
pleasure, a77iuse77ient ; mer l3ykkir g. 
at e-u, / a7n a77iused by it; henda 
(sdr) g. at e-u, to 77iake ga7ne oj ; jotni 
at gamni, to the delight of the giant; 
taka undir i gamni, to respond in 
jest; hafa e-t til gamans, to a77tuse 
oneself w th. 

gaman-leikr, m. ga7ne, amuse- 
77ie7it ; -mal, n. 77ierry talk, joking ; 
-runar, f. pi. joyful conve7'sation ; 
-roetSa, f. = -mdl ; -samligr, a. a77tus- 
i7ig; -sa.iir, a. 77ier7y, jocose. 
garaans-fert$, f. pleasure trip ; 
-fundr, m. 7nerry-7naking, 




gaman-visa, f. a hufnorons verse ; 
-yrtJi, n. ^^X. jesting talk. 

gamban-reitSi, f. great wrath ; 
-sumbl, n. great banquet] -teinn, 
m. a kind of magic staff. 

gambr (gen. -rs), m. a kind of bird. 

gambra (atS), v. to brag, bUister. 

gamlatSr, pp. stricken in years. 

gammi, m. hut of a Finn. 

garamr (-s, -ar), m. vulture. 

gamna (atS), v. to divert, a^nuse (g. 
e-m med sogum). 

gan, n. frenzy, frantic gestures. 

gana (-da), v. (i) to gape, show a 
fissure ; g. d e-t, to gape for or after 
(g. a ran) ; (2) to rush (g. at e-m) ; 
(3) to gaze, stare. 

gandr (-3, -an, m. magic staff; 
renna gondum, to ride a witch-ride. 

gand-reitS, f. witch-ride. 

ganga (geng ; gekk, gengum ; 
genginn), v. (l) to walk (reid jarl, 
en Karkr gekk) ; (2) to go ; g. heim, 
to go home ; g. braut, to go away ; 
g. til hvilu, to go to bed; g. d skip, 
to go on board; g. af skipi, to go 
ashore ; with infin., g. sofa or at sofa, 
to go to sleep ; g. at eiga konu, to 
marry a woman ; ($) to go about graz- 
ing, to graze (kdlfrinn gekk 1 tuni um 
sumarit) ; (4) of a ship, to run, sail 
(gekk skipit brdtt ut a haf ) ; (5) to 
stretch out, exte?td, project (nes mikit 
gekk i sae ut) ; (6) of report, tales, to 
be curre7it (litlar sogur megu g. af 
hesti minum) ; (7) to prevail; gekk 
J)a3an af 1 Englandi Valska, thereafter 
the French tongue prevailed in E. ; 
(8) of money, to be current (peningar 
J)eir, sem nu ganga) ; of laws, to be 
valid (t)au log, er gengu d. Uppsala- 
|)ingi) ; of sickness, plague, famine, 
to rage (J)a gekk land-farsott, drepsott, 
hallasri) ; (9) to go 07i, last (gnustu ])a 
saman vdpnin, ok gekk J)at um hri5) ; 
impers., gekk ]Dvi lengi, so it went on 
for a long while; (10) Idta g. e-t, to 
let go on ; lata hoggin g., to raiii 
blows ; Birkibeinar letu g. luSrana, 
blew the trumpets vigorously ; (11) 
to succeed; ef l)at gengr eigi, if that 

will not do ; impers., sva J)ykt, at 

peim gekk J)ar eigi at fara, so close. 

that they could not ^0 on there ; J)eim 
gekk ekki fyrir nesit, they cotild not 
clear the tiess; (12) to turn out. go 
in a specified way; g. andasris, logo 
all wrong ; mart gengr verr en varir, 
ma?iy a thing goes worse than is 
looked for ; gekk f)eim litt atsoknin, 
they made little prog}-ess with the 
attack; impers., e-m gengr vel (ilia), 
one faj-es [goes on, gets on) well 
[badly) ; (13) with ace, g. e-n i. bak, 
to force one to go backwards [ liann 
gengr bjorninn d bak) ; (14) with dat., 
to discharge (gekk hann J)d bl65i) ; 
(15) with preps, and adverbs ; g. af 
e-u, to depart from, leave i pd gekk af 
honum moSrinn) ; g. af vitinu, to 
go out of one'' s tuits; g. af tru sinni, 
to apostatize; to pass (siQan gengu af 
pdskarnir) ; to go off (gekk t^egar af 
hofuSit) ; to be left as surplus (|)at er 
af skuldinni gekk) ; nu gengr honum 
hey af, now he has some hay left ; g. 
af ser, to go to extremities, to go 
beyond oneself [m]6k ganga Jjeir fost- 
brceSr nu at se;); g. aptr, to revert 
[return) to the former proprietor 
(si3an gengu Jjau lond aptr undir 
A ma) ; to be void, annulled (J)d skal 
kaup aptr g.) ; of a ghost, to walk 
again ; of a door, to close, shut (gekk 
eigi aptr hurSin) ; g. at e-m, to attack 
one ; g. at e-u, to agree to, accept a 
choice or offer (Flosi gekk fljott at 
J)essu ollu) ; to jit (skaltu fd mer lukla 
jDa, sem ganga at kistum ySrum) ; g. 
d e-t, to e?tcroach upon (g. d riki 
e-s) ; to break (g. d ord sin, ei6a. griS, 
s^ttir, tryg6ir) ; to pierce, penetrate ; 
hann var 1 panzara, er ekki gekk d, 
that was proof against ajiv weapofts ; 
g. a vald e-s or e-m, g. a hond (hendr) 
e-m, to stibmit to, give 07ieself up to, 
surrender to one ; g. d bak e-u, to 
contravene; g. eptir e-u, to go for, go 
to fetch (gongum heim eptir ver6inu) ; 
to pursue, claim ; g. eptir, to prove 
true, be fuljil led [\>&ii2i gekk allt eptir, 
sem M. sag6i fyrir) ; g. frd e-u, to 
part with, lose (sumir munu g. frd 
ollu fenu) ; g. fram, to step forward ; 
g. fram vel, to go forward bravely, in 
a battle ; to come to pass, come into 




execution (skal J)ess bi6a, er J)etta 
gengr fram) ; to increase {i€ Hall- 
gerSar gekk fram ok gorSist allmikit) ; 
to depart this life (H. bondi gengr 
fram til frccnda sinna) ; g. fyrir e-n, 
to present oneself before one (g. fyrir 
konung) ; g. fyrir e-u, to take charge 
of, jnanage (var Jjar mart folk, en 
husbondi gekk svd fyrir, at ekkert 
skorti) ; to yield to, be swayed by 
(hann gekk l)d fyrir fortolum hennar) ; 
g. i gegn e-m, to set oneself against 
one ; g, i gegn e-u, to confess^ acknow- 
ledge ; maSr gengr i gegn, at d. braut 
kvedst tekit hafa, the man confessed 
and said that he had taken it away ; 
g. 1 md.1, to undertake a case ; g. me6 
e-m (of a woman ', to marry ; g. med 
barni, to be with child; g. me6 bur6i 
(of animals), to be with young \ g. 
me3 e-u, to assist i?i, plead (g. me3 
mdii, bonorSi) ; g. milli (d m., i m.), 
to go between, intercede ; g. moti 
(d m., i m.) e-m, to go to meet one ; 
g. moti e-u, to resist, oppose ; to co?i- 
fess, = g. i gegn, g. vi3 e-u ; g. nasr 
e-m, to be troublesome to one (J)6tti 
hon cerit nser g. f>orger6i) ; g. e-m 
nasr, to approach, come near to one 
(sd hefir d brott komizt, er nsest gekk 
Gunnari um alia hluti) ; g. saman, to 
marry ; of an agreement, bargain, 
to be brought about ; saman gekk 
kaupit med J)eim, they came to a bar- 
gain ; g. sundr (i s.), to go asunder, 
part', g. til, to go up to a thing 
(gangit til ok hyggit at) ; of the wind, 
to veer (veSrit gekk til utsuSrs) ; e-m 
gengr e-t til e-s, one has sof?te reaso?t 
for doing a thing ; en J)at gekk mer 
til I)ess {that was niy reason), at ek 
ann J)er eigi ; hversu hefir ykkr til 
gengit, how have you fared ? Loka 
gekk litt til, it fared ill with L. ; g. 
um e-t, to go about a thing ; g. um 
beina, to wait upon guests ; g. um 
saettir, to go between, as peaceinaker ; 
g. um e-n, to befall, happen to one 
(t^ess, er um margan gengr guma) ; of 
the wind, to go round, veer (gekk um 
ve6rit ok styrmdi at t^eim) ; to manage 
(fekk hon svd um gengit, at) ; g. undan, 
*o escape to absent oneself; g. undir 

e-t, to take upon oneself, undertake 
[a duty) ; g. undir e-n, to subject one- 
self to; g. upp, to be wasted (of 
money) ; to get loose, to be torn loose 
(peir glimdu svd at upp gengu stokkar 
allir a husinu) ; of a storm, gale, to get 
up, rise (ve6r gekk upp) ; of an ice- 
bound river, ain var gengin upp, 
swollen with ice ; g. vi6 staf, to walk 
with a stick ; g. vi6 e-u or e-t, to 
avow ; g. yfir e-t, to go beyond, dis- 
regard (hann vildi eigi g. yfir ^at, er 
hann vissi rdttast) ; g. yfir e-n, to 
overcome, to befall, happen to one ; 
slikt sem yfir hefir gengit, all that 
has happened ; eitt skal yfir okkr g., 
we shall share one fate \ (i6) refl., 
gangast, to be altered, to change, of 
tradition (g. 1 munni) ; lata e-t g., to 
waive, give up ; e-m gengst hugr vi3, 
is jnoved to compassion by something 
(pd. gekst f^orgerdi hugr vi3 harma- 
tolur bans) ; gangast at, to engage in 
a fight (t)eir gengust at lengi) ; g. d, 
to be set off against one another (d 
gengust vigin huskarlanna) ; to dash 
against o?ie another ; a gengust eiSar, 
the oaths were broken ; g. nser, to 
come to close quarters ; g. vid, to 
gain strength : d6r en vi6 gengist 
bans baen, before his prayer should 
be fulfilled ', E. haf6i mikit vi6 geng- 
izt um menntir, E. had much im- 
proved himself in good breeding. 

ganga, f. (i) walking (hann mcedd- 
ist i gongu) ; vera i gongu, to be on 
foot, to walk; (2) course (g. tungls, 

gangandi, m. wayfarer. 

gangdaga-vika, f. Rogation week ; 
-{)ing, n. an assembly held during 
Rogation week. 

gang-dagar, m. pi. Rogation daysy 
' Gang- days ' ; -foeri, n. the condition 
of the roads ; illt (gott) -foeri, bad 
{good) walking; -prucSr, a. with 
stately gait. 

gangr (gen. gangs), m. (i) walking 
(vera d gangi) ; motion, activity of 
any kind (J^a var hvert jdrn d gangi) ; 
(2) pace, pacing {t&m']2i hesta vi6 gang 
ok hlaup) ; (3) course (g. himintungla) ; 
(4) prevaili?tg, being in vogue ; hafa 




mikinn gang, to be much in vogue ; 
heldr er vaxandi g. at peim, they (viz. 
the dreams) were rather on the in- 
crease ; svd mikill g. var ordinn at 
eldinum, the fire had got to such a 

gang-rum, n. passage-room ; -silfr, 
n. current money ; -stigr, m. foot- 
path ; -tamr, a. well-trained in pacing 
(of a horse). 

gap, n. (i) gap, empty space \ (2) 
shouting, crying (hareysti ok g.). 

gap a (-ta, -atj, v. to gape, open the 
?nouth wide. 

gaps-maSr, m. gaping fool, gaby. 

GarSar, Russia', Garoa-riki, 
-veldi, n. the Russian empire. 

gartS-hlitS, n. gate ; -bus, n. privy ; 
-hverfa, f. an e?iclosed plot ; -lag, n. 
the building of a fence or wall. 

gartSr (-s, -ar), m. {i) fence, wall; 
(2) enclosed space, yard (cf. aldin- 
garSr, grasgarSr, kirkjugarSr) ; ^ (3) 
court-yard, court (t)eir ganga lit 1 
gardinn ok berjast) ; ri6a i gard, to 
arrive ; riQa (fara) or garQi, to de- 
part', fig., helmingr skal falla 1 minn 
gar6, the half shall fall into my share-, 
skal aukast J)ri6jungi i J)inum gardi, 
in thy keeping; hyggjum vdr, at i 
ydvarn garS hafi runnit, into your 
hands, your possession ; g0ra e-n af 
garSi, to equip one (as a son, a friend, 
when departing from home) ; li5r 
vetr or gardi, the winter passes by ; 
(4) house, dwelling;^ (5) stronghold, 
castle (cf. As-gar6r, Ut-gar6ar). 

GartSs-konungr, m. the Greek em- 
peror (in * MiklagarQr'). 

gart5-staurr, m. fence-stake. 

garmr, m. dog. 

garn, n. (i) yarn (spinna gam af 
rokki) ; (2) warp-thread, warp, opp. 
to ' vipta ', weft, woof. 

garp-ligr, a. 7nartial\ -menni, n. 
martial man. 

garpr (-s, -ar), m. a bold, dauntless 
man (g. mikill) ; also applied to a 
woman (hon var vsen kona ok garpr 
mikill 1 skapi). 

garp-skapr, m. bravery. 

gassi,m. {i) gander; (2) rash fellow. 

gat, n. hole, opefiing. 

gata (gen. pi. gatna), f. path, way, 
road; vera i. gotu e-s, to be in one's 
way ; sitja i. gotu e-s, to lie in wait 
for (= sitja fyrir e-m) ; alia gotu, 
always, throughout. 

gatna-mot, n. Junction of roads. 

gauk-manatSr, m. ^cuckoo-month* 
(the first summer month). 

gaukr (-S, -ar), m. cuckoo. 

gaul, n. lowing, bellowing. 

gaula (at$), v. to low, bellow. 

gaum-gsBfa (-tSa, -t), v. to heed; 
-gseftS, f. atte?ition, care. 

gaumr, m. heed, attention ; gefa 
gaum at e-u, to pay attention to. 

gaupa, f. the lynx. 

gaupna-syn, f. looking into oiie's 
pahns ; covering one's face with the 
hands (cf. ' sjd i gaupnir '). 

gaupnir, f. pi. (i) the two hands 
placed together so as to form a bowl ; 
sjd, horfa, lita, luta i g. ser, to cover 
one's face with the hands (as a token 
of sorrow, or in prayer) ; (2) double 
handful (g. silfrs). 

gaura-gangr, m. disorderly conduct. 

gaurr, m. rough fellow. 

gauta (atS), v. to prate, brag. 

gautan, f. prating. 

Gautar, m. pi. a Scandinavian 
people in southern Sweden. 

Gaut-elfr, f. the river Gotha. 

Gaut-land, n. the land of the Gautar. 

gauzkr, 2i.frotn Gautland. 

gd (gdi, gdtSa, gat), v. to heed, with 
infin. (gd at g0ra e-t) or gen. ; gu6s 
hann gddi, he gave heed to God; gd 
sin, to take care of oneself ; gd til e-s, 
to mark; glyja J)u ne gdSir, thou 
hadst no tnind for joy. 

ga,f. barking (\n ^goOg^', blasphemy; 

gdla-samligr, a. waggish ; -skapr, 
m. waggery. 

ga-lausligr, a. heedless, wanton ; 
-lauss, a. wanton, careless ; -leysi, 
n. heedlessness. 

gdlga-tr6, n. gallows-tree. 

gdlgi, u\. gallows (reisa gdlga). 

ga-ligr, a. mindful of (e-s). 

gar, n. buffoonery, mocking, 

gar-fenginn, a. given to buffoonery, 

garungr (-s, -ar), m. buffoon. 




gds (gen. gasar; pi. gaeas), f. goose 
(gait hann gagl fyrir gds). 

gd-samr, a. heedful^ attentive ; 
-serai, f. attention, 

gds-veiSr, f . goose~catching. 

gdta, f. riddle ; geta (rdda) gdtu, /^ 
^^<2(^ a riddle. 

gdtt (pi. -ir), f. (l) the 7'ahbet of a 
doorsill or doorpost \ var hnigin hur6 
d gdtt, the door was shut\ (2) pi. 
doorway ; innan gatta, indoors. 

ge5, n. (i) mind, wits, senses] 
heimta aptr g. sitt, to come to one's 
senses again ; vera gaetinn at ge3i, 
to be on one's guard \ vita til sms 
geSs, to be master of one*s wits', (2) 
disposition, liking', honum var vel i 
geQi til Freysteins, he was well dis- 
posed to Fr. ; J)u fellst me'r vel i g., 
you are to my liking', fellst hvart 
odru (f(611ust J)au) vel i g., M<?y liked 
one another well. 

gedda, f. pike (fish). 

get$-fastr, a. yfr;« of mind \ -festi, 
{.firmness ofjnind. 

get$jat$r, a. to one's mind, agreeable. 

getJjaat (atS), v. refl., e-m geQjast 
e-t, one is pleased with, one likes. 

gec5-laus3, 2i. fickle-minded', -leysi, 
Vi. fickleness of mind, inconstancy. 

get^a-ligr, a. engaging, pleasing. 

getS-speki, f. wisdom ; -svinnr, a. 
wise, clever. 

gefa (gef; gaf, gdfum; gefinn), 
V. (i) to give (g. e-m e-t) ; hann gaf 
t)eim godar gjafar, he gave them good 
gifts ; g. e-m rdS, to give one advice ; 
g. hlj63, to give a hearing', g. e-m 
sok, e-t at sok, to lay to one's charge, 
to bring a charge against 07ie ; g. slog, 
to deal blows ; g. e-m drekka, to give 
one to drink ; impers., e-m gefr byr 
(byri), one gets a fair wind (gaf J)eim 
byr ok sigla peir 1 haf ) ; absol., gaf 
J)eim vel, they got a fair wind", ef 
foeri gefr d, if you get a chance ; ef 
y6r (dat.) gefr eigi missyni 1 J)essu 
mali, if you are not mistaken in this 
matter', pat gaf ollum vel skilja, it 
was clear for all to understand ', (2) 
to give, grant ; g. heimleyfi, to grant 
furlough ; g. e-m grid, to grajtt quar- 
ter or pardon to one ; g. e-m lif, to 

grant one his life', (3) to give in 
matrimony (ek var ung gefin Njdli) ; 
(4) to give fodder to cattle, to feed (g. 
goltum, nautum, kum, hestum) ; (5) 
g. staSar, to stop ; let hann l)d staSar 
gefa rodrinn, he stopped rowing', (6) 
e-m er e-t sva gefit, or svd gefit um 
e-t, one is so and so disposed, thinks 
so and so of a thing (ef t)er er J)etta 
sva gefit sem Jju segir) ; (7) with 
preps.; g. ser litit (mikit) af {or at) 
e-u, to take little {much) notice of; 
g. i. e-t, to pour water on ; fig. to 
press on (gefr Ormr J)d a) ; g. e-m til 
e-s, to give in return for a thing (g. 
fe til sdtta) ; impers., honum hafSi 
vel gefit til (had good luck) um hefnd- 
ina ; g. ser mikit (litit) um e-t, to 
take great [little) interest in (= g. s€x 
mikit, litit, af or at e-u) ; g. s^r fdtt 
um e-t, to take coldly, take little notice 
of', g. e-t upp, to give up (g. upp alia 
motstoSu) ; g. sik upp, to surrender ; 
g. upp gamalmenni, to give old people 
up, let the7n starve ; g. upp leiguna, 
to re?nit the rent; g. upp sakir, to 
remit offences ; upp gefinn, exhausted ; 
g. e-t vi6 e-u, to give in payment for ', 
g. sik vi3, to give in ({jat er likara, at 
ek gefa mik vi6) ; (8) refl., gefast vel 
(ilia), to prove good {bad) ; opt hafa 
m^r vel gefizt y6ur rd6, your counsels 
have often proved good for ?ne ; hefir 
J)eim pat ok aldri vel gefizt, // has 
never turned out well ; gefast gjof- 
um, to give gifts to 07ie another ; 
g. i. vald e-s, to give 07iesef into 
a7iothe7^s power ; g. upp. to give in, 
surrender', e-m gefst e-t yfir, one 
does wro7ig in a thing (ef gofgum 
monnum gafust storir hlutir yfir). 

gefandi fpl. -endr), m. giver. 

gefna-getS n. conduct, behaviour, 

gegn and i gegn, prep, with dat., 
against (1 g. vindi sem forvindis) ; i 
g. e6li, agai7ist natu7'e. 

gegn, a. (i ) honest (sannorSr ok g.) ; 
{1) fit (for O. par i. land, sem honum 
potti gegnast) ; (3) direct, straight 
(hinn gegnsta veg). 

gegna (-da, -t), v. (i) to go against, 
77ieet (g. e-m) ; {2) to suit 07ie, be meef 
for 07ie ; velit jjat er y3r gegnir. 




choose what best suits you ; (3) to 
signify, mean, matter \ spurSi, hverju 
gegndi ugleSi su, er harm hafdi, asked 
what his sadness meant ; sumir masltu 
f moti ok kvadu 0ngu g., some denied 
it, and said it was cf no use ; meira 
en hofi gegnir, mo}e than is due, 
above measure ; g. tiSendum, to be 
of importance ; (4) to atnount to ; sva 
at morgum hundruSum gegndi, so that 
it amounted to many hundreds. 

gegni-liga, adv. duly^ properly. 

gegning, f. suitableness ; d t)essu er 
engi g., this will not do. 

gegnt, (i) adv. straight \ compar., 
gegnra, gegnara, more straight ; 
super!., gegnst, gegnast, the shortest 
way; most right, meet est ', (2) prep, 
with dat. over against, opposite to (g. 

gegnum, i gegnum (l) prep, with 
ace. through (g. vegginn) ; (2} adv., 
allan dag 1 g., all the day long. 

geifia ' atS), v. /^ mumble (g. d e-u). 

geiga (a^), v. to take a wrong direc- 
tion ; eigi veit, hvar uskytja or geigar, 
none can tell where a shaft ill-shot 
may stray to. 

geigan, f. waveri?tg. 

geigr, m. (i) scathe, serious hurt; 
vinna, gera, veita e-m geig, to hurt 
one ; (2) danger (er t)at enn mesti g.j. 

geigu-skot, n. deadly shot. 

geig-v8Bnligr, a. dangerous , fatal. 

geil (pi. -an, f. narrow glen ^ lane. 

geila-gartSr, m. a fence along a geil. 

gei-ligr, a. fifie, beautiful (rare). 

geip, n. idle talk, nonsense. 

geipa (at5), v. to talk nonsense. 

geipan, f. brag, nonsense. 

geir-falki, m. gerfalcon ; -fugl, m. 
ga7'e-fowl, the great awk. 

geiri, m. gore, triangular strip. 

geir-laukr, m. garlic. 

geir-nagli, m. the nail fastening a 
spear'' s head to the shaft. 

geirr (-s, -ar), m. (i) spear; (2) the 
point of 071 anvil (nefsteSi). 

geir-varta, f. nipple (of a man). 

geis, f. impetuosity ; geisa (aS), 
v. to rage^ be furious ; J)eirra ofsi 
geisar, their insolence runs high. 

geisan, f. impetuosity (= geis). 

geiska-fullr, ^.frightened, 

geiski, m.. panic, fear. 

geisl, m. (1) snow-skater's staff; (2) 
ray, beatn ; geisla (atJ), v. to shed 
rays, to beam ; geisli, m. = geisl. 

geispa (atS), v. to yawn, gape. 

geispi, m.yawn. 

geit (gen. -ar; pi. geitr), f. a she 
goat (ragr sem geit). 

geita-tcetr, m. pi. goats' feet, feet 
like those of a goat ; -hirSir, m. goal- 
herd ; -hus, n. goat-house. 

geitar-horn, n. goaCs horn ; -hugi% 
m. cowardice ; -hus, n. goat-house ; 
-skegg, n. goat's beard. 

geita-sveinn, m. goat-herd. 

geit-bjalfi, m., -hetSinn, m. goat' 
skin coat or hairy jacket ; -skinn, 
n. goat-skin ; -staka, f. = -skinn. 

geitungr, m. wasp. 

gelda (-da, -dr), v. to geld, castrate. 

geld-f6, n. barren sheep. 

geld^ar-hofii, f. pasture for geldfe. 

gelding, f. gelding, castration. 

geldingr (-s, -ar), m. (i) wether; 
(2) eunuch. 

geld-neyti, n. barren cattle. 

geldr, a. yielding no riiilk, dry. 

gella (-da), v. to yell, roar^ bellow 
(sem griSungr gelldi). 

gertilingr (-3, -ar), m. a year-old 
sheep (at ryja gemlinga). 

gems, n. gibe, scoff. 

gemsa (a!5), v, to gibe, scoff. 

gems-fullr, -mikill, 2.. full of gibes. 

gengi, n. ( I ) luck, success ; an er ills 
gengis nema heiman hafi, ill luck is 
home-bred; (2) help, support; afla s^r 
gengis, to gather troops. 

gengr, a. (l) able to walk; {1) fit to 
walk on (vegr vel g.) ; (3) eiga heiman 
gengt, to have time and opportunity 
to leave home. 

genta, f. girf lass. 

gera, v. see g0ra ; ger^, see gorS. 

gertS, i. yeast, ferment. 

gertS (pi. -ar), f. gear, harness ; pi. 
armour (gerSar varar). 

gert5a (-tSa, -t5r), v. to fence in, 

gertSi, n. a fe)icedfield. 

gerSing, {.fencing, hedging. 

geri, m. ' ravener \ wolf (poet.). 

gerla, adv. see gorla. 




gerning, gerningr, see g0rn-. 

gerpi-ligr, a. martial (= garpligr). 

gerr, a. see gorr ; adv. see g0rr. 

ger-samliga, -semi, -simi, -sim- 
ligr, see gor-, g0r-. 

gersta (-sta, -str), v. fo annoy ^ tease 
(g. hug e-s) ; gerstr, pp. (i) weari- 
some, dismal \ gerstan dag, the long 
weary day \ (2) sulky; hann leit g. 
vid mer, he looked sulkily on me. 

gerva, gervallr, gervi, see gorva, 
gorvallr, g0rvi. 

gerzkr, ^..frofn Gart5arfki. 

gesta-bekkr, rc\. quests' bench ; -T3ot5, 
n. banquet ; -hus, n. guest-room ; 
-hoftSingi, m. ch.ef of the guests ; 
-skali, m. guest-hall. 

gest-gjafl, m. host (goSr -gjafi). 

gestr (-S, -ir), m. (i) guest; (2) a 
royal retainer of inferior rank. 

gest-risinn, a. hospitable ; -risni, 

f. hospitality. 

get, n. guess (rare). 

geta (get; gat, gatum ; getinn), 
V. I. with ace. (i) to get; g. ordstir, 
to get fame ; g. ser e-t, to get for one- 
self {gobs um cedis ef ser g. mcCtti) ; 

g. gott af e-m, to get good of one ; 
with dat. of the person, g. valuSum 
vel, to be kind to the poor ; g. e-m 
ilia, to do harm to one; impers., getr 
€-t, there is {got) ; eigi getr slikan 
{there is no7ie such) i konungs her- 
bergjum ; (2) with pp. of another 
verb, g, veiddan fisk, to be able to 
£atch fish ; ek get eigi fy]gt ySr, J 
cannot follow you; (3) almost like 
an auxil. verb with infin. ; ek Gunnari 
gat at unna, / loved G. ; g. at lita, 
sja {to get) to see ; without ' at ', er 
slikt getr fcecJa j63, that shall rear 
such a child; (4) to learn (lengi man 
J)at er ungr getr); (5) to beget, eft- 
gender (fotr gat son vid foeti); geta 
born, to beget childre?t (said of both 
parents) ; (6) refl., getast at e-u, to 
like ; J)vi at mer gezt vel at per, be- 
cause I like thee well ; Idta ser getit 
at e-u, to be pleased with ; eigi last ek 
mer at einu getit, I atn not pleased to 
have always the same, I want sofne 
change; II. with gen. (l) to guess; 
g. g^tu, to guess a riddle ; g. reit, to 

guess right ; g. e-s til, /<? guess, sup" 
pose; g. i hug e-m, to guess one's 
thoughts; (2) to speak of, tnention, 
in speech or writing (pess er getit, 
sem gort er) ; geta um e-t, to speak 
about (hann gat ekki um petta fyrir 
sinum monnum) ; J)ess er vid getit, 
at, it is told that. 

geta, f. guess, conjecture (er l^at g. 
min, at) ; spd er spaks g., a wise man's 
guess is a prophecy ; setla ek eigi J)at 
til getu, at hann se J)ar, it is not 
likely that he is there ; leida getum 
um e-t, to make a guess at. 

getara, f. birth-giver, mother, 

getari, m. begetter, father. 

get-gangr, m. guessing. 

getnatJr (gen. -ar), m. (i) co7tcep' 
lion ; (2) fcetus ; vera me6 getnadi, to 
be with a child; (3) liking. 

get-sakir, f. pi. imputations (with- 
out evidence) ; soekja -sakir, to pro- 
secute one upon loose imputations ; 
-samligr, a. pertai}iing to guessing ; 
-speki, f. gift of propJiecy. 

getu-mal, n. doubtful case. 

geyja (gey, go), v. (i) to bark (at 
e-m); {I) to scoff at (vil ek eigi go3 
g.) ; g. d e-n, to abuse. 

geyma (-da, -dr), v. (l) to heed, 
mind, watch (geym pess, at enginn 
komist i braut) ; hann hafdi geymt 
hlutverka sinna, he had minded his 
work ; g. sin, to take care of oneself; 
g. at e-u, til e-s = g. e-s ; (2) to watch, 
keep, with ace. (g. bceinn, heilraeditj, 

geymari, m. keeper. 

geymdir, f. pi. heed, attention ; gefa 
g. at e-u, to give heed to. 

geyminn, a. heedful {g. e-s, at e-u). 

geymsla, f. keeping, care. 

geymslu-lauss, a. unguarded. 

geyra, geyrr, = gora, gorr. 

geysa (-ta, -tr), v. to send cut with 
violence (hann lastr g. eld ok jarn) ; 
usually refl. to dash or rush furiously 
(|)a geysist hafit d londin ; mugrinn 
geystist inn a skipin). 

geysi-, very, exceedingly ; g. mikill, 
vefy great; g. margir, very many; 
g. ilia, very badly. 

geysi-liga, adv. enormously ; -ligr. 

a. enormous. 




geyaingr, m. impetuosity. 

geystr, pp. (i) rushing hastily ; (2) 
enraged (voru bcendr mjok gey stir a 
hendr honum). 

-gi (or -ki after t or j), a suffix used 
esp. with negative, but also with posi- 
tive and indefinite force. 

gil (gen. pi. gilja), n. ravine, gully, 

gilda-skali, m. guild-hall. 

gildi, n. (l) payment, tribute (rare) ; 
(2) recompense, return ; ae ser til gild is 
gjof {see gjald 4) ; (3) repute, estee7n 
(pegar J)er komist i g. vi5 hofSingja) ; 
{/^) feast, banquet (J)d gengu ^sir at g. 
sinu) ; {^) guild, brotherhood. 

gildis-broetSr, m. ^\. guild-brothers; 
-fundr, m. guild-meeting; -skali, m. 
guild-hall ; -tit5, f. guild-term, 

gild-leiki, m. perfectness, 

gild-liga, adv. properly. 

gildr (gild, gilt), a. (i) valued at 
(g. tveim morkum) ; (2) of full value ; 
worthy, great (g. konungr, hofQingi) ; 
me6 gildum soma, with great fame ; 
HallfreOr var t)d sem gildastr, H. was 
then at his best. 

gildra, f. trap. 

gildr a (atSj, v. to trap, set a trap. 

gilja (a$), V. to beguile (a woman). 

gi]a-J)r6mr, m. edge of a gully. 

gim-steinn, m. gem, jewel. 

gin, n. mouth (of a beast). 

gin-kefli, n. gag. 

ginna (-ta, -trj, v. (i) to dupe, fool 
one; g. e-n at ser, to fall out with 
one; (2) to decoy, entice (g. e-n til 
e-s, heiman af bcenum). 

ginn-heilagr, a. most holy. 

ginning (pi. -ar), f. deception, be- 
fooling (Gylfa-ginning). 

ginningar-fifl, n. one who runs a 
fooPs errand (vera -fifl e-s). 

ginn-regin, n. pi. the great gods. 

ginnunga-gap, n. the great void, 
primeval chaos; -himinn, m. the 
heaven over ginnunga-gap. 

ginnungr, va. juggler, jester. 

gipt, f. (i) gift (jarfiligar giptir) ; 
(2) good luck ( = gipta). 

gipLa, f. good luck. 

gipta (-pta, -ptr), v, to give away in 
marriage (g. e-m e-a) ; refl. giptast, 
to matTy. 

gipting, f. marriage (of a woman). 

giptu-drjugr, a. lucky ; -fdtt, a. n. 
luckless (e-m ver3r -fdtt) ; -liga, adv. 
luckily; -ligr, a. lucky, auspicious; 
-matSr, m. lucky 7nan ; -munr, m. 
difference in good luck ; -ratJ, n. goody 
auspicious match ; -samliga, adv. 
auspiciously ; -samligr, a. = -ligr ; 
-skortr, m. want of luck, bad luck \ 
-tomr, a. luckless ; -vaenligr, a. pro- 
mising good luck, auspicious. 

girSa (-tSa, -t5r), v. to fence, = gerfia. 

Girkir, m. pi. the Greeks. 

girna (-di, -t), v. impers., mik girnir, 
/ desire ; refl., girnast e-t, i. e-t, til 
e-s, to desire something. 

girnd (pi. -ir), f. desire ; lust. 

girndar-bruni, -eldr, -hiti, m. fire 
of lust, ardent lust ; -ra$, n. {foolish) 
love match. 

girni-ligr, a. desirable, pleasant. 

girska, f. the Greek language. 

girskr, a. (i) Gt-eek ; (2) = gerzkr. 

gista ("Sta, -st), v. to pass the night 
(g. at e-s, at or i. e-m stad) ; g. e-n, 
to spend a night with one. 

gisting, f. night-lodgings, accom- 
modation for the night (beiSast gist- 
ingar ; t)iggja gisting). 

gistingar-bol, n., -stat5r, m. night- 

gizki, m. a kind of kerchief {T). 

gifr, n. witch, hag; -liga, adv. 
savagely (lata -liga). 

gigja, {.fiddle ; gigjari, m. fiddler. 

gina (gin ; gein, ginum ; ginit), v. 
to gape, yawn (ginandi u'fr) ; g. yfir 
e-t, to take into one's mouth ; g. vid 
agni, to gape in order to take the bait. 

gisl (pi. -ar), m. (i) hostage; (2) 
bailiff [g. keisarans) ; warder. 

gisla (atS), v. (i) to give as hostage \ 
{2) to take as hostage. 

gislar, f. pi. (i) sureties, securities', 
(2) security, guard (setja g. fyrir). 

gisling, f. ( i) hostage (taka e-n 1 g.) ; 
(2) pi. guard (setja gislingar fyrir e-n). 

gjafa-laust, adv. (dismissea) without 
gifts ; -ley si, n. lack of gifts. 

gjafari, m. giver. 

gjafa-skipti, n., -vixl, n. exchange 
of gifts. 

gjaf-erftJ, f. bequest; -fair, a. to be 




had for a trifle ; -laust, adv. without 
gift\ -lendingar, m. \A. feitdato?'ies ] 
-lyndi, n. open-handed7tess ; -mildr, 
a. open-handed ; -ort$, n. match (of a 
woman to be married) ; -vaxta, a. 
marriageable (of a maid) ; -vinr, m. 
open-hande i friend. 

g;iald, n. (i) tribute (harm lag6i g. d 
borgina); {2)payment\ J)aheIduboendr 
gjaldinu, they kept back the payment \ 
(3) retribution, esp. pi. ; ella mun f)er 
g. at verSa, ///^« j/^a// pay dear jor 
tt; (4) rezaard, return, compe7isation\ 
ae s^r gjof til gjalda,_§z/? looks for g ft. 

gjalda(geld; gait, guldum; gold- 
inn), V. (i) to repay, return', g. gjof 
viS gjof, to pay back gift for gift', g. 
aptr, to restore, pay back; (2) fig. to 
give, yield ; g. skynsemi vi3 e-u, to 
give reaso7t for ; g. samkvasdi at e-u, 
to consent to ; g. varud, varhuga vi6 
e-u, to be on ofie's guard against ; g. 
e-m fjdndskap, to show ill-will to- 
wards one', (3) with gen. to pay for, 
suffer on account of (t)ar munud \i\\. 
min g.) ; g. e-s at = g. e-s ; geldr at 
nybreytni (gen.) konungs, // is a pun- 
ishinefit for the king's innovations. 

gjald-dagi, m. pay-day ; -fang, n. 
payment, eguivalefit ; -gengr, a. take?i 
in payment; -keri, -kyri, m. the 
king's steward. 

g3'alla(gell; gall, gullum; gollit), 
V. to scream, shriek (ernir gjalla hatt) ; 
strengr gellr, the boiv-stritig twa?igs ; 
impers. to resound, echo (kvad t>or- 
steinn sva hdtt, at gall 1 murnum). 

Gjallar-horn, n. (i) the horn [trinn- 
pet) of Heiindal; (2) the drinking- 
horn used by Mijnir. 

gjallr, a. ringi?ig, resounding. 

gjalti, only in the phrase, verSa at 
g., to turn mad with terror. 

gjarn, a. (l) eager for, desirous of 
(g. a e-t, i e-t, til e-s) ; (2) g. e-m, 
willing to follow one. 

gjarna, adv. willingly. 

gjarn-liga,-samliga, adv. willingly. 

gjd (gen. gjar; pi. gjar, gen. gj'a, 
dat. gjam), f. rift, cleft, chasm. 

gjalfr, n, din of the sea ; -dyr, n. 
ship (poet.) ; -samr, a. roaring (of 
the sea). 

gjdr-bakki, m. brink of a rift; 
-barmr, m. edge of a rift; -munni, 
m. mouth of a rift. 

gj6, f. sensuality ; -lifi., n. sensual 
life ; -maSr, m. a sensual person. 

gj6sa(gys; gaus,gusum; gosinn), 
v. to gushy burst out (J)ar gaus upp 
stundum eldr ; blodit gaus or sdrinu). 

gjos-aB^Sr, f. '•gush-vein ', artery. 

gj6ta(gyt; gaut, gutum; gotinn), 
V. (i) g. hrognum, to spawn; (2) g. 
augum, sjonum, to cast a look. 

gjof (gen. gjafar, pi. gjafar and 
gjafir), ; skipta gjofum vi3 e-n, 
to exchange gifts with otie ; leida e-n 
lit (1 brott) me6 gjofum, leysa e-n d 
brott me6 gjofum, to dismiss one with 
gifts (at the end of a visit). 

gjofull (ace. gjcflan), a. munificent ^ 
liberal (g. at gulli). 

gjogr, f. cleft, rift (gljufr ok gjograr). 

gjogra (atS), v. to reel, stagger. 

gj dinar, f. pi. the whiskers of the 

gjolta (-Iti), v. to bark (rare). 

gjor-, see gor-, g0r-. 

gjortS (gen. gjarSar; pi. gjart5ar 
and gjarSir), {.girdle; saddle-gi?'th 

gjorvallr, a. see 'gorvallr'. 

glatSa (acS), V. to gladden (=3 gleSja). 

glat5an, adv. = glaSliga. 

glac5-latr, a. cheerful ; -liga, adv. 
gladly, willingly ; -ligr, a. glad, cheer- 
ful ; -ID aeltr, a. cheerful in speech. 

gla(5ning, f. glaidening, gladness. 

glac5r (gloS, glatt), a. ( i ) glad, glad' 
some, cheerful (Flosi var allra manna 
gladastr) ; (2) bright, beautiful, of the 
sky, weather, fire (veSr glatt, tunglit 
skein glatt). 

glaS-vseri, f. gladness ; -vaBrr, a. 
gladsome, cheerful. 

glam, or glamm, n. noise, din, clash, 

glama, v. to twaddle, talk idly. 

glamra (aS), v. to tinkle, jingle. 

glap,n. begtiilement, seduction ; venja 
kvamur sinar til glapa {or glaps) vid 
konu, to aim at seducing. 

glapna (atS), v. to grow dim (glap- 
na6i honum heyrn ok syn), 

glappa-verk, n. mishap. 

glap-raetSi, n. mistake, blunder \ 




-stigr, m. a wrong path ; -vig, n. acci' 
dental vtanstaughter. 

glata (at$), w. {i) to destroy (g. e-u) ; 
(2) to lose ; refl., glatast, to be lost. 

glatan, f. perditioji. 

glatuns-hundr, m. glutton {}). 

glaumr.m. noisy merri7nent\ glaums 
andvana, cheerless. 

gldm-syni, f. illusion, 

gletSa, f. glede^ kite (bird). 

gletSi, f. gladness, vierrivient, joy 
(var bar J)d g. mikil). 

gleoi-bragtS, r\. joyful mien \ -dagar, 
m. pi. days of happiness ; -fullr, a. 
joyful \ -ligr, a. glad\ -matSr, m, 
cheery man ; -mot, n. = -bragd ; -ortS, 
n. pi. words of joy ; -stundir, f. pi. 
merry ^ happy time ; -vist, f. fnerry 

glet5ja (gletS, gladda, gladdr), v. to 
gladden, make glad\ refl., gledjast, to 
be glad, rejoice. 

gleQa, f. spear, lance (for. word). 

glefaa (-ta), v. to snap at (g. 1 e-t). 

glens, n. gibing, gibe, jest, banter. 

glensa (ao), v. to jest, make fun. 

glensan, f. gibing, jesting. 

glens-ligr, a. bajitering ; -mikill, a. 
full of jesting or gibes ; -yrtSi, n. pi. 
jesting or gibifig speech. 

glepja (glep, glapta, glaptr), y. (i) 
to cofifuse one (in reading, speaking) ; 
(2) to confound (g. sokn, vorn) ; (3) 
to beguile (g. konu). 

gler, n. {i) glass; hdll sem g., slip- 
pery as glass ; bresta i gleri, to break 
into shivers ; (2) looking-glass. 

gler-gluggr, m. glass-window ; 
-steinar, m. pi. glass stones^ agates ; 
-tolur, f. pi. glass beads. 

glett, n., gletta, f. banter, raillery, 
taunting ; fara (ganga, ri6a) i glett vi6 
e-n, to provoke one. 

glettast (tt), V. refl. to banter, rail 
against one, taunt, provoke an enemy 
(g. vi3 e-n). 

gletti-liga, adv. tauntingly, 

glettingr, m. = glett, gletta. 

glettings-bara, f. splashing wave. 

glettinn, a. bantering. 

glettni, f. = glett (eiga g. vi6 e-n). 

glettu-atsokn, f. a feint to provoke 
the enemy to attack. 

glettunar-ina?5r, m. ; engi -maSr, a 
man not to be trifled with. 

gleyma (-da, -dr), v.{\) to make a 
merry noise (glaumr) ; (2) with dat. to 
forget (gleymt hefi ek J)essu). 

gleym-samligr, 2i. forgetful, 

gleymska, i. forgetful ness. 

gleypa (-ta, -tr)*, v. to swallow. 

glissa (-sta), v. to grin, gabble. 

glit, n, ^glitter ' ; ofit i g., brocaded, 

glita, glitra (at5j, v. to glitter. 

glikindi, gliking, glikja, glikligr, 
glikr = likindi, liking, etc. 

glima ("da, -t), v. to wrestle, 

glima, f. wrestling. 

gliminn, a. expert as a wrestler. 

glimu-brogc5, n. pi. wrestling-tricks ; 
-felagi, m. wrestling-?nate ', -foerr, 
a. able-bodied as a wrestler ; -mann- 
liga, adv. like a good wrestler. 

gljd (-tSa, -$), V. to glisten, shine. 

gljiirr, n. pi. rocky [sides of a) ravine, 

gljufrottr, a. rocky. 

glott, n. grin, s?ieer, scornful smile ; 
draga g. at e-u, to sneer at. 

gletta (-tta, -tt), V. to grin (g. at or 
\\6 e-u) ; g. vi6 tonn, to smile scorn- 
fully and show the teeth. 

gloa (atS, or -65a, -6t), v. (i) to 
shine, glitter (gloar nokkut i gotunni) ; 
(2) to glow with heat \ gloanda jarn, 
red-hot iron. 

glocS (pi. gloetSr), f. red-hot embers. 

gloSar-ker, n. f re-pan. 

glotS-raucSr, a. red as embers. 

gl6fa,^r, a. gloved ; glofi, m. glove. 

gl6-fox6ttr, a. light-maned. 

glopaldi, m., glopr, m. fool. 

glosa (acS), V. to explain by a gloss. 

gluggaSr, pp. with windows. 

gluggr (-S, pi. -ar), m. opening (in 
a wall, roof, etc.), esp. window. 

glumr, n. noise, rattle, clatter. 

glumra (ac5i, v. to rattle, clatter. 

glutr, n. squatidering, lavishment. 

glutra (atS), v. to squander. 

glutrs-maSr, m. spendthrift. 

glutrunar-maSr, m. = glutrsmaQr ; 
-samr, a. lavish, extravagant. 

gliipna (atS), v. to become downcast. 

glyinja (glym, glumda, glumitJr), 
v. to dash noisily, splash (unnirglymja), 
clatter (glumdu joklar), rattle. 




glymr, m. clatter^ clashy ringing. 

glymur, f. pi. cafs eyes. 

glys, n. finery (kaupa glys). 

^\js-^SiTn,3..fond of finery; -ligr, a. 
showy, specious ; -mdl, n. pi. specious 

gly, n. joy ; glyja (gen. pi.) n€ g^Sir, 
thou hadst no mind for joy. 

glyjat5r, pp. gleeful (vel g.). 

gly-stamr, a. joyless. 

glaea (-dda), v. to glow ^ glisten, 

glaer (gen. glees), m. sea ; kasta d 
glcC, to throw into the sea, squander ; 
hlaupa a glas, to run in vain. 

glae-rasoi, n. = glaprasSi. 

glfiBsa (-ta, -tr), v. to embellish ; 
gulli ok silfri glaestr, adorned with gold 
and silver. 

gl»si-ligr, a. splendid^ showy; 
specious (-lig or6). 

gloepa-fuUr, a. full of wickedness, 
tmgodly ; -matSr, m. miscreant, male- 
factor ; -mannligr, a. rujfianly ; 
-verk, n. crime. 

glcepi-liga, adv. wickedly ; -ligr, a. 
wicked; gloep-ligr, a. = gloepiligr. 

gloepr (-S, -ir), m. 7nisdeed, crifne. 

glc3Bpska, f. misdeed, offence. 

glcBp-varr, a. righteous ; -yrtJi, n. 
pi. foul language. 

gl^gg-dosmr, a. sagacious in one^s 
judgement ; -leikr, m. sagacity ; -llga, 
adv. clearly, distinctly. 

gl0ggr (ace. -van), a. (i) clear- 
sighted (gl0ggt er gests auga) ; (2) 
clear, distinct ; \ era gl0ggrar greinar, 
to distinguish sharply ; eigi er m^r 
pat gl0ggt, // is not clear to me ; 
neut., gl0ggt, as adv. clearly (muna, 
kenna gl0ggt) ; (3) stingy, close (g. 
vi6 gesti). 

gl0gg-rynn, a. clever in interpreting 
runes ; -skygn, a. sharp-sighted ; 
-synn, a. sharp-witted; -s8Br (-s8B, 
-ssBtt), a. (i) clear-sighted; (2) mani- 
fest, clear; -J)ekkinn, a. quick to dis- 
cern, clear-sighted; -J)ekkni, f. clear- 

gnadd, n. grumbling, muttering. 

gnadda(ao), V. to murfnur, grumble. 

gnaga (atS), v. to gnaw (hestar 
gnoguSu beizlin). 

gnapa (-ta), v. (i) to jut or stand 

out; (2) to stoop or bend forward \ 
(3) to droop the head. 

gnat a (ao), v. to clash. 

gnautS, n. noise, din, rattle. 

gnaucSa (aS), v. to rattle, ring, 

gnegg, n. neighing. 

gneggja (atS), v. to neigh. 

gneista (atS), v. to emit sparks. 

gneista-flaug, f. shower of sparks. 

gneisti, m. spark. 

gnesta (gnest; gnast, gnustum; 
gnostinn), v. to crack, clash (gnustu 
J)d saman vdpnin). 

gneypa (-ta, -tr), v. to pinch. 

gnejrpr, a. (i) bent forward, droop'' 
ing; {2) savage, fierce. 

gnitJa (at$), v. to rub, scrape. 

gnipa, i. peak, jutting pinnacle (on 
a beetling mountain). 

gnista (-sta, -st), v. (i) g. tonnum, 
to gnash the teeth ; (2) to snarl (of 
dogs) ; (3) gnistanda frost, biting frost. 

gnistan, gnisting, f. gnashing. 

gnoga, adv. poet. = gnogliga. 

gnog-leikr, m. abundance ; -liga, 
adv. abundantly ; -ligr, a. abundant. 

gnogr, a. (i) abundant, plentiful, 
enough (selveiSar gnogar ok fiskifang 
mikit) ; at gnogu, sufficiently; ok 
vinnst oss t)at at gnogu, // is enough 
for us ; i gnog, enough (var J)ar vatn 
1 gnog) ; gnogu (neut. dat.) lengi, long 
enough ; (2) g. um e-t, at e-u, richly 
ftirtiished with (nu var hann g. orSinn 
um kvikfe). 

gnott, f. abundance, plenty (g. fjdr) ; 
gera g. spurning (dat.) e-s, to give suf- 
ficient answer to one's question. 

gnua (gny, gnera or gn0ra, gnu- 
inn), V. to rub (hann tok til orSa ok 
gneri nefit). 

gnufa (-t5a), v. to droop (g. med 

gniip-leitr, a, s fern-looking. 

gnupr (-S, -ar), rc\. peak (= gnipa). 

gnytSja (gnytS, gnudda), v. to mut- 
ter, griwible (herrinn gnuddi ilia) ; to 
grunt (g. mundu nu grisir). 

gnytJr (pi. -ir), m. murmur, 

gnyja (gny, gnutSa, gnuit), v. to 
roar (vindar gnyja) ; g. d, to set in 
[^■k gnuSi i hallceri mikit ok vefirdtta 




gny'-mikill, a. roarins:^ stormy. 
gnyr (-s, -ir), m. clash, din. 

gny-reit5. f. roaring thunder. 

gnaefa (-Sia, -t), v. to stand up, rise 
high, tower {%. vi3 himin). 

gncBgr, a. = gnogr. 

gnoltra (atS), v. to howl, bark. 

gnotra (at5), v. to clatter, rattle. 

got$, n. {heathen) god. 

got5a-bl6t, n. sacrifice to the gods ; 
-gremi, f. wrath of the gods ; -heill, 
n. favour of the gods ; -hus, n. house 
of ^ods, heathen temple ; -reitSi, f. = 

gotS-borinn, pp. god-born ; -domr, 
m.. godhead', -ga, f. blaspherny. 

gotSi, m. heathen priest ; chief (in 
Iceland during the republic). 

gotS-kunnigr, a. of the kith of gods ; 
-mdlugr, a. skilled in the lore of the 
gods ; -mogn., n. pi. divine powers, 
deities (g. J)au er J)eir blotuSu). 

gotS-oro, n. dignity and authority of 
a go6i (go6or3 ok manna forrd5). 

gotSoitSa-lauss, a. without a goSorS; 
-matSr, m. owner of a go^ord ; -mal, 
n. an action concernifig a goQord. 

got5-vefr, m. = guSvefr. 

got5-vegr, m. the way of the gods. 

goU, n. gold = gull. 

gollurr, m. pericardium. 

gor, n. the cud in animals. 

gor-manat5r, m. the first wiriter- 
month (Oct.-Nov.). 

gotnar, m. pi. poet. rnen. 

gotneskr, a. Gothic. 

g6(5-brj6stacSr, a. kind-hearted ; 
-fengr, a. good-natured', -fusliga, 
adv. willingly ; -fuss, a. benevolent ; 
-fysi, -fyst, f. goodness, good-will', 
-gipt, f. benefit, charitable deed', 
-gimd, -girni, f. = -fysi ; -gjarn, a. 
benevolent, kind', -gjarnliga, adv. 
kindly, -gjarnligr, a. kind, kindly; 
-gripr , m. costly thing ; -gsefliga, ad v, 
gently ; -gaet, f. good entertainment ; 
-gfflti, n. dainty ; -g0r$, f. charity ; 
-g0rning, f. = -g0r6 ; -gprningr, m. 
good deed, charity ; -hatta^r, a. well- 
mannered; -hjartatSr, ?i.kind-hearted. 

gotSi, m. {i) good-will ', {2) profit. 

gotS-latr, a. good-natured ; -leikr, 
m. goodness ; -lifnatJr, m., -lifi, n. 

good life ; -lyndi, n. good nature ; 
-lyndr, a. good-natured ; -mannliga, 
adv. like a good 7nan ; -mannligr, a. 
gentle', -menni,n. a good, gentle man; 
-mennska, f. goodness, gentleness ; 
-TOien-n.t, 2.. n. good people: -motliga, 
adv. kindly, ge?ttly ; -ortSr, a. gentle 
in ones words. 

gotSr (gotS, gott), a. {i)good, inorally 
commendable (g. ok rettldtr konungr, 
%6h kona) ; {1^ good, honest {Ax^n'gx ^.); 
g. V il i , good, h one St inten tion ; ( 3 ) kind, 
friendly ; g. e-m, kind towards one ; 
gott gengr I)6r til, thou meanest well ; 
gott var f fraendsemi J)eira, they were 
on good terms ; vilja e-m gott, to wish 
one well ; (4) good, fine, goodly ; g. 
hestr, fine horse ; gott ve6r, fine 
weather', me6 g66u foruneyti, with 
goodly suite ; godr beini, good cheer; 
ver6a gott til e-s, to get plenty of; var 
pa gott til fjdr ok mannvirSingar, there 
was ample wealth and fame to earn ; 
g. af e-u or e-s, good, liberal with a 
thing; g. af tidendum, ^^^^ at news, 
com77iunicative ; g. af hestinum, will- 
i?ig to le7id the horse ; g. af f^, open- 
handed; g. vi\2X2ir,free with his food. 

gotS-ratSr, a. giving good counsel ; 
-rseSi, n. good7iess ; -semi, f. = -fysi ; 
-verk, n. charitable deed; -vild, f., 
- vili, m. kindness, good-will ; -vilj atSr, 
a. benevolent. 

gotSvilja-fullr, a. benevolent, kind; 
-mat5r, m. benevolent man ; -mikill, 
?i.full of good-will. 

goS-viljugr, a. kind; -virki, n. = 
-verk ; -virkr, a. 77iaking good work ; 
-vsBnliga, adv. = -vaettliga ; -vsen- 
ligr, a. prorn'sing good; -vsettliga, 
adv. ajnicably ; -yrki, n. = -verk ; 
-aBttatSr, a. of good fairtily. 

goi, f. the 7nonth Goi (from the middle 
of February to the middle of March) ; 
-beytill, m. a species of horse-tail 
{equisetum hyemale). 

golf, n. {\)'fioor; (2) apart7nent. 

golf-stokkar, m. pi. floor bea7ns; 
-J)ili, n. deal floor. 

go-ligr, 3.. fine, pretty (-lig or6). 

gomr (-S, -ar), m. (i) the roof or 
floor of the 77iouth (efri or neSri g.) ; 
e-m berr mart d goma, one talks freely 




of many things \ gaeta tungu f M5a 
goma, to keep guard on the tongue^ 
speak warily ; (2) finger'tip {i. hendi 
heitir fingr, nagl, gomr). 

gom-sparri, m. gag. 

goz, n. goods y proper ty» 

grat$-f6, n. entire cattle. 

gratSr, a. entire^ not castrated, 

gratSungr (-s, -ar), m. bull. 

grafa (gref ; grof, grofum ; graf- 
inn), v.\\) to dig (g. grof) ; g. torf, to 
dig peat ; fig. /i? seek out the sense of (g. 
visu) ; (2) to earthy bury (g. lik) ; (3) /^ 
carve^ engrave (dokkr steinn i ok 
grafit d, innsigli) ; (4) to inlay \ fagr 
a liti, sem J)d. er filsbein er grafit i eik, 
as wheft ivory is set in oak ; (5 ) impers. 
to supptirate (laerit tok at g. bas6i uppi 
ok niori); (6) with preps., g. at e-u, 
eptir e-u, to inquire into, try to find 
out\ also refl., grafast eptir e-u; g. 
niSr, to dig down ; svd kyrr sem hann 
vseri grafinn ni3r, as if he had been 
rooted in the ground ; g. til e-s, /d? dig 
for (g. til vatns) ; g. um e-t = g. eptir 
e-u ; grof hann svd undir J)eim, at, he 
sounded them so that ; g. e-t upp, to 
find out. 

graf-alr, m. burin, graver. 

grafar-bakki, m. verge of a grave ; 
-g0rtS, f. digging of a grave; -loekr, m. 
a brook which has dug itself a dee^ bed. 

graf-silfr, n. hidden treasure ; -tol, 
n. pi. digging tools. 

gramendr, m. pi. the angry gods. 

gramr, a. wroth, angry (g. e-m) ; 
gramir, m. pi., grom (viz. go6), n. pi. 
used as snhsi., jie?tds, demojis', (gramir 
munu taka l)ik) ; deili grom vi6 J)ik, 
the fiends ba?tdy words with thee, 

gramr (-s, -ir), m. king, warrior. 

grana-hdr, n. whiskers (cf. * gron ')• 

grand, n. hurt, injury (gera, vinna, 
e-m grand). 

granda (at^), v. to injure ^ do harm 
(engi grandaSi oSrum). 

grand-lauss, a. guileless ; -ligr, a. 
dangerous, injurious ; -varr, a. guile- 
less ; -veri, f^ guilelessness. 

granna, f., granni, m. neighbour. 

grann-leikr, m. slenderness ; -leitr, 
a. thin-faced ', -ligr, a. sli7n, slender of 
build (ungr ok grannligr i. voxt). 

grannr, a. thiny slender, 

grann-vaxinn, pp. slender, sliyn of 
figure (h^r i. voxt ok g.). 

gran-rautJr, a. red-bearded; -selr, 
m. bearded seal', -sitSr,a. long-bearded \ 
-stcetSi, n. the bearded part of the face, 
the upper Up, 

graptar-dagr, m. burial-day ; -kirk- 
ja, f. a church with a burying ground \ 
-reitr, -statSr, m. burial-place. 

gras, n. grass, herbage, herb. 

grasatSr, pp. prepared with herbs. 

gras-dalr, m. grassy dale ; -gartSr, 
m. garden ; -geilar, f. ^gtl. grassy lanes; 
-gott, a. n. with good crop of grass ; 
-grcenn, a. grass-green ; -lauss, a. 
grassless ; -leysa, f., -leysi, n. failure 
of grass ; -loSinn, a. thick with grass ; 
-lotSna, f. grassy spot ; -laegr, a. lying 
in the grass ; -mikill, a. rich in grass ; 
-roetr, f. pi. roots of herbs or grass ; 
-sott, f. grass-fever; -to, f. grassy 
spot among cliffs ; -vollr, m. grassy 
field', -voxtr, m. growth of grass. 

grautar-dili, m. porridge-spot (on 
the body) ; -ketill, m. porridge-pot ; 
-sott, f. '■porridge-fever^', -trog, n., 
-trygill, vci. porridge-trough ; -J)vara, 
f . porridge-stick. 

grautr (gen. -ar), m. porridge. 

gra-bildottr, a. with grey-spotted 
cheeks, of a sheep ; -bjorn, m. grey 
bear, opp. to * hvftabjorn ' ; -blar, a. 

grat5a, f. steP', fig. degree. 

gratSi, m. gentle breeze. 

graSi, m. step, degree = grdSa. 

grat5r, m. greed, hunger. 

gracSugr, a. greedy (g. ormr). 

gra-eygr, 2,. grey-eyed; -gas, f. wild 
goose; -klsBddr, pp. ^r<?y-6/«(^ ; -koll- 
ottr, a. grey and 7vithout horns ; 
-kufl, m. grey cowl; -leikr, x^. malice; 
-leitr, a. pale-looking; -liga, adv. 
with malice ; -ligr, a. malicious ; 
-l5rndr, di.spiteful^malicious ; -munkr, 
m. grey friar. 

grana (atS), v. to become grey, fig. to 
grow rough (tekr at g. gamanit). 

gran-stotS, n. stud of grey horses ; 

grar (gra, gratt), 2i.{i)grey (i grdm 
kyrtli) ; g. fyrir haerum, grey-haired; 




grdtt silfr, bad silver'^ (2) spiteful^ 
malicious ; J)6 at i brjosti gratt bui, 
although bearing malice in the heart. 

gra-rendr, a. grey-striped ; -silfr, 
n. grey {bad) silver ; -skinn, n. grey 
fur', -skyja^r, a. covered with grey 
clouds ; -steinn, m. a grey stone (til 
grasteins bins mikla). 

grdta (greet ; gr6t, gr6tuiii ; grdt- 
inn), V. (i) to weep', g. hdstofum, to 
weep aloud \ (2) to bewail, weep for 
one (J)u graetr goSan mann). 

gratan-ligr, a. tearful. 

grat-fagr, a. beautiful in tears ; 
-feginn, a. weeping for joy. 

gratinn, pp. tearful, 

grdt-ligr, a. pitiable, deplorable. 

gratr, m. weeping; setr gr^t at e-m, 
one bursts into tears. 

grat-raust, f. tearfttl voice \ -stokk- 
inn, pp. bathed in tears. 

grd-vara, f. grey fur (hann hafSi 
fengit i. fjallinu mikla grdvoru). 

grefta (-fta, -ft), greftra (at$), v. to 
bury fgreftraSr at fornum sid). 

greioa (-dda, -ddr), \.{\)to unravel, 
disentangle, arrange ; g. h^r, to comb 
or dress the hair', greiddi hon hdrit 
ixi. augum ser, she stroked back the 
hair from her eyes ; {1) to make or get 
ready (g. segl) ; g. til va6, to get ready 
afshing-line ; g. til um vipn, to get the 
weapons ready ; (3) /^ speed, further 
(g. ferd e-s) ; refl., greiddist honum 
vel, it sped well with him, he got on 
well', (4) to pay (g. fe af hendi); g. 
fram, to pay out ; [S) lo discharge, per- 
form ; g. skirslu af hondum, to perform 
the ordeal; g. vord, to keep watch ; 
g. r66r, to pull at the oars ; g. atroSr, 
g. til atlogu, to attack (in a sea-fight) ; 
g. mdl, to settle a case. 

greio-fara, a. indecl. walking with 
speed', -foerr, a. passable, easy to 
pass (J)ar var eigi -foert) ; -gengr, a. 

= -foerr (eigi er her -gengt). 

greiSi, m. (l) disentanglement, ar- 
rangement ; gera greifia a mdlinu, to 
put the case right', skipaSist Iitt til 
greiSa me3 J)eim, nothing was settled 

between them ; (2) entertainment, ac- 
commodation ; gera e-m greida, to give 

one entertainment. 

greit$-liga, adv. (i) readily, prompt- 
ly ; (2) quite ; -liga berr, completely 
stripped ; (3) downright, actually (J)6 
at engir menn basri vapn i. mik -liga). 

greiS-llgr, a. ( i ) ready, pro?npt ; var 
songrinn eigi -ligr, the song did not 
go smoothly ; (2) clear, plain (-lig ord). 

grei^-maeltr, pp. of ready speech. 

greicSr (greitS, greitt), a. (i) clear, 
free from obstacles (greid leid, gata); 
(2) ready to serve (g66r ok grei6r vi6 
alia sina ndgranna). 

greiS-skapr, m. (i) readiness^ 
pro7nptness ; (2) entertainment. 

greitSala, f. = greizla. 

greifi, m. earl, count. 

grein (pi. -ir), f. (i) branch (of a 
tree), division ; (2) point, head, part 
(1 ollum greinum) ; 1 annarri g., in the 
second place ; (3) cause, reason ; fyrir 
p^ g., therefore ; (4) distinction ; sjd 
g. handa, to discern one's hands ; gera 
g. d e-u, to explain ; (5) understanding, 
discernment ; gl0ggrar greinar, sharp- 
witted ; (6) dissent, discord (var6 mart 
til greina me6 J)eim) ; vald fyrir utan 
alia g., undisputed {absolute) power. 

greina (-da, -dr), v. (i) to divide 
into parts (veroldin var greind I t^rjdr 
hdlfur) ; {2) to discern, distinguish 
(g. gang himintun,i,'la) ; (3) to expound, 
tell, record ; sem a3r er greint, as is 
told above ; sem siSarr greinir, as will 
be told hereafter', (4) impers., menn 
(ace.) greinir a, they disagree, quarrel', 
(5) refl., greinast, to branch out, be 
separated (sva sem tungurnar grein- 
dust); g. d e-u, at e-u, to disagree 
about', impers., tok at g. me6 J)eim 
kumpdnum, they began to quarrel. 

greina-mikill, a. sensible, clever. 

greinar-laust, a. n. (i) indiscri?nin- 
ately ', (2) unconditionally, -mal, n. 
reasonable case. 

greina-vsenn, a. likely to cause a 
difference or dissension. 

greini-liga, adv. distinctly ; -ligr, 
a. distinct, clear. 

greining, f. distinction. 

greiningar-vit, n. discernment. 

greip (pi. greipr), f. the space between 
the thumb and the other fingers (kom 
bl65 i. bond f>6ri ok rann upp i. greip- 




ina) ; fig., koma, ganga i greipr e-m, 
to fall into one's clutches. 

greizla, f. payment, discharge. 

gremi, f. wrath, anger. 

gremja (grem. gramda, gramit), v. 
to anger, provoke, exasperate (gremdu 
eigi go5 at t)er) ; refl., gremjast e-m, 
io be angry with. 

gren (gen. pi. grenja), n. lair of a 
fox or wolf (sem melrakki i greni). 

grenja (at$}, v. to howl, bellow. 

grenjan, f. howling, bellowing. 

grennast (d), v. refl. to become thin. 

grennd, f. vicinity. 

grennslast (ac5), v. refl. to inquire. 

gren-skoUi, m. a fox in its earth. 

grepp-ligr, 2l. frowning, ugly. 

greppr (-s, -ar), m. (i) poet, scald \ 
(2) doughty man. 

grepta, greptra, see grefta, greftra. 

gres-jarn, n. iron wire. 

gretta(-tta, -tt), v., g. sik ^rgrettast, 
to frown, make a wry face. 

grey (gen. pi. greyja), n. (i) bitch ; 
{2) paltry fellow, coward. 

grey-baka, f. = grey (i). 

greyfa (-Sa, -tSr), v. to bend down 
with the face to the ground. 

grey-hundr, m. bitch ; -mennaka, f. 
paltriness, meanness. 

greypa (-ta, -tr), v. to groove. 

greypi-liga, adv. fiercely ; -ligr, a. 
fierce, fearful. 

greyp-leikr, m. fierceness ; -ligr, 
a. — greypiligr. 

greypr, vl. fierce, fearful. 

grey-skapr, m. = -mennska ; -stovS, 
n. pack of hounds. 

gritJ, n. (i) domicile, home', (2) pi. 
truce, peace, pardon, quarter ; setja g., 
to make truce ; segja i sundr gridum, 
to dissolve the truce ; lifs g. ok lima, 
safety for life and limbs', bei3a (ser) 
grifia, to sue for quarter ', beiSa griSa 
Baldri fyrir alls konar hdska, to seek 
protection for B. against all kinds of 
harm ; gefa e-m g., to give one quarter-, 
ganga til grida, to accept pardon. 

gri^a-brek, n. pi. breach of truce ; 
-gjof, f. granting truce ; -lauss, a. 
without truce, truceless ; -mark, n. 
sign of truce ; -mal, n. pi. truce formu- 
laries ; -rof, n. pi. breach of truce ; 

-setning, f. truce-making', -statJr, m. 
sanctuary, asylum. 

grit5-bitr, m. = -niSingr. 

gritSi, m. servant. 

gritSka, f., gritS-kona, f. housemaid, 
female servant. 

gritJ-matSr, m. male servant. 

gritS-mal, n. pi. = gridamal ; -nitS- 
ingr, m. truce-breaker', -sala, f. a 
granting truce ; -samr, a. peaceful. 

gritSungr (-s, -ar), m. = graQungr. 

gritS-vist, f. lodging, home. 

Grikkir (gen. -ja), m. pi. Greeks. 

Grikk-land,n. G^r«?.?(:<f; Grikklands- 
haf, n. the Grecian Archipelago. 

grikkska, f. Greek {language). 

grikkskr, a. Greek, = girskr. 

grimmast (d and acS), v. to chafe, be 
furious (g. moti gudi). 

grimmd, f. {\) grimness, fierceness ', 
(2) =s grimmdarfrost. 

grimmdar-frost, n. biting frost; 
-hugr, m. hostile mind. 

grimm-eygr, a. fierce-eyed; -hug- 
a^r, a. in a grim humour; -leikr, 
m. savageness, cruelty ; -liga, adv. 
fiercely ; hefna -liga, to take a fearful 
revenge', -ligr, a. fie?'ce, fearful; 
-lundaSr, a. of grim temper. 

grimmr, a. (1) grim, stern, dire; 
grdta grimmum tdrum, to weep bitter 
tears ; g. domr, severe judgemejit', (2) 
wroth ; svd var hon grimm orSin 
Brjani konungi, at, she hated him so 
much, that. 

grimm-utJigr, a. ferocious, fierce 
(-udigr i skapi). 

grind (pi. grindr and grindir), f. (i) 
a gate made of spars or bars, a fence ; 

(2) ^\. pen, fold (fe byrgt i grindum) ; 
fullar grindir, full-stocked folds ; 

(3) haven, dock (liggja i grindum, of 
ships) ; (4) store-houses. 

grind-liliS, n. barred gate, 

gripa-autSigr, a. rich in precious 
things ; -gjald, n. payment in precious 
things ; -kista, f . jewel chest ; -taka, 
f. se.zure of property. 

grip-deild, f. robbery, rapine. 

gripr (-ar, -ir), m. (i) costly thing, 
valuable treasure, property \ (2) value, 
money s worth ; enn priSja hlut d 
hann, l)ann cr mikill g. er i, that is of 




great value ; epli l)au, er henni munu 
gripir i pykkja, apples which she will 
think of g7-eat value. 

gripr, m. vulture (rare). 

grit5r (gen. -ar), (.giantess. 

grima, i. {i) a ki?iTi of covering for 
the face or the head, a mask or cowl 
(hafa grimu fyrir andliti, d hof6i ser) ; 
(2) armour coveri7:g a horse's head 
and breast', (3) beak (on a ship) ; (4J 
night (poet.). 

grimu-matSr, m. a masked or dis- 
guised 7)1 an. 

gripa (grip ; greip, gripura; grip- 
inn), V. (i) to grasp, seize (hann greip 
sverQsittokskjold); (2) toseizeupon{%. 
goz fyrir monnum) ; (3) with preps., g. i. 
e-u, to catch hold of\Y\.. greip a stafni) ; 
g. d kylinu, to touch upon a sore place ; 
g. til e-s, to seize (g. til sverSsins) ; 
greiphundrinntil hans, thedog snapped 
at him ; g. upp, to catch up (Loki greip 
upp mikla stong) ; g. viQ ordi, to com' 
mence speakitig. 

grisa-syr, f. a sow with pigs. 

griss (gen. griss, pi. grisir), m. (i) 
young pig \ {2) hog. 

grjar, a. grey (poet., rare). 

grjot, n. stones ; verda at grjoti, to 
be turned into stones ; bera g. a e-n, 
berja e-n grjoti, to stone one. 

grjot-berg, n. quarry ; -bjorg, n. pi. 
rocks ; -burt5r, m. throwing of stones ; 
-flaug, f. stone shower ; -flutning, f. 
conveyance of stofies ; -hlaS, n. stone 
wall; -holl, m. stone motmd, stone 
heap ; -hritS, f. shower of stones ; 
-horgr, m. = -holl ; -kast, n. throwi?ig 
stones ; -klettr, m. boulder ; -ligr, a. 
stony, flinty ; -mol, {.gravel, pebbles ; 
-pall, m. in the phr,, vera -pall fyrir 
e-u, to be the chief supporter {fuainstay) 
of; -skriSa, f. stone-slip ; -smi^r, 
xsi. sto7ie-maso7i; -varSi, m. caitn of 
st07ies ; -veggr, m. stone wall. 

groa (groer, greri, groinn), v. (i) 

to grow (of vegetation); j6r3 gicer, 
earth g7 ows ; j)a var grand groin 

groenum lauki, the grou7id was covered 

with green herbs; (2) to grow together, 

beco77ie joined to (hofud konun^s var 

groit \\h bolinn) ; (3) of wonnds, to be 

healed (sar hans greru seint) ; Ingolfr 

la i sarum vetr J)enna, ok greri yfir 
at kalla, his wou7ids we7-e healed in 
a way ; of the person, groinn sdra 
sinna, healed of one's wou7ids ; g. um 
heilt, to be quite healed; fig. to be 
reconciled (gicer um heilt med t)eim). 

grotSi, m. growth, increase. 

grotSr (gen. -rar, pi. -vox) yVa. growth, 
C7-op (biota til gi •65rar). 

grotSrar-ligr, 3..fs7't/le; healing. 

grotJr-samr, a. fertile ; -setja (see 
setja), V. to plant; -vaBnligr, a. 
heali7ig (-vsenlig smyrsl). 

grof, f . pit. 

grom-lauss, a. free fro77i spot, 

gromr, m. blot, dirty spot. 

grufla (at5), v. to grovel on all-fours. 

gruggottr, a. rnuddy, tu7'bid. 

gruna (acS), v. (i) to suspect^ mis- 
trust (Grettir gruna3i hann) ; vera 
grunadr um e-t, to be suspected of; 
(2) to doubt (ekki grunum ver illvilja 
ydvarn) ; (3) to suppose, guess (gruna 
ek, at fjolmenni muni fyrir); (4) im- 
pers., mik grunar e-t or um e-t, / 
suspect, doubt. 

grunan, f. suspecting, suspicio?i. 

grun-brusligr, a. suspicious-look- 
ing (})u ert g. ma6r). 

grund. (pi. -ir)^ i. green field, grassy 
plain (d grundinni hj^ f>vera). 

grunda (at5j, v. to meditate on, 

grundan, f. 77ieditation. 

grundr, m. inquiry; gefa (grafa) 
grund at e-u, to inquire into. 

grund-valla (atS), v. tofou7id; -vollr, 
m. ground for a buildi7ig (marka -voll 
til huss, kiikju); foundation; reisa 
hus af -velii, to 77iake a building from 
the gro7ind. 

grun-lauss, a. unsuspecting; trua 
gu3i -laust, to put absolute faith in 
God; vera -lauss af e-u, to be un^ 
suspected, above suspicion ; -maurar, 
m. pi., only in the phrase, e-n bita 
-maurar, one suspects. 

grunn, n. shallow^ shoal; roa i. g., 
to run agrou7id. 

grunn-eygcSr, a. goggle-eyed; -fall, 
n. a breaker on a shodl; -fastr, ^ 

agrou7id; -foeri, n. pi. ancho7-tackle, 

cable ; draga upp -foeri, to weigh 

anchor; -hygginn, a. shallow-77iindid^ 




silly \ -hygni, f. silliness \ -leitr, a. 

grunnr (-s, -ar), m. bottom (of sea 
or water) ; til grunns, til grunna, 
down to the bottom ; ganga d grunn, 
to come to an end (fig.). 

grunnr (grynnri, grynnstr), a. 
shallow ; standa grunnt, to be shallow 
(vindtta okkur stendr grunnt). 

grunn-stiglat5r, pp. hard frozen ; 
-ssei, f. simplicity^ credulity ; -saeliga, 
adv. foolishly ; -ssBligr, a. foolish ; 
•stBVt^.shalloW'Witted,f)olish ; -ssBvi, 
n. shallow water '^ -uoigr, a. shal- 
low-minded ; -yt5gi, f. shallowness of 
mind, credulity. 

grunr (-ar, -ir), m. suspicion, doubt, 
uncertainty (e-m er grunr d e-u) ; 
grafa grun d (um e-t), to suspect ; hafa 
grun i. e-m um e-t, to suspect o?ie of a 
thing ; e-m leikr grunr a um e-t, one 
feels suspicious about a thing ; draga 
gruni a um e-t, to conceive a suspicion 
of\ renna grunum a e-t, to doubt, to 
guess at ; bua um grun, to be suspected. 

grun-samligr, a. suspicious-looking ; 
-samr, a. suspected [hdiidi e-n -saman) ; 
-semd, f. suspicio7t. 

grunsemdar-lauss, a. free from 

griifa (-tSa, -t), v. to grovel^ to cower 
or crouch dowti (hann grufSi at eldi- 
num ; J)eir grufa i skjoldu sina). 

griifa, f., in the phrase, liggja a gnifu, 
to lie face down, on one's belly. 

gryfja, f. hole, pit. 

grynna (-ti, -t), v. impers. to become 
shallower', grynnir dalinn, the dale 
became less deep ; refl., grynnast = 
grynna (J)d er grynntist yfir at landinu). 

gryfi-liga, adv. hideously. 

gryjandi, f. daw?i (rare). 

gryla, f. {\) giantess', (2) bugbear 
(ekki hirfii ek um grylur ySrar). 

gryta (-tta, -ttr), v, {\) to stone one 
to death (g. e-n 1 hel, til bana) ; (2) g. 
a e-n, at e-m, to pelt one with stones. 

gryta, f. pot. 

gryting, f. stoning (to death). 

gryttr, a. stony. 

grytu-ker, n. earthen pot. 

greets, f. malice, hostility {=gxi\t\\ix). 

graeSgi, f. greediness, gluttony. 

graeska, f. malice (= grseS). 

groeSa (-dda, -ddr), v. (i) to make 
grow, (2) to heal (g. sdr, g. sjuka) ; 
(3) /^ increase', g. fe, to make money ; 
refl., vindrinn groeddist, the wind in- 
creased', groeSist e-m i6, peningar one 
makes money. 

grcetSari, m. healer, saviour. 

grcE^i-ligr, a. healable. 

groetSing, f. (i) growth, increase 
(byrr var i grceSingu) ; (2) healing, 
cure (g. sotta ; andlig g.). 

grcBfr, 2.. fit to be buried. 

groenast (-d), v. to become green 
(groenist jorS). 

groen-fainn, 2i.. green-stained. 

groen-leikr, m. greefiness, ve^-dure. 

Grcen-lendingr, m. Greenlander. 

grcsn-lenzkr, a. of or belonging to 
Greenland (Greenland). 

grcenn, a. (i) green (g. sem gras) ; 
{2) fresh (g. fiskr) ; iz) good, ft', sd 
mun nu groenstr {the most hopeful 
choice) at segja satt. 

groen-to, f. ttift of grass', -tyrfa 
(-tSa, -t5r), v. to cover with green turf 

groeta (-tta, -ttr), v. to make one 
weep, distress one ; grcEttr, grieved. 

groeti, n. pi. tears, sorrow, 

groeti-ligr, a. lamentable, sad. 

groetir, m. one who makes another 
weep (gygjar g.). 

grof (gen. grafar ; pi. grafir and 
grafar), f. (i) pit, ditch (grafa g.) ; 
(2) grave ; J)at mein leiddi hann til 
grafar, caused his death. 

groftr (gen. graftar and graftrar, 
dat. grefti and greftri), m. (i) dig- 
ging (vera at grefti) ; (2) burial, 
interment ; veita e-m groft, to bury ; 
{l)tomb', {^) carving. 

gron (gen. granar, pi. granar), f. (i) 
the hair on the upper lip, moustache 
(svd ungr, at eigi mun g. sprottin) ; 
(2) up ; legSu munn vi6 g., lay thy 
mouth to his lips ; e-m breg6r vd. 
fyrir g., one is startled, alarmed', 
bregma gronum, to draw back the 
lips, grin ; in pi. the lips of a cow 
or bull. 

gron (gen. granar), f. pine-tree. 

groptr (gen- graptar), m. = groftr. 

grosugr, a. grassy, grass-grown. 




gu^S, m. (and n.), Go^. 

gutSdom-ligr, a. god-like^ divine. 

gutS-domr, m. godhead^ divinity ; 
-dottir, f. god'diughter \ -fatSir, m. 
godfather ; -gefinn, pp. given by 
Gody inspired \ -hrseddr, a. god- 
fearing ; -hraBzla, f. fear of God ; 
-lasta (atS), v. io blaspheme ; -lastan, 
f. blasphemy ; -latr, a. ungodly ; 
-leysi, n. godlessness ; -ligr, a. ^y^f- 
//■/^^, divine ; -magn, n. = goSmagn ; 
-nioingr, m. traitor to God, apostate, 

gutSnit5ing-skapr, m. apostasy. 

gutS-rettligr, a. righteous] -rsBkiligr, 
-raekr, a. ungodly ; -rcBkiliga, adv. 
piously ; -roekinn, a. pious ; -sifi 
(gen. -sifja), m. ^ gossip \ godfather \ 
-siQar, f. pi. spiritual relationship, 
sponsorship ; veita e-m -sifjar, to be 
a sponsor {godfather) to. 

gutSs-log, n. pi. the canon law (halda 
-log ok landsins). 

gutS-spjall, n. gospel \ -spjalligr, 
a. evangelical. 

guCvefjar-klaB^i, n. pi. a suit of 
clothes made ^y gudvefr ; -kjrrtill, m., 
-skikkja, f. kirtle ^/"guSvefr. 

gutS-vefr, m. a costly fabric used for 
garments, etc. ; \ velvet. 

gufa, f. V'vpoiir, steam. 

gugna (ao), v. to lose heart, quail. 

gul, n. gentle breeze, = gol. 

gula, f. (i) = gola ; (2) = gulusott. 

gul-brunatSr, 2i.yelloW'-bro'wn ; -grar, 
a. yellozu-grey ; -groGnn, a. yellow- 
green (i gulgroenum kyrtli). 

gull, n. [i) gold', (2) = fingrgull. 

gull-aldr, m. golden age ; -autSigr, 
a. rich in gold ; -aut5r, m. wealth in 
gold', -band, n. golden head-band; 
-baugr, m. gold ring', -bitlatSr, a. 
golden-bitted', -bitull, m. bit {bridle) 
of gold; -bjartr, a. bright as gold; 
-boka (aS), v. to embroider in gold; 
-bola, f. ( I ) gold boss ; (2) golden bull 
(bulla aurea) ; -brsmja, {.golden coat 
of mail ; -buinn, pp. ornamented 
with gold; -bollr, m. golden ball; 
-ddlkr, m. gold pin ; -festr, f. gold 
chain ; -fjallatSr, pp. embroidered in 
gold; -gotSr, a. of pure gold; -gorr, 
a. made of gold; -hagr, a. skilled in 

working gold; -hdlsar, m. pi. gold' 
necks, lordlings ; -harr, a. golden- 
haired; 'hella,, {. bar of gold; -hjalt, 
n. gold hilt ; -hjalmr, m. golden hel- 
met; -hlatJ, n. gold lace (esp. to tie 
up the hair with) ; -hla^inn, pp. 
laced with gold; -hringr, m. gold 
ring; -hSxa, n. Jewel-chest ; -hjn^ndr, 
a. golden-horned. 

gullin-bursti, ; -hjalti, 
m. golden-hilt (a sword with a hilt of 
gold) ; -kambi, m. gold comb. 

gullinn, a. golden. 

gull-knappr, m. gold button ; gold 
knob; -kxi\,vi\. gold knot ; -korona, 
{.golden crown ; -leggja (see leggja), 
V. to lace with gold ; -ligr, a. golden, 
of gold; -mal, n. inlaid figure of 
gold ; -men, r\. gold necklace ; -miSl- 
andi, m. distributor of gold ; -nisti, 
n. gold pin ; -ofinn, pp. gold-woven ; 
-rekinn, pp. inlaid with gold (-rekit 
spjot) ; -vender, 3.. gold-striped; -rit- 
inn, pp. written in gold; -rotSinn, 
pp. ^/7/; -saumatSr, pp. embroidered 
with gold; -settr, ^^. gold-7nounted; 
-skillingr, m. gold shilling ; -skot- 
Inn, pp. woven with gold; -skor, 
m. gold shoe ; -smeittr, pp., -smeltr, 
pp. gold-enamelled (of a shield) ; 
-smitSr, m. goldsmith ; -smit5, f. 
goldsmith'' s work, working in gold; 
-spann, m. (i) gold 07'nament (on 
ships) ; (2) gold spoon ; -sproti, m. 
gold sceptre ; -stafatSr, pp. gold- 
striped; -stafr, m. golden letter; 
-steindr, pp. gilt ; -stong, f. bar of 
gold ; -sylgja, f. gold brooch ; -tafia, 
f. golden piece (used in playing) ; 
-teinn, m. golden rod; -valitSr, pp. 
wound with gold ; -veggr, m. golden 
wall; -vit5jar, f. pi. gold withies; 
-vondr, m. golden wa7id. 

gulr, 3. yellow (gult silki). 

gul-rendr, a. gold-striped, , 

gulu-sott, f. jau7idice. ' 

gumi (pi. gumar), m. man (poet.). 

gumnar, m. pi. men (poet.) ; gumna 
synir, the sons of fnen. 

gumpr, m. bottojti , funda7nent. 

gumsa (atS), v. to scoff at, 7}iock. 

gunnar-fuas, -gjarn, a. eager for 




gunn-fdni, m. ^ gonfanon\ war- 
banner ; processional banner. 

gunn-heilagr, a. invulnerable ; 
-hvatr, a. warlike. 

gunnr (gen. -ar, dat. and ace. -i), 
f. war, battle (poet.). 

gunn-tamitSr, pp. used to war. 

guss, n. ficss\ gussa (acS), v. to 
make fuss and noise. 

gusta (atSj, V. to blow in gusts. 

gust-illr, a. having foul breath ; 
-kaldr, a. gusty, chilly (veQrit var 
giistkalt) ; -mikill, a. gusty. 

gustr, m. (i) gust', (2) smell. 

GytSinga-land, n. Palestine ; -skirn, 

f. circioncision. 
gySing-ligr, a. Jewish. 
GytSingr (-s, -ar), m. Jew. 
gyt5ja, f. (i) goddess ; (2) priestess. 
gylfra, f. (ij ogress, witch; (2) er 

J)at helzt viQ ordi, at gylfrum gangi 
vindttan, it is rumour-ed that your 
ff'iendship is all gone to the dogs. 

gylla (-da, -dr and -ta, -tr), v. to 
gild', g. holi, to flatter. 

gylling, f. {i) gilding ; (2) pi. vain 
praise (fara meS gyllingar). 

gylta, f ., gyltr, f. young sow. 

gymbill, m. he-latnb. 

gymbr (gen. -rar), f. ewe-lamb. 

gyrtSa (-t5a, -Sr), v. (i) to gird 
(with a belt) ; g. sik, to gird oneself, 
fasten one's belt (cf. gyror i brcekr); 

g. sik me6 sverSi, to gird on a sword ; 
(2) to s^irth (g. best, g, sodul). 

gyrcSill, m. (i) girdle', (2) purse 
(hon let fdit i gyrSiiinn). 

gyija, V. to staiti with blood. 

gys, n., gyss, m. mocking ; gera gys 
at e-u, to mock at a thing. 

gyzki, m. wonder (rare). 

gygi^ (gen. -jar, pi. -jar), f. giantess, 
hag (J)ar bjo ein gygrj. 

gsBfa, f. good luck ; bera gsefu til e-s, 
to have luck in a thing. 

gflBfr, a. quiet, meek ; l)at er mdr ok 
gaefast, that is most pleasant to me. 

gSBfu-dijugr, a. lucky ; -fdtt, a. n., 
e-m er -fdtt, one has little luck ; 
-hlutr, m. share of good luck ; -lauss, 
a. luckless ; -leysi, n. lucklessness ; 
-matSr, m. lucky man ; -mannligr, 
a. as a lucky man ; -mikill, a. having 

great luck; -munr, m. difference in 
luck ; -raun, f. trial of luck ; -sam- 
liga, adv. luckily ; -samligr, a. 
lucky ; -skipti, n. turn or change 
of luck ; -skortr, m. want of luck ; 
-vant, a. n. wanting in luck. 

gaBgjast (5), V. refl. to bend eagerly 
forward and peep. 

gser, adv. only with the prep. /; (i) 
yesterday (var-a J)at nu ne i gaer) ; 
(2) poet, to-morrow (t^ott nu edr i 
gccr deyjum). 

gaera, f. sheepskin with the wool on. 

gaer-dagr, m. yesterday ; -kveld, 
n. yesterday evening. 

gfflta (-tta, -tt), V. [i) to watch, take 
care of, guard, with gen. ; g. skoklaeSa 
e-s, to take care of one's shoes ; g. 
dura i hollinni, to guard the door of 
the hall ; g. kua, hesta, to tend cows, 
horses ; g. doma, to observe justice ; 
g. radsins, to take heed to the advice ; 
g. til e-s, to mind, take care of, attend 
to (sva gasttu J^eir til, at ekki var5 at) ; 
(2) refl., ok um pat gaettust, and took 
counsel together. 

gaeti-liga, adv. heedfully, 

gaBtinn, a. heedful, wary. 

gastir, m. keeper, warder. 

gaetti, n. door-frame, door-post ; 
hur5 var i. g., the door was ajar. 

gaBtur, f. pi., hafa g. i. e-u, gefa g. 
at e-u, to take care of, mind. 

gaazla, f. watch, keeping. 

gaezlu-engill, m. guardian angel \ 
-lausa, a. unguarded; -maSr, m. 
keeper ; -sott, f. an illness which in- 
volves watching over the patient. 

gcetSa (-dda, -ddr), v. (i) to endow ^ 
enrich (g. e-n i€ ok virdingu) ; {1) to 
increase ; g. ras, fer3, to quicken the 
pace ; g. roSrinn, to quicken the stroke, 
pull quicker ; adding the prep, d ; sva 
mikit gceddi J)etta a, it increased so 
much, went to such a pitch ; var pd 
nokkuru heimskari en dSr, ef i. mdtti 
g., sillier, if possible, than before. 

goeSa-lauss, a. void of good things^ 
barrc7i (goeSalaust land). 

goeSi, n. pi. good or prof table things ^ 
boons, etnoluments. 

goeSingr (-s, -ar), m. nobleman, 
chief {konMugt: ok hans gceSingar). 




gcel, n. = goelingar-or5. 

goela (-da. -dr), v. to comfort, soothe 
(ver6 ek mik goela). 

gcBling, f. soothing', goslingar-orS, 
n. pi. soothing words. 

gcEzka, f. ( I ) goodness^ kindness ; 
(2) good things ( = goeSi). 

goezku-fullr, a. full of goodness, 
merciful ; -lauss, a. merciless ; -sam- 
ligr, 2i. good, kind', -verk, n. charit- 
able deed. 

gofga (a5), V. (i) to worship (g. 
go6) ; (2) to honour Ig. drottins-dagj. 

gofgan, f. worshipping. 

gofgari, m. worshipper. 

gofug-kvendi, n. noble woman, 
lady ; -latr, a. worshipful, generous ; 
-leikr, m. worshipfulness, highness; 
-ligr, a. (i ) worshipful, noble-lookittg ; 
(2) magnificent (-ligr sta6r) ; -menni, 
n. noble, worshipful man ; -mennr, 
a. with many worshipful men, 

gofugr (gofgari, gofgastr), a. noble, 
worshipful (g. at kyni). 

g0gn, g0gnum, see ' gegn, gegnum'. 

goltr (gen. galtar, dat. gelti; pi. 
geltir), m. boar, hog. 

gong, n. "(^X. passage (or kastala voru 
gong upp i kirkju). 

gongu-drykkja, f. drinking-bout ; 
-foeri, n. = gang-foeri ; -foerr, a. able 
to walk ; -kona, f. vagrant woman ; 
-liS, n. (i) footmen, infantry, (2) 
help, assistance. 

gongull, a. running much about. 

gongu-matSr, a. beggar, vagrant; 
-mannliga, adv. beggarlike, beggarly, 
-sveinn, m. vagrant, tramp. 

g0r, n. "^Q^X. flock. 

g0ra, g0rva (-5a, -t^r, and gorr), 
V. _(i) to ynake, construct, build (g. hus, 
skip, haug) ; g. bok, to write a book ; 
(2) to set in order, prepare, perform, 
&:c. ; g. veizlu, to tnake a banquet; 
g. seiS, blot, to perfo7'm a sacrifice ; 
g. fer6, to fnake a journey ; g. raS 
sitt, to make up one's mind; g. ra6 
me6 e-m, to take counsel with, advise 
one ; (3) to contract (g. vinattu, felag- 
skap) ; (4) to grant, render ; g. kost, 
to give a choice ; (5) with ace. of an 
adj. ; g. sik likan e-m, to make oneself 
like to, imitate one ; g. sik re 13 an, to 


take offence; g. skjot-korit, to make 
a quick choice ; (6) to do, act ; g. gott 
(illt), to do good {evil) ; hefir hann 
marga hluti gort stor-vel til min, / 
have received tnany great benefits at 
his hands; g. e-m gagn, to give help 
to one; (7) to do, avail; pat mun 
ekki g., that won't do ; ekki g0rir at 
dylja, it is no use denying it; (8) to 
send, dispatch (hann g0rdi pegar menn 
fra ser) ; (9) to beget (af henni g0rdi 
hann hinn fyrsta soninn) ; (10) to 
judge or arbitrate in a case (= g. 
um mdl) ; to fix the amount of a fine 
(g0r6i Njall hundraS silfrs) ; g. ser 
e-t, to adjudge to oneself; (11) with 
infin. as an auxiliary verb ; ef hon 
g0r6i koma, if she did come ; g0rdit 
hon hjufra, she did not wail; (12) 
impers. one becomes ; hann g0r5i fol- 
van, he turned pale ; ve6r g0r6i 
hvast, a gale arose ; hri6 mikla g0r6i 
at jDeim, they were overtaken by a 
storm ; mer g0rir svefnhofugt, I grow 
sleepy; (13) with preps., g. mikit af 
ser, to distinguish oneself; g. e-t af 
e-m, to extort {take) frotn one ; g. e-t 
af vi6 e-n, to wrong a person, trans- 
gress against one (ek hefi engan hlut 
af gort vi6 pik) ; g. g66an (mikinn) 
rom at mdli e-s, to cheer {praise) 
another* s speech ; g. at e-u, to metid, 
put right (tekr hann knif ok g0rir 
at skonum) ; to heali^2JcmX J)u nokkut 
g. at slikum meinum) ; hann g0r6i 
J)at eina at, er hann ^tti, he did only 
what he ought ; slikt g0rir at, er solin 
etr, so it happens when one eats sea- 
weed; g. at skapi e-s, to conform to 
one's wishes ; g. at alitum, to take 
into consideration ; g. ser ugetit at 
e-u, to be displeased with ; g. a hluta 
e-s, to wrong one, do haryn to ; g. 
fdleika i. sik, to make oneself look 
sad; g. eptir e-m, to send for one; 
g. e-t eptir, to imitate; g. rad fyrir 
e-u, to suppose ; g. s6r mikit (litit) 
fyrir, to make great {small) efforts ; 
g. ser e-t hug, to resolve, plan ; g. 
ser gott hug, to be easy in fnind; 
g. milli (d, m.) e-rra, to decide be- 
tween ; g. til e-s, to make prepara- 
tions for ; g. e-t til, to prepare, make 





ready ^ dress meat; g. til e-s, fo de- 
serve a thing ; hvat hafSir J)u til gort, 
ivkat hadst thotc done to deserve it ? ; 
g. soemdir til e-s, to confer honour 
upon one\ g. til saka vi5 e-n, to 
transgress against one\ g. urn mal, 
to arbitrate in a case (paer ur6u 
milalyktir, at {>6r6r skyldi g. urn) ; 
g. mikit um sik, to make a great 
noise \ g. sdr mikit um e-t, to make 
much of, ad?nire ; g. upp, to rebuild^ 
restore (g. upp hus, skala) ; g. e-n 
upp, to upset one; g. e-n utan, to 
banish, exile (Flosi var gorr utan) ; 
g. e-t vi6 e-n, to do with one (pd var 
um roett, hvat vi5 J)d skyldi g.) ; g. 
vi6 e-u, to preve7tt\ (14) refl., g0rast, 
to become, arise (jDa gordist hXiXr) ; sa 
atburSr gorSist, it came to pass ; gorS- 
ist me6 J)eim felagskapr, they entered 
into fellowship ; gorast konungr, to 
become king; svd g0r6ist, at, it so 
happened, that; impers., nassta g0rist 
mer kynligt, / feel rather uneasy ; 
g0rast ferSar sinnar, to set out for 
a jotirney ; with infin., ix var J)at er 
GuQrun gordist at deyja, was nigh to 
death ; g. i, to occur, happen (sogQu 
peir konungi, hvat i hafdi gorzt) ; g. 
til e-s, to set about doing (l)essir menn 
hafa gorzt til svd mikils storroedis). 

gor-boenn, a. beggitig hard, impor- 
tunate (g0rast g. vio e-n). 

g0r5, f. (i) making, building; (2) 
doing, act, deed ; ord ok g0r5ir, words 
and deeds; (3) arbitration, award; 
leggja mdl f g., to submit a case to 
arbitration ; taka menn til g0r6ar, to 
choose umpires ; segja or luka upp g., 
to deliver the arbitration. 

g0r$ar-ma$r, m. umpire, 

gor-farinn, pp. quite gone, quite lost ; 
-hugall, a. very heedful, mindful. 

gorla, adv. quite, fully (vita g.). 

gorn (pi. garnarandgarnir),f.^«/. 

gorning, f. doing, deed. 

g0rninga-hrit5, f. a storm raised by 
witchcraft ; -matSr, m. sorcerer. 

g0rnmgar, f. pi. %uitchcraft, sorcery. 

g0rninga-s6tt, f. sickness caused by 
sorcery; -stakkr, m. enchanted jacket; 
-veSr, n. = -hri6 ; -vsBttr, f. witch. 

g0rningr, m. = g0rning. 

gorr, g0rr, gerr (ace. gorvan), a. 
and pp. (i) skilled, accomplished {y^\ 
at ser g.) ; leggja gorva hond i. e-t, 
to be an adept, a master in a thing ; 

(2) ready, willing (g. gull at bjoda) ; 
with gen., g. ills hugar, prone to evil ; 
skulut J)ess gorvir, be ready for that! 

(3) sv^ gort, so done, so ; verSa menn 
J)at svd gort at hafa, it must be so ; 
at svd gorvu, this being the case. 

g0rr, adv. compar., g0rst, adv. 
superl. 7nore, most fully. 

gor-rteSi, n. arbitrary act; -sam- 
liga, adv. altogether, quite. 

g0r-semi, -simi (pi. -semar), f. 
costly thing, jewel, treasure; -sim- 
ligr, a. costly. 

gor-tceki, n. unlawful seizttre of 
another Juan's property. 

g0rva, V. = gera, g0ra. 

gorva (g0rva, gerva), adv. quite, 
clearly ; muna g. to remember clearly ; 
ef I)u g. kannar, if thou search closely; 
cf. g0rr, g0rst. 

gorv-allr, a. entire, whole. 

g0rvi (pi. g0rvar), {.gear, apparel; 
-biir, n. store-house. 

g0rvi-leikr, m. acco7npiishments ; 
-ligr, a. accomplished, doughty. 

gotu-breidd, f. breadth of a road ; 
-leysi, n. pathless tract; -nisti, n. 
provisions for a journey ; -skar 5, n. 
a defile with a path throtcgh it, 

gotva (ac5), V. to bury. 

gotvatSr, m. slayer (.?). 

hadda, f. pot-hook, pot-handle. 

hadd-bjartr, a. light-haired, = 
bjart-haddadi ; -blik, n. bleaching 
the hair. 

haddr (-s, -ar), m. a lady's hair, 
hat5na, f. a young she-goat. 
haf, n. the sea, esp. the high sea, 
ocean ; sigla (Mta) f h., sigla d h. ut, 




to put to sea ; hann do i hafi, he died 
at sea. 

haf, n. lifting (ulikligr til hafs). 

hafa (hefi ; haf 5a, hof t$um ; haf Sr), 
V. (i) to have (l)eir hofdu sjau skip ok 
flest stor) ; h. elda, to keep up ajire ; 
(2) to hold, celebrate (h. vinaboS, blot, 
J)ing) ; (3) to keep, retain (rifu J)asr 
vefinn { sundr, ok hafdi hverr pat er 
belt d) ; (4) to use (tvau net eru ny, 
ok hafa eigi hold verit) ; orS J)au sem 
hann haffii um haft, which he had 
made use of] h. fagrmaeli vi6 e-n, 
to flatter one \ h. hljodmaeli vi6 e-n, 
to speak secretly to one ; h. tvimasli i. 
e-u, to speak doubtfully of a thing ; 
h. vifirmseli um e-t, to use mocking 
words ; hann var mjok hafSr vi6 mdl 
manna, much used to, versed in, law- 
suits', (5) to have, hold, maintain', 
h. vinattu vi6 e-n, to maintain friend- 
ship with one ; h. hasttumikit, to run 
a great risk ; h. heilindi, to have good 
health ; (6) to bring, carry ; h. e-n 
heim me6 ser, to bring one home', 
hann hafdi log ut hingat or Noregi, 
he brought laws hither froin Norway ; 
h. sik {to betake oneself) til annara 
landa ; (7) to take, carry off', troll 
hafi J)ik, the trolls take thee', (8) to 
get, gain, wifi ; hann hafSi eigi svefn, 
he got no sleep ; hefir sa jafnan, er 
hcettir, he wins that venttires ; h. 
gagn, sigr, to gaifi victory, h. meira 
hlut, to get the upper hand, gain the 
day ; h. betr (verr), to get t/ie better 
{worse) of it ; h. sitt mdl, to win one's 
suit ; h. tafl, to win the game ; h. 
erendi, to do one's errand, succeed', 
h. bana, to suffer death, to die; h. 
usigr, to be worsted', h. godar vi6- 
tokur, to be well received', h. ti'Qindi 
af e-m, to get tidings of, or from, 
one\ h. soemd, ovirOing af e-m, to 
get honour, disgrace from one ; with 
gen., h. e-s ekki, to fail to catch one 
(hann kemst i. skog undan, ok hofQu 
peir bans ekki) ; ekki munu ver bans 
h. at sinni, we shall not catch hifn at 

present', (9) to wear, carry (clothes, 

weapons) ; hann hafSi bMn kyrtil, he 

wore a blue kirtle ; h. kylfu i hendi \for that, it is a false charge', h 

ser, /<« have a club in one's hand;\iynT sokum um e-t, to charge 

{10) to behave, do, or fare, so and so>, 
esp. with an adv. ; h. vel, ilia, betr, 
verr, to behave {do) well, badly, better, 
worse ; hafa sik vel, to behave well', 
hafa vel, to be well off or happy ; h. 
hart, to be in a wretched plight', (11) 
with infin., h. at varSveita, to have in 
keeping ; h. at selja, to have on sale ; 
log hariS t)er at masla, you are right ; 
(12) h. e-n nasr e-u, to expose one to 
(J)u hafdir sva nser haft oss lifoeru) ; 
h. nasr e-u, to come near to, esp. 
impers. ; nasr hafSi okkr nu, it was 
a narrow escape ; svd nasr haf6i haus- 
inum, at, the shot so nearly touched 
the head, that', ok er nasr hafdi, at 
skipit mundi fljota, when the ship 
was on the point of floating', (13) as 
an auxiliary verb, in the earliest time 
with the pp. of transitive verbs in ace; 
hefir J)u hamar um folginn, hast thou 
hidden the hammer f ; ek hefi sendan 
mann, I have sefit a man ; later with 
indecl. neut. pp. ; hefir J)u eigi set 
mik, hast thou not seen me?', (14) 
with preps. ; h. e-t at, to do, act ; 
hann tok af J)er konuna, en J)u hafSir 
ekki at, but thou didst not stir, didst 
take it tamely ; absol., viltu t)ess 
freista, ok vita hvat at hafi, wilt thoit 
try and see what happens f ; h. e-n 
at hlifiskildi (skotspoeni), to use one 
as a shield {as a target) ; h. e-n at 
ha3i, hlatri, to mock, laugh at ; h. e-t 
at engu, vettugi, to hold for naught, 
take no notice of; h. sakir a e-n, to 
have charges against one ; h. a ras, 
to take to one's heels, run off; h. e-t 
eptir, to do or repeat a thing after 
one; h. e-t fram, to produce (vapn 
f>orgils voru fram hofd) ; to carry 
out, hold forth ; h. mal fram, to pro- 
ceed with a suit ; var um buit, en 
ekki fram haft, all was 7nade ready, 
but nothing done', h. e-t frammi, i 
frammi, to use, make use of (h. i 
frammi kugan) ; ok oil logmast skil 
frammi hafa, and discharge all o?ie's 
official duties; h. e-t fyrir satt, to 
hold for true ; eigi em ek Jjar fyrir 
sonnu hafdr, / am not truly aimed at 





with ; h. 1 hotum vi3 e-n, to threaten 
one ; h. e-t meS hondum, to have in 
ha7td\ hofum eigi sigrinn or hendi, 
let not victory slip out of our hands ; 
h. 6r vi3 e-n, to behave so and so 
towards one (hefir J3u ilia or haft vi6 
mik) ; h. e-t til e-s, to use for (hofSu 
{)eir til varnar skot ok spjot) \ to be a 
reason or ground for \ ver hyggjum 
pat til t)ess haft vera, at l)ar hafi 
menn sezt, ive believe the foiindatioti 
of the story is that men have been seen 
there ; h. mikit (litit) til sins mals, to 
have much {little) ifi support of one's 
case ; h. e-t til, to have at hand, 
possess ; or3 J^au, sem hann hafSi 
um haft, the ivo?'ds zvhich he had 
used; keisari hafSi fatt um, did not 
say much ; h. e-n undir, to get one 
tindery subdue one; h. e-t uppi, to 
take {heave) up (h. uppi fceri, net) ; 
SkarpheSinn haf6i uppi 0xina, 5. 
heaved up the axe; h. flokk uppi, to 
raise a party , to rebel ; h. uppi tafl, 
to play at a game ; h. e-n uppi, to 
bring one to light; h. uppi roedur, to 
begin a discussion ; h. e-t uti, to have 
done, finished (h. liti sitt dagsverk) ; 
h. vi3 e-m, to be a match for one; h. 
sik vi6, to exert oneself; h. mikit 
(litit) vi3, to make a great [little) dis- 
play ; hann song messu ok hafSi mikit 
vi6, and made much of it; hann baS 
jarl leita, hann hafSi litit vi3 J)at, he 
did it lightly ; haf ekki slikt vid, do 
not say so ; haf J)u litit vid at eggja 
sonu I)ina, refrain from egging on 
thy sons; (15) refl., hafast, to dtuell, 
abide ; J)eir hofSust mjok i ferSum, 
they spent much of their life in travel- 
ling; hafast vel, to do welly thrive 
(vaxa ok vel h.) ; h. at, to do ; Lambi 
sa hvat Steinarr hafdist at, what he 
was doing; h. vi3, to dwell, stay (her 
mun ek vi6 hafast) ; h. vel vi3, to bear 
•oneself well up ; h. or3 vi5, to speak 
to one another. 
hafandi, pr. p. being with child. 
haf-bara, f. wave ; -fugl, m. sea- 
bird ; -fcerandi, pr. p. sea-going, sea- 
'worthy ; -ger^ingar, f. pi. tremendous 
waves ; -gjalfr, n. roar of the sea ; 
•gola, f. sea-breeze; -gufa, f. mgr- 

maid ; -hallt, adv. standing seawards ; 
-hrutr, m. sea-ram; -iss, m. drift 
ice ; -kaldr, a. cold as the sea ; -leic5, 
f. standing seawards ; stefna -lei3, to 
stand seawards ; -leitSis, adv. sea- 
zvards ; -ligr, a. marine. 

hafna (at5), v. to forsake, abandon^ 
with dat. (h. fornum si6, blotum ok 
heidnum go3um) ; kyr hafna6i atinu, 
the cow left off eati7ig. 

hafnan, f. abandomnentj forsaking 
(h. heimsins, veraldar). 

hafnar-dyrr, f. pi. entrance of a 
haven (hofn). 

hafnar-feldr, m. a shaggy cloak for 
everyday use. 

hafnar-mark, -merki, n. harbour 
jnark ; -tollr, m. harbour toll. 

hafnar-vatSmal, -vaS, n. plain stiff. 

hafn-borg, f. sea borough, sea~p07't. 

haf-nest, n. provisions for a voyage. 

hafn-leysa, f., -leysi, n. harbour less 
coast ; -ligr, a. harbour-like. 

hafr (-rs, -rar), m. he-goat , buck, 

hafr-belgr, m. = -staka. 

haf-rek, n. wreck, jetsatn ; -reka, a., 
-rekinn, pp. tossed or driven about 
on the sea. 

hafr-staka, f. goafs skin. 

haf-rcetSr, a. sea-worthy (hafroeSr 

hafs-botn, m. gulf (firSir ok hafs- 
botnar) ; -geil, f. sea-lane. 

haf-skip, n. a sea - going ship ; 
-skrimsl, n. sea-monster. 

hafs-megin, n. the main, high sea. 

haf-stormr, m. storm at sea ; 
-strambr, m.. fabulous sea-monster. 

haft, n. (i) bond, chain; esp. pi., 
hoft, fetters ; sitja i hoftum, to be in 
fetters; halda e-n i hoftum, to keep 
one i7i bonds ; (2) pi., hoft, gods. 

hafta, f. fe77iale prisoner^ bond- 
W07nan (h. ok hernuma). 

haftr, m. 7nale prisoner, bondman. 

haf-tyrt$ill, m. little auk ; -velktr, 
pp. sea-tossed; -vitSri, sea-breeze; 
-villa, f. loss of one's course at sea ; 
-vUlr, a. having lost one's course at sea. 

haga (atS), v. (i) /^ 7nanage, arrange, 

with dat. (sva skulu ver h. inngongu 
vorri) ; fenu var hagat til gaezlu, the 
money was taken into keeping; with 




adv., hvernig skulum v^r J)d til h., 
how shall we arrarjge it ; h. sva til, 
at, to arrange or contrive it so that ; 
h. e-m til e-s, to turn^ out so and so 
for one (J)at hagaQi Olafi til mikils 
harms); (2)/^ suit^ be suitable (skip 
me3 t)eim farmi, sem ek veit vel hagar 
til islands). 

haga-beit, f. grazing ; -gartSr, m. 
fence round a pasture-field. 

hag-fa3tr, a. grazing constantly on 
the same pasture ; -fatt, a. n. short of 
grazing (mdlnytu ver6r -fitt). 

hag-feldr, a. meet, fit, suitable (ek 
mun per h. ; hagfelt erindi). 

hagi, m. pasture, field for grazing ; 
var hestum h. fenginn, the horses were 
put out to grass. 

hag-jor(5, {.pasture land. 

hag-keypi, n. good bargain. 

hagl, n. hail; -hritS,/. hailstorm. 

hag-leikr, m. skill in handicraft. 

hagleiks-g0rtS, i.fine workmanship ; 
-matSr, ni. hajidicraftsman, artist. 

hag-liga, adv. skilfully, handily, 
neatly, -ligr, a. (i) skilful, handy, 
neat ; (2) fit, proper, convenient. 

hagl-korn, n., -steinn, m. hail- 
stone ; -vindr, m. hail-storm. 

hag-myrr, f. pasture marsh. 

hag-meeltr, a. well-spoken. 

hagna (at5), v. to be meet for one ; 
hvarum ykkrum hefir betr hagnat, 
which of you has had the best luck f 

hagna^r (gen. -ar), m. advantage. 

hag-nyta (-tta, -ttr), v. to fnake use 
of, have profit of 

hagr, a. handy^ skilful (h. maSr d 
tie ok jdrn). 

hagr (-3, -ir), m. (i) state, condition, 
affairs (hvat er nu um hagi {)ina ?) ; 
(2) means (ef hann hefir eigi hag til at 
fcera {)au fram) ; (3j favour, advan- 
tage ; i hag e-m, /<? one''s advantage ; 
at hogum, suitably. 

hag-raS, n. opportunity, -ra$r, a. 
giving wise cowisel ; -ree^a (-raedda, 
-rae'-t), v. to put right (fyrir ser) ; 
-rae^i, n. service (gcra e-m -rasSi) ; 
-skeytr, a. a good shot ; -skipti, n. 
fair bargain ; -spakligr, a. practical, 
wise', -speki, f. forethought, good 
sense 'y -stcBtSr, a. fairy favourable 

(-stoeSr byrr) ; -tcekr, a. practical *y 
-J)orn, -pyrnir, m. hawthorn. 

haka (gen. hoku), f. chin. 

hala-broddr, m. point of a tail', 
-ferS, f. the rear; -langr, a. long- 
tailed', -tafl, n. a kind of game. 

hald, n. ( I ) hold, fastening', (2) keep' 
ing in repair (fyrir h. kirkju) ; (3) 
supporty backing (hann hefir nu h. 
mikit af konungi) ; h. ok traust, help 
and support in need', koma e-m at 
haldi, i hald, to be of use or help to 
one', her kemr ilia ^i h., it does little 
good', (4) custody (Olafr konungr tok 
^d. vi6 haldi Hrasreks konungsj ; (5) 
esteem (vera me6 e-m i g66u haldi); 
(6) keeping, observance (cf. jola-hald, 
drottinsdaga hald). 

halda (held ; h61t, h61dum ; hald- 
inn), V. I. with dat. {\) to hold fast 
(Gunnarr var kyrr sva at honum helt 
einn ma6r) ; to keep back, restrain 
(Hrafn fekk eigi haldit henni heima); 
{2) to withhold{fi€\dM boendrgjaldinu); 
(3) to keepy retain (])u skalt jafnan 
J)essu ScCti h.) ; to preserve (h. vir6ingu 
sinni, lift ok limum) ; h. voku sinni, 
to keep oneself awake ; (4) to holdy 
keep one's stock ; also ellipt. (vetr var 
illr ok heldu menn ilia) ; (5) phrases, 
h. njosnum, to keep watch, to spy ( = 
h. njosnum til um e-t) ; h. (hendi) 
fyrir auga, to hold {the hand) before 
the eyes, shade the eyes ; h. hendi yfir 
e-m, to protect one ; (6) to hold, sta?idy 
steer, ellipt., peir heldu aptr {held back 
agai7i\ um haustit; J)eir heldu ut eptir 
firSi, they stood out the firth ; h. heim, 
to steer homewards ; (7) to graze, put 
in the field (h. fe til haga) ; (S) im- 
pers. to contitiue, last (helt pvi lengi 
um vetrinn) ; II. with ace. (i) to hold 
in possession, a fief, land, estate (|5eir 
heldu alia hina beztu staSi me3 sjo- 
num) ; (2) to hold, keep, observe, a 
feast, holiday (i hvers minning heldr 
f)u ftenna dag?); (\) to keep (h. ord 
sin, ei3, sa^ttir, friS) ; to observe (h. 
gu6s log ok landsins) ; (4) to uphold, 
maintain, support (h. vini sina, h. e-n 
til rikis) ; (5) h. sik, to cornport oneself 
(kunna h. sik mefi hofi) ; h. sik rik- 
mannliga, to fare sumptuously-y h. sik 




aptr af e-u, to abstain from ; (6) to I 
hold, consider, deem (hon hdlt engan 1 
hans jafningja); (7) to hold, keep 
up; h. varnir, to keep up a defence \ 
h. vorQ, to keep watch', {Z) to hold, 
compel, bifid (heldr mik J)^ ekki til 
utanferSar) ; ^6 heldr t)ik vdikunn til 
at leita a, thou hast some excuse for 
trying; III. with preps., h. d e-u, to 
hold, wield in the hand (h. d sverSi) ; 
to hold to a thing, go on with it, be 
busy about (h. d drykkju, a fer6 sinni, 
d syslu) ; h. e-t af e-m, to hold (land, 
office) from or of one (J^eir er hof6u 
haldiS land af Danakonungi) ; h. mikit 
af e-m, to 7nake much of o?ie ; h. 
eptir e-m, to pursue 07ie ; h. e-u eptir, 
to keep back; h. sik fra e-u, to keep 
oneself back from, refrain fro?n ; h. 
e-u fram, to uphold, support ; h. e-u 
fyrir e-u, to withhold from one; to 
protect against (heldu engar grindr 
f^nu fyrir birninum) ; h. e-n fyrir e-t, 
to hold, consider one to be so and so 
(slSan belt konungr Erling fyrir trygg- 
van vin) ; h. i e-t, to hold fast, grasp 
({)u skalt h. i hurSarhringinn) ; h. til 
e-s, to be the cause of, be conducive to ; 
heldr J)ar margt til J)ess, there are 
many reasons for this ; belt til pess 
{conduced to it) godgirni bans ; h. til 
e-s, to be bent on, fond of (^. mjok til 
skarts, til gleSi) ; b. til jafns vi6 e-n, 
to bear up agaitist one, to be a 7natch 
for one ; b. um e-t, to grasp with the 
hand {— b. hendi um e-t) ; b. barni 
undir skim, to hold at baptis?n ; h. 
e-u upp, to hold aloft, lift (b. upp 
bondum) ; b. upp drum, to hold up the 
oars, cease pulling; to tiphold, main- 
tain, supp07t (b. upp bofum, kristn- 
inni) ; to keep going (h. upp bardaga) ; 
to discharge (b. upp kostnaQi, botum) ; 
h. upp boenum fyrir e-m, to pray for 
one ; b. e-u vi3, to jnaintain a thing ; 
h. vi3 e-m, to staitd agaifist (hvar sem 
bann kom fram, b^it ekki vi6 bonum) ; 
impers. to be on the point of; belt t)d 
vi5 atgongu (ace), they were near 
coming to fight ; heldr mi vi3 hot, // 
is little short of threats; IV. refl., bald- 
ast, to hold oneself, stay (mdtti bann 
eigi {)ar h.) ; to hold out, continue. 

last (b^lzt vindtta meS peim ); to be 
kept safe and soimd; mennallir heldust 
{all hands were saved) ok svd fe ; to be 
valid, stand (engi md h. domr hans) ; 
b. d, to pull one against another, 
wrestle, fight ; impers., e-m belzt vel 
(ilia) d e-u, one has good {bad) luck 
with a thing (m^r belzt litt d sauda- 
monnum) ; b. vi6, to stay, remaiti ; h. 
vi8 e-m, to resist, make a stand against 
one (belzt t>d ekki vi6 bonum). 
hald-gotSr, a. lasti?ig, durable. 
haldinn, pp. (i) ifi such and such a 
state; ^el h., in good conditifl7i, well 
to do, doi7ig well; J)ungliga h., veT^y 
ill; (2) satisfied with (Hrani sagSist 
ekki af pvi b. vera) ; (3) heilu ok 
boldnu, safely, safe and sound. 
haldin-or ($r, a. discreet, close ; -yrtSi, 
n. discreetfiess. 
hald-kvfiBmd, f. convenience, com- 
fort ; -kvaemiligr, a. convenient ; 
-kvaBmr, a. convenie7it, useful ; -samr, 
a. holdi7ig close ; vera -samr d e-u, to 
keep it close; -semi, f. {i) fast hold- 
ing ; (2) closeness, stinginess. 
hali, m. tail ; leika (veifast um) 
lausum bala, to play with a loose tail, 
to be tinrestrai7ied; bera brattan hal- 
ann, to cock up the tail, to be proud ; 
draga eptir sdr balann, to drag the tail, 
to play the coward. 

halla (aS), v. (i) to incline or turn 
sideways, with dat. (h. keri, skipi) ; 
{2) to sway to the wrong side (= b. 
til um e-t) ; b. sogu, to give an tmfair 
report ; b. nokkurum orQum til, to let 
fall a few words ; b. eptir e-m, to be 
biassed in 07te's favour ; b. ser, to lean 
with on^s body ; impers. to lie over, 
with dat. (balla3i bonum svd, at sjor 
f^ll inn d annat borS) ; solu hallar, 
the sun sinks ; vetri hallar, the winter 
is decli7ii7ig\ tafli hallar d e-n, the 
gaine tur?is agai7ist one ; (3) to slope 
(bann skildi eigi fyrr vi6 t^d en ballaSi 
af norSr) ; (4) refl., ballast, to lea7i 
with the body ; to lie over (]3d tok 
mjok at h. Ormrinn) ; d I)d ballaSist 
bardaginn, the battle turned against 
the7n ; h. eptir e-u, to sway towards 
a thing. 
hallar-bunatSr, -buningr, m. hang- 




in^s of a hall ; -dyrr, f. pi. door of a 
hall\ -^ol^yW. floor of a hall] -veggr, 
m. wall of a hall. 

hall-lendi, n. slope, declivity ; 
-lendr, a. sloping ; -maela (-ta, -t), 
V. to speak ill of one (-maela e-m) ; 
-msBli, n. pi. blame, reproof] -oki, a., 
fara, ver6a halloki fyrir e-m, to be 
overcome^ defeated. 

hallr. a. {\) leaning to one side, lying 
over, sloping [vorn jakarnir hallir mjok 
ut af skerinu) ; bera hailt hofudit, to 
carry the head ojt one side ; standa 
hollum foeti, to stand unevenly, ver6r 
hallt a e-n, one is worsted] (2) biassed, 
pa7'tial] iticlined or attached to one 
(h. til e-s or undir e-n) ; h. til illsku, 
prone, i?iclined, to evil. 

hallr, m. (i) slope ^ hill\ (2) big 
stone (enn harSi hallr). 

hall-asri, n. bad season, famine, 

hair (-B, -ir), m. poet. man. 

haltr, a. limping, lame, halting ; h. 
eptra foeti, lame of the hind leg. 

haltr a (aS), v. to halt, limp. 

halzi, a. indecl. holding (with gen.). 

hamalt, a. n., only in the phrase, 
fylkja h., to draw up in a wedge- 
shaped column {— svmfylkja). 

hamar-gnipa, f. peak of a crag] 
-klettr, m. r.rag, rock. 

hamarr (gen. -s, dat. hamri, pi. 
hamrar),m. (l) harmner] hann gerSi 
hamar yfir, he made the sign of the 
hammer over it ; (2) back of an axe ; 
(3) crag, precipice (t)ar stendr h. mikill 
fyrir J)eim) ; ^ritugur h., a crag thirty 
fathoms high. 

hamar-rifa, f. rift in a crag] -skalli, 
m. head of a hammer ; -skaft. n. shaft 
of a hammer ; -skuti, m. jutting or 
overhangi7ig crag. 

hamars-mark, n. sign of the hajn- 
mer ; -mu$r, m. the thin end of a 

hamar-spor, n. a hammer's print. 

hamast (a$), v. refl. (i) to asstnne 
the shape of an animal (h. i arnarliki) ; 
(2) to raoe (like a berserk). 

ham-far, n., -farir, f. pi. travelling 
in the shape of an anifnal (fara -fari, 
i -forum) ; -fong, n. ^l.fury, frenzy ; 
-hleypa, f. a human being who travels 

in the shape of an animal* a witch 
that goes in ham-larir. 
hamingja, f. (i) guardian spirit; 

(2) luck, good fortune. 
hamtngju-drjugr, a. lucky] -hjol, 

n. wheel of fortune ; -hlutr, m. lucky 
chance] '\20Ji^-^.2L. luckless ] -leysi, n. 
want of luck] -ma^r, m. lucky man ; 
-mikiil, a. very lucky ; -mot, n. lucky 
appearance (-mot er i. J)er) ; -raun. f. 
trial of fortune ; -samligr, a. lucky- 
lookim^] -skipti,n. turn {vicissitude) 
of fortitne] -skortr, m. lack of good 
luck ] -ijon, n. bad luck. 

hamla, f. oar-thottg, grummet ; lata 
siga i. homlu, to pull backwards (stern 
foremost) ; ganga e-m i homlu (um 
e-t), to take one's piace^ be a substitute 
for one {in a thing). 

hamla (a^), v. (i) to pull back- 
wards] (2) to stop, hinder (h. e-m) ; 

(3) to 7naim, mtitilate (sumir voru 
hamlaSir at hondum eQa f6tum). 

hampr, m. he7}ip. 

hamr (-s, -ir), m. (i) skin^ slough ; 
hleypa homum, to cast the slough (of 
snakes) ; (2) shape, form ; skipta 
homum, to change one's shape. 

hamr a-f jail, n. craggy mountain ; 
-klif, n. cleft betivee?t two crags. 

ham-ramr, a. ( i ) able to change one's 
shape ] (2) seized with warlike fury 

hamra-skartS, n. = -klif. 

ham-remi, f. the state of being 
ham-ramr (2). 

hams, m. (i) snake" s slough (ormar 
skrida or hamsi a v^r) ; (2) husk. 

ham-stoli, -stolinn, a. deprived of 
ones wits, frantic, furious. 

hana-galan, f. cock-crow. 

handa (= til h.), prep, with dat. to, 
for (h. Oddi). 

handa-band, n. shaking of hands ; 
-feati, -festr, f. a hold for the hands. 

hand-afl, n. strength of hand ; lesa 
sik upp {to haul oneself up) me6 -afli. 

handa-gangr, m. grasping after a 
thing ] -g0rvi, f. *" hand-gear\ gloves ; 
-kast, n. = -lasti ; -klapp, n. clapping 
of hands ; -Iseti, n. pi. gestures with 
the arjns. 

handan, z-dw. from beyond] heSan 




ok h., hither a?td thither ; fyrir h., 
with ace. beyond^ on the other side of. 

handar-bak, n. back of the hand\ 
-gagn, n. use of the hand ; leggja e-t 
til -gagns, to lay it so as to be ready 
at hand) -grip, n. span\ -hald, n. 
handle ; -hogg, n. a blow on one's 
hand\ -jacSarr, m. hand's edge; vera 
undir -ja6ri e-s, to be in one's hands, 
in one's power ; -kriki, m. arm-pit ; 
-mein, n. sore in the hand; -sar, n 
wound in the hand ; -stubbr, -stiifr, 
m. stU7np (of an arm) ; -vanr, a. 

handa-skomm, f. shame for one's 
hands ; -statSr, m. print of the hands ; 
-verk, n. pi. one's handiwork, doings. 

hand-bani, m. actual slayer^ opp. 
to *rd6-bani'; -bjalla, f. hand-bell; 
-bjorg, f. ^ hand- Slip ply' \ lifa vi6 
-bjorg sina, to earn one's own living; 
foera e-n fram me6 -bjorg sinni, to 
support a person by one's labour; 
-bogi, m. hand-bow, opp. to ' Msbogi ' ; 
-byndi, n. encumbrance (e-m verSr 
-byndi at e-u) ; -bsBrr, a. ready at 
hand; -fang, n. span; -fatt, a. n. 
lack of hands (-fdtt var6 upp at bera) ; 
-festa (-sta, -str), v. to strike a 
bargain by shaking hands ^ to pledge 
(-festa heit sitt) ; biskup -festi {be- 
trothed) jungfru Ingiborg ; -festa, f., 
-festr, f. striking a bargain by joining 
hands ; -fyllr, i. handful ; -ganga, f. 
surrender, submission ; -genginn, pp. 
that has becorne a retainer to the king 
(g0rast -genginn e-m); -g65r,a. handy, 
adroit; -hafi, m. having in hand 
(vera -hafi at e-u) ; -haltr, a. having 
a lame hand; -hsBfi, n., -hofa, f. hand- 
instrutnent ; -hogg, n. hacking off 
one^s hand; -hoggva (see hoggva), 
V. to hack one's hand off; -itSjan, f. 
hand-work ; -klukka, f. hand-bell ; 
-klaetSi, n. hand-towel; -krcBkjast 
(t), V. to make trial of strength by 
pulling with bent hands; -kvern, f. 
quern, hand-mill. 

handla (atS), v. = hondla. 

hand-lag, n. joining hands ; -lami, 
a. with a lame hand ; -latr, a. lazy to 
use one's hands; -laug, f. water for 
washing the hands (bera inn -laugar) ; 

-lauss, a. handiess ; -leggr, m. arm, 
fore-arm ; -lektari, m. hand-lectern ; 
-16ttir, m. lending a hand; -lin, n. 
sleeves ; -megin, n. strength of hand, 
working power ; -meiddr, pp. with 
maimed hands; -numinn, pp. seized, 
caught; -rammr, a. strong-handed; 
-rio, n. hand-rail; -rif, n. ^ reefng- 
cord ', in the phrase, svipta af -rifi, to 
reef a sail; -sal, n. (l) = handaband ; 
(2) pledge, bargain ; taka vi3 -solum 
i. e-u, to undertake the trtist or charge 
of a thing ; eiga -sol vi6 e-n, to make 
a bargain with one ; bjoQa -sol fyrir 
e-n, to offer bail for one ; -sala (a(5), 
v. to make over {confirm) by shaking 

handsala-mat5r, handsals-mat$r, 
m. bail, surety. 

hand-sax, n. short sword, dagger; 
leika at -soxum, to play with daggers 
(by throwing them in the air and 
catching them by the hilt); -seinn, 
a. slow with the hand; -selja (see 
selja), V. to make over ; -seld sok, a 
suit conducted by proxy ; -sic5r, a. 
long-ar77ied; -skot, n. throwing by 
handf opp. to * bogaskot ' ; -sleggja, 
f. hand-sledge; -sl0ngva, f. hand- 
sling; -sterkr, a, strong-handed; 
-stinnr, a. with brawny hands ; roa 
-stinnan, to pull strongly ; -styrkja 
(t), V. -styrkja sik upp, to haul oneself 
up ; -styrkr, a. = -sterkr ; -tak, n. = 
handaband ; -taka, v. (l) to seize, lay 
hold of; (2) to stipulate; -tyglll, 
m. an arm-strap ; -vega (see vega), 
v. to weigh in the hand ; -vegr, m. 
shoulder-seafn; -viss, a. quite cej-- 
tain; -vsBtta (-tta, -ttrj, v. =-vega; 
-vomm, f. maladroitnesSj blundering ; 
-0x, f. hand-axe. 

hang, n. coil {of a serpent) ; kottr- 
inn beygSi hangit {v. r. kenginn), the 
cat bent its back. 

hanga (hangi ; h6kk, h§ngum ; 
hanginn), v. (i) /<? hang, be suspe7tded 
(hvers manns alvaepni hekk yfir rumi 
hans); (2) to cli7ig to, hang fast to; 
weak pret. (hangdi naSran a lifrinni) ; 
(3) to be handed (gengr pu at h.). 

hanga-gu(5, -tyr, m. god {lord) of 
the hanged (viz. Odin). 




hangi, m. a body hanging on a 
gallows (hann settist undir hanga). 

hani, m. cock. 

hanki, m. hasp or clasp (of a chest). 

hann, pers. pron. he. 

hann-yrS, -prt$, f. skill, fine work, 

hanzki, m. glove, 

happ, n. good luck. 

happa-drjugr, a. lucky \ -mikill, a. 
having gieat luck ; -ra5, n. happy 
counsel \ -verk, n. happy deed. 

happ-autSigr, a. lucky ; -frotSr, a. 
wise in season ; -samr, a. lucky ; 
-skeytr, a. a good shot. 

hapt, n. bond ; see ' haft '. 

hara, v. to stare, grin (?). 

harSa, adv. very (= hardla). 

har(5-angr, m. hard times, distress ; 
-brjosta^r, a. hard-hearted \ -byll, a. 
« ^rtr<^ householder ; -droegi, f. />^<? 
^<?/«^ -drcegr; -droegr, a. >^«r^ /^ 
manage', -eygr, a. hard-eyed', -fari, 
m. *• fast-goer'' ; -farliga, adv. harshly, 
vehemently ; -fengi, f. hardihood, 
valour ; -fengiliga, adv. = -fengliga ; 
-fenginn, a. = -fengr; -fengliga, adv. 
hardily, valiantly ; -fengr, a. hardy, 
valiant', -fenni, n. hard snow; -foeri, 
f. stubbornness ; -fcerr, a. hard to 
overcome ; -gorr, a. (i) hardy, stout ; 
(2) strong-built (-gort skip) ; -hendi, 
f. hard-handedness ; -hendiliga, adv. 
«/zV>^ y^<^r/7f hand] -hendr, a. //«r^- 
handed ; -hugaSr, a. hard-hearted. 

hart5lndi, n. pi. (i) hardness \ (2) 
hardship, severity. 

har5-kv8Bli, n. = harmkvaeli. 

hartSla, adv. very (h. mikill, litill). 

harS-leikinn, a. playing a hard, 
rough game ; ver6a e-m -leikinn, to 
play roughly with one ; fd, -leikit, to 
be roughly treated', -leikni, f. rotcgh 
gaine ; -leikr, m. hardness, harsh- 
ness', 'leitT.di. hard-looking', -lifi, n. 
hard life, chastisement ; -liga, adv. ( i ) 
forcibly, sternly, {2) fast (riSa -liga) ; 
-ligr, a. hard, severe ; -lundatSr, a. 
hard-tempered ; -lyndi, n. hard tem- 
per', -lyndr, a. = -lundaSr; -mann- 
ligr, a. hardy, manly, -menni, n. 
hardy man ; -motSigr, a. hard of 
mood ; -maeli, n. hard language ; 
-maeltr, a. = -ordr. 

har^na (at5), v. (i) to harden ; (2) to 
become severe (of weather) ; to grow 
worse ; harfinaSi matlifi peirra, they 
ran short of provisions. 

hartS-ortSr, a. hard-spoken. 

harSr, a. (l) hard (h. steinn, skafl) ; 
(2) hard, stern, severe (h. i skapi, 1 
hjarta) ; (3) hardy ; folk hart ok illt at 
soekja, hardy and difficult to assail \ 
h. 1 horn at taka, hard to take by the 
horns, stubborn ; h. bardagi, hard' 
fought battle ; leika e-n hart, to treat 
one harshly ; rida hart, to ride fast. 

hartS-r^cSr, a. {i) fir?n, determined 
(madr vitr ok -raQrj ; (2) severe^ ty- 
rannical ; -reicSr, a. hard to ride on ; 
-r6tti, n. hardship', -rsBtSi, n. (i) 
hardiness, hardihood, firmness ; (2) 
hardness, harshness ; -skeyti, f. hard 
shooting', -skeytr, a, (i) shooting 
hard', (2) hard, severe', -skipatSr, 
pp. mamted with hardy men ; -sleg- 
inn, pp. hard-ha7nmered ; -sloegr, a. 
hard to mow (-sloegr teigr) ; -snulnn, 
pp. ^ hard-twist ed\ staunch, stub- 
born ; -sottr, pp. hard to get, difficult \ 
-steinn, m. %vhet stone ; -toekr, a. hard^ 
exacting', -ut5igr, a. hnrd-7ninded \ 
-vaxinn, pp. strong-built, brawny ; 
-yrcSi, n. pi. hard words ; -yrki, m. 
hard worker; -ySgi, f. hardness of 
heart, severity. 

hark, n. noise^ ticmult. 

harka, f. hardness, hardiftess. 

harka (at5), v. (i) to scrape together 
(h. e-u saman) ; (2) e-m harkar, harkar 
fyrir e-m, things go ill with one ; 
harkar um e-t, it goes badly ; harkast 
um, to be i7t a bad way ; (3) refl., 
harkast, to make a tumult. 

harka-geta, f. coarse, scanty food; 
-lit5, n. rabble ; -menn, m. pi. tra?nps, 
scaynps ; -samliga, adv. coarsely. 

harki, m. rubbish, trash. 

harnia (acS), v. to bewail ; h. sik, to 
wail ; impers., e-m or e-n harmar, // 
vexes one, one is vexed. 

harman-liga, adv. sorrowfully ; 
-ligr, a. sorrowful. 

harm-blandinn, pp. mixed with 
sorrow ; -brcgt5, n. pi. mournful 
deeds ; -dautSi, m. sorrowful death ; 
-daucSi, -dautJr, a. lamented (vera 




-daufii e-m) ; -dogg, f. sorrow-deiUy 
tears (poet.); -fenginn, pp. affected 
by grief \ -Jlaug. f. baneful shaft; 
-fullr, a. = harmsfullr ; -kvaBli, n. pi., 
-kvol, f. tormetits. 

harmr (-s, -ar), m. sorrow^ g^ief. 

harm-saga, f. tidings of grief] -sam- 
ligr, a. sad, mournfod. 

harms-auki, m. addition to one's 
grief; -fullr, ^. sorrowful, distressed; 
-16ttir, m. relief 

harm-sok, f. cause of g^'ief, sad case ; 
-songr, m. dirge ; -tic5indi, n. pi. = 
-sag^a ; -tolur, f. pi. lamentations ; 
-}?runginn, pp. filled with grief; 
-J)rutinn, a. swollen with sorrow. 

harneskja, f. harfiess, armour. 

harpa, f. (i) harp (leika, sM horpu) ; 
(2) harp-seal (era hlums vant, kvad 
refr, dro horpu at isi). 

hasla (pi. hoslur), f. pole of hazel- 
wood ; hasla (atS), v. to mark out by 
hazel-poles ; h. e-m voll, to challenge 
one to a pitched battle or duel. 

hastar-liga, adv. suddenly. 

hast-orSr, a. harsh-spoken. 

hata (atS), v. (i) to hate (h. e-n) ; 
(2) to dainage, destroy (poet.) ; (3) refl., 
hatast vi6 e-n, to be full of hatred 
against one, 

hatr, n. hatred, enjnity. 

hatr-liga, adv. hatefully, -ligr, a. 
hateful ; -samligr, -samr, a. hateful, 
hostile (-samr e-m). 

hatra-fuUr, a. hateful, hostile, 

hattr, m. hat;= hottr. 

hau^r, n. poet, earth. 

hauga-eldr, m. cairn fire ; -old, f. 
the age of cairn-burial , opp. to ' bruna- 
old ', the age of burning the dead. 

haug-brot, n. breakitig of a cairn ; 
-bui, m. ^ cairn-dweller', ghost; -foera 
(-^a, -$r), V. to bury i?t a cairn ; 
-ganga, f. the breaki?ig into a cairn. 

haugr (-S, -ar), m. (i) mound; (2) 
sepulchral mound, cairn. 

haug-setja (see setja), v. = -foera. 

haugs-golf, n. fioor of a cairn ; 
-gprS, f. cairn-7?taking. 

haug-staSr, m. heathen burial-place ; 
-tekinn, pp. takeiifro^n a cairn. 

haugs-old, f. = hauga-old. 

hauka-veiSr, f. hunting with hawks. 

hauk-ligr, a. hawk'like (of the eyes). 

haukr (-8, -ar), m. hawk; fleygja 
hauki, to fly a hawk. 

haukstaldr, m., poet, man, hero. 

hauld-, hauldr, see hold-, hoidr. 

haull, m, rupture, hernia. 

hausa-kljufr, m. skull-cleaver (nick- 
name) ; -mot, sutures of the skull. 

haus-brot, n. skull-fracture ; -fastr , 
a. seated in the skull; -filla, f. the 
skin of the skull. 

haus3 (pi. hauaar), m. skull. 

haust. n. harvest season, autumn. 

hau3ta (a'5), v. to draw near autumn. 

hau3t-bl6t, n. sacrificial feast i7t 
autumn; -botJ, n. autumn feast; 
-dagr, m. day in autum7i ; 2X or ik. 
-degi, in autumn ; -grima, f. autumn 
night ; -heitntur, f. pi. getti?ig in 
sheep in autumn ; -langr, a. lasting 
all the autumn ; -m.dnat$r, m. autumn 
moftth, September; -viking, f. free- 
booting expedition in autujnn ; -^ing, 
n. autumn asseinbly ; -61, n. autumn 
{drinking) festival. 

hd, interj. eh I what do you say f 

hd, f. after-grass, after-math. 

hd-altari, m. high altar ; -beinn, a. 
high-legged, long-legged; -bjarg, n. 
high rock ; -bogatSr, a. high-curved 
(of a saddle). 

ha-bora (aS), v. to fit with rowlocks. 

ha-borur, f. pi. rowlocks. 

ha-brok, f. a kind oihawk ; -brokast 
(av5), V. refl. to puff oneself up, 

bA5, n. scoffing, mocking. 

ha-degi, n. midday, 7too?i. 

hadegis-skeiS, n. noon-tide. 

hatS-samr, a. scoffing; -semi, f. 
mockery (me6 hropyrdum ok h.). 

haSugr, a. shatneful, disgraceful. 

Iia5u-ligr, a. (i) scornful, abusive 
(-lig or6j ; (2) disgraceful (-ligt verk). 

haSung, f. shajne, disgrace. 

ha(5ungar-orS, n. pi. scornful words. 

hat5-yrc5i, n. pi. = has5i-yrdi. 

ha-f jail, n. high tnountain ; -fleygr, 
a. high-flying ; -floetSr, f. full flood^ 
high flood-tide; -foBttr,a. high-legged; 
-leikr, m. highness ; -leitligr, a. 
sublime ; -leitr, a. looking upwards ; 
fig. lofty, subli7ne. 

hdlfa, f. (i) region, part (veroldin 




var greind i {)rjdr hdlfur) ; (2) li7teage, 
kin ifrjalsborinn i allar Mlfur) ; (3) af 
e-s hdlfu, on one's behalf \ on one*s 
part ; af gu5s hdlfu ok lands-laga, on 
behalf of God and the law of the land. 

hdlf-bergrisi, m. half a giant \ 
-dauSr, a. half dead ; -ermatSr, pp. 
half-sleeved ; -f ifl, n. half an idiot ; 
-fullr, a. half fill ; -gorr, a. only half 
done, left half imdone ; -kirkja, f. 
annex-churchy chapel of ease ; -launat, 
pp. n. half rewarded \ -litr, a. of two 
colours, with a different colour on 
each side\ -Ijost, a. n., J)a er -Ijost 
var, in the twilight ; -mork, f. half a 
mark ; -nautSigr, a. half reluctant ; 
-nits, n. half a la7npoon. 

halfr, a. (i) half\ h. mdnaSr, half a 
vionth, fortnight \ til halfs, by a half', 
h. annar, J)ri6i, fjorSi, &c., one, two, 
three and a half', hdlft annat hundraS, 
one hundred aftd a half] h. {)ri3i t0gr 
manna, twenty-five men', (2) neut. 
' hdlfu ', by half, with a comparative 
in an intensive sense, much, far ; halfu 
verri, far worse ; halfu meira, far 
more ; hdlfu s\6r, far less. 

Mlf-risi, m. half a giant ; -roinn, 
pp. having rowed half the way ; 
-rymi, n. half a ' rum ' in a ship. 

halfrymis-felagar, m. pi. inessinates 
ifl the same halfrymi ; -kista, f. a 
chest belonging to a halfrymi. 

lialf-r0kvit, a. n. half twilight \ 
-skiptr, pp. = -litr ; -troll, n. half a 
giant', 'tunna, {. half a tun; -unninn, 
pp. half done ; -viroi, n. half worth ; 
-J)ritugr,a. aged twenty-five', -J)ynna, 
f. a kind of S7nall axe ; -oerinn, a. half 
sufficient ; -csrr, a. half mad (hann 
var half-CErr af dr>'kkju). 

hall, a. slippery (var hdlt a isinum). 

hal-leikr, m. slippertness. 

halmr (gen. -s), m. straw, haiilm 
(iDeir logSust Jjar niSr i hdlm). 

halm-stra, n. haulm-straw ; -visk, 
n. wisp of straw ; -J)ust, n.ffail. 

hdl3 (gen. Mis, pi. halsar), m. (i) 
neck', taka hondum um h. e-m, to 
embrace one', beygja h. fyrir e-m, to 
bend the neck to one, liggja e-m i. 
halsi fyrir e-t, to reprove, blame one 
for ; standa i. hdlsi e-m, to put the 

foot on ofie's neck ; (2) bow of a ship 
or boat ( Hymir reri i hdlsinum fram); 

(3) the frofit-sheet {tack) of a sail; 

(4) the e7id of a rope ; (5) the tip of a 
bow (hann dregr svi bogann, at saman 
l)6tti bera halsana) ; (6) ridge, hill', 
(7) pi., goQir hdlsar, good t/ien ! fine 

fellows / 

halsa (atS), v. (i) to embrace-, (2) h. 
segl, to clew tip the sail. 

hals-bein, n., -beina, n. neck-bone ; 
-bjorg, i. gorget', -bok, f. a book to be 
hu7ig fro7n the neck', -brotna (atS), 
V. to break one's neck ; -brun, f. edge of 
a hill', -digr, a. thick-necked ', -fang, 
n. embrace', 'gj6r^,{. necklace; -hogg, 
n. stroke on the neck; -hoggva (see 
hoggva), V. to behead ; -jdrn, n. neck- 
iron, iron collar; -langr, a. long- 
necked; -litSr, m. neck-joint; -Ijosta 
(see Ijosta^, v. to strike one on the 
neck ; -men, n. necklace ; -sar, n. neck 
wound ; -slag, n. = -hogg ; -stefhi, n. 
( I ) throat ; (2) part of a ship. 

hd-la9ti, n. shouting, noise ; -measa, 
f. high-77iass ; -maslgi, f. loud talking. 

ha-mot, n. a7ikle-joint ; only in the 
phrase, fara i ha-mot {or -motit) eptir 
e-m, to follow one closely, sneak alojtg 
behind one. 

ha-msBli, n., foera (bera) e-t 1 -masli, 
to speak lojid of; -maBltr, pp. lotid- 
voiced; -nefjatSr, a. high-nosed; 
-pallr, m. dais (in a hall). 

bar (M, hatt), a. {\) high ; i. hdfum 
fjollum, in high 7noun tains ; h^ri en, 
higher than ; (2) tall (h. ma6r vexti) ; 

(3) super), at the highest pitch ; medan 
haest vaeri vetrar, sumars, in the depth 
of winter, in the height of su77t7ner ; 

(4) high, glorious ; hasstu hatiSir, the 
highest feasts; (5) loud (h. brestr) ; 
maela hdtt, to speak loud ; hon verSr ha 
vid, she beco77ies cla7norous or excited. 

Mr (gen. hds, pi. Mir), m. thole. 

Mr, n. hair (jarpr d h.). 

Mr, m. dog-fish. 

Mr-amr (= -hamr), m. the hairy 
side of a skin ; -bjartr, 2l. fair-haired. 

ha-reitSar, f. pi. rowlocks. 

hd-reysti, n. and f. noise, clamour; 
-reystr, a. noisy, loud-voiced. 

Mr-fagr, a. fair-haired; -fertJ, f. 




fashion of the hair', -hvass, a. hair- 
edged \ -klascSi, n. hair cloth ; -knifr, 
m. razor ; -laug, f. washing the hair ; 
-leppr, m. lock of hair. 

hdrr, a. hoary, grey-haired. 

har-roetr, f, pi. roots of the hair; 
-skurtSr, m. ciit of the hair. 

Mrs-litr, m. colour of the hair. 

har-taug, f. string of horse-hair \ 
-vara, i.fur\ -voxtr, m. hair-growth. 

ha-segl, n. top-sail. 

hd-seti, m. oarsjnan^ opp. to ' styri- 
ma6r' {helmsinafi). 

hd-seymdr, pp. studded with large 
nails (beizl hdseymt). 

M-sin, f. Achilles' tendon. 

Mska-ferS, -for, f. dangerous jour- 
ney {exploit) ; -lauss, a. free frojn 
danger \ -ligr, a. dangerous \ -sam- 
liga, adv. dangerously ; -samligr, 
-samr, a. perilous ; -timi, m. tifue of 
danger ; -vacS, n. dangerous ford ; 
-van, f. danger to come. 

ha-skeptr, a. long-handledy long- 
shafted (hdskept 0x, spjot). 

haski, m. danger, peril. 

has-maBltr, a. hoarse-speaking, 

hass, a. hoarse. 

M-stac5r, m. high {important) place', 
-stafir, m. pi., in the phrase, grdta 
(oepa) -stofum, to weep {shout) loudly ; 
-ateint, a. n. full of high boulders 
(var hdsteint f anni). 

ha-stokkr, m. gunwale. 

hd-stoll, m. high-seat', -sumar, n. 
midsummer ; -saati, n. high-seat, seat 
of honour (= ondvegi). 

hasastis-borcS, n. high-seat table ; 
-kista, f. a chest near the high-seat ; 
-matSr, m. the man in the high-seat. 

ha-talat$r, a. loud-voiced', -tirabra 
(atS), V. to build high ; -titJ, {.festival, 
feast (halda hdtidj. 

hati^ar-aptann, m. eve of a feast ; 
-dagr, m. festal day, holiday ; -hald, 
n. holding a feast. 

hdti$is-dagr, m. = hdtiSardagr. 

hdtit5-liga, adv. withfestivity ; -ligr, 
2l. festive, festal. 

hatta (atS), v. (l) to arrange, dis- 
pose, with dat. ; h. ser, to conduct one- 
self', impers., h^ttar svd, at hann kom, 
he happened to C07ne ; {2) to go to bed. 

hatta-brigSi, n. change of manners. 

hattatSr, pp. fashioned, conditioned 
(hvernig var jorflin hattud .?) ; e-u er 
sva hattat, it is so 7nade or conditioned, 
of that nature or kind ; ydr frasndum 
er svi. hattat, j^« kinsmen are of that 

hatta-goSr, a. well-mannered, well- 
behaved ; -lykill, m. key to metres ; 
-skipti, n. (l) change of ma7iners ; (2) 
shifting of metre ; -tal, n. enumera- 
tion of f7ietres. 

hatt-priitSr, a. well-mannered, polite ; 
-pryt5i, f. good tnanners. 

hattr (gen. Mttar, dat. hsBtti; pi. 
haBttir, ace. hattu), m. (i) mode of 
life, habit, custom (rikra manna hattr) ; 
halda teknum hastti, to go on in one's 
usual way ; (2) pi. conduct, behaviour 
(vanda um hattu manna) ; fara vel 
me6 sinuai hattum, to conduct otteself 
well ; ra6a sjalfr sinum hattum, to be 
ogle's own jnaster ; halda hattum vi5 
a6ra menn, to conduct oneself properly, 
(3) mode, way of doing a thing', 
kunna ^ e-u, to know how to do 
a thing ; (4) mikils hdttar, of impor- 
tance ; litils Mttar, insignificant ; J)ess 
hattar, of that kind ; alls hattar, of 
every kitid; i. allan hdtt, in every 
respect; (5) moderation, measure; 
eptir hcetti, duly, properly ; (6) 77ietre. 

hatt-samr, a. well-77ia7i7iered, 

hattung, f. danger, 7'isk, 

ha-tun, n. high place. 

MvatSa-matSr, m. a 7ioisy, self- 
assertive 77ian ; -mikill, a. boastful^ 
self-assertive ; -samr, a. boisterous. 

ha-vatSi, m. (i) noise, tu77iult ; kve6a 
e-t upp, segja e-t, i -vada, to proclai7n 
loudly ; (2) loud self-assertion ; (3) 
= hava5a-ma6r. 

ha-vetr, m., -vetri, n. midwinter 
(J)egar hdvetri var liSit). 

hetSan, adv. (i) he7ice, f}'077i this 
place ; (2) fyrir h. hafit, on the hither 
side of the sea ; (3) he7iceforth ; h. i fra, 

hetSinn (dat. hetSni), m. jacket of 
fur or ski7i ; vefja {or veifa) hefini at 
hofSi e-m, to W7'ap a skin round one's 
head, to hoodwink one. 

he$ra, adv. here^ hither. 




heftJ, f. prescriptive right (me3 
rettri ok lo^legri hefd). 

heftSa (at$), v. to acquire a prescrip- 
tive right to (h. ser e-t). 

hef Sar-ma^r, m. possessor, holder, 

hefill (pi. heflar), m. a noose fastejied 
to the edge of a sail to help ifi furli7jg 
it', lata siga (<?r hleypa segli) or heflum, 
to unfurl the sail. 

hefil-skapt, n. a boat-hook to pull 
the sail dozvn. 

liefja(hef; hof, hofum ; hafi^r and 
hafinri), v. (i) to heave, raise, lift (h. 
stein); hann hof upp augu sin, he 
lifted up his eyes ; h. sik a lopt, to 
make a leap ; h. handa, to lift the 
hands (for defence) ; h. hofuSs, to lift 
the head, be u?tdaunted ', h. graut, to 
lift the porridge, eat it with a spoon ; 
(2) to exalt, raise in rank ; h. e-n til 
rikis, to raise one to the th7'one ; (3) 
to begin ; h. mal sitt, to begin one's 
speech ; h. fer6, to set out on a journey, 
to start', h. iiokk, to raise a party ; h. 
akall, to raise a claifu ; impers., hefr 
e-t = hefr upp e-t, it begins (her hefr 
Kristnisogu) ; refl., hefjast, to begi?i, 
originate (hvaSan af hefir hafizt skald- 
skapr?); (4) impers. to be carried, 
drifted (by storm or tide) ; hof skipin 
611 saman [all the ships were drifted) 
inn at landinu ; l)eir letu h. skipin 
ofan forstreymis, they let the ships 
drift down the streain ; (5) with preps., 
h. e-t af e-u, to take it off; impers., 
en er af henni hof ongvit (ace), wheti 
she recovered from her swoon ; J)a 
hof af mer vamur allar, all aihnents 
left vie ; refl., hefjast af hondum e-m, 
to leave one ; h. a rds, to take to one' s 
feet (= hafa a ras); refl., Mta hefjast 
fyrir, to retreat, withdraw ; h. munn 
sinn f sundr, to open one's mouth ; 
impers., Birkibeina (ace.) hefr undan, 
the B. drew back ; h. e-t upp, to lift 
up (hann hof orminn upp a hendi 
ser); impers., hof honum upp bryn 
(ace), his face brightened', h. e-t upp, 
to begin (=hefja 3); Egill hof upp 
kvasdit, E. began his poem ; impers., 
her hefr upp Konunga-b6k,/^<?r^ begins 
the K. ; refl., hefjast upp, to begin (her 
hefjast upp landnam) ; hefjast upp til 

ofriSar (med ofriSi), to begin war^ 
fare ; lata hefjast vi6, to lay to (naut.). 

hefla (atS), v. to furl the sail, 

hefna (-da, -dr), v. to avenge, take 
vengeance, with the thing and the 
person in gen., h. sira, to avenge the 
wounds, h. broSur sins, to avenge 
o?te's brother, h. sin, to avenge oneself; 
with dat. of the person, h. e-m, to take 
vengeance on (skulu vi3 h. honum) ; 
with the thing in gen. and the person 
in dat.; attu honum at h. fra^ndalats, 
thou hast to avenge 07t hitn the death 
of a kinsman ; impers., e-m hefnir 
e-t, one pays {suffers) for a thing (svd, 
hefndi honum pat mikla mikillaeti) ; 
with preps., h. e-m fyrir e-t, h. e-s a 
e-m, to avenge a thi7ig on ofte ; refl., 
hefnast, to avenge oneself (= hefna 
sin); h. e-s, to avenge a thing; h. i. 
e-m, to avenge oneself on a person ; 
e-m hefnist e-t, one has to pay {suffer) 
for ; hefnast mun honum vist, the day 
of retribution will assuredly come to 

hefnd, f. revenge, vengeance. 

hefnda-laust, adv. without retribu- 
tion or revenge. 

hefndar-dagr, m. day of vengeance ; 
-mac5r, m. avenger. 

hefni-leitS, f. * way to vengeance ' ; 
roa d -leiS, to set abotit taking ven- 
geance ; -leit, f . seeking for vengeance ; 
roa a -leit e-s, to seek vengeance for ; 
-samr, a. revefigeful. 

hegat, adv. = hingat, higat. 

hegtSa (a(S), v. to arrange (h. e-u). 

hegtSan, f. conduct, behaviour, 

hegeitill, va.ffint. 

heggr (pi. -ir), m. bird cherry, 

hegla (-di, -t), v. to hail. 

hegna (-da, -dr), v. (i) to hedge, 
protect ; (2) to punishf chastise (hegna 
rdnsmenn, usiQu). 

hegnari, m. chastiser, 

hegnd, f., hegning, f. punishment, 

he-goma (at5), v. to speak falsely ; 
-go ma i. e-n, to slander one. 

hegoma-dyrS, f. vain-glory ; -fuUr, 
a. vain, vain-glorious ; -matSr, m. 
charlatan, quack ; -mdl, n. vaifi 
speech ; g0ra or3 e-s at -mali, to dis- 




regard one's words ; -nafn, n. empty 
name^ sham name. 

h6-g6nii, m. falsehood^ folly-, non- 
sense ; segja -gomaae-n, /(? slander one. 

Mgom-ligr, a. vain, false. 

hegri, m. heron. 

heitS, n. bright [clear) sky (veSr var 
bjart ok skein sol i heiSi). 

heitSar-brun, f. edge of a heath. 

heiSar-lauss, a. ignominious, dis- 
honourable ; -liga, adv. honou7'ably ; 
-ligr, a. honourable. 

heiSar-vegr, m. road across a heath. 

hei(5-bjartr, a. serene (ve6r -bjart). 

heic5-f6, n.fee, stipend. 

heiSin-domr, m. heathendom. 

heiSingi (pi. -jar), m. (i) heathen^ 
gentile ; (2) wolf (poet.). 

heiSingligr, a. heathen. 

heitSinn, a. heathen, pagan ; heiSnir 
menn, heathens. 

heicS-raaSr, m. = mdlamaSr. 

heiSnast (aS), v. to become heathen. 

heiSni, f. ( i ) heathenism ; (2) heathen 
country { = hei8it land); (s) the heathen 
age, the tifne of heathetidoin. 

heiSr, a. bright, clear, cloudless ; h. 
himinn, clear sky\ heidar stjornur, 
bright stars. 

heitSr (gen. heiSar, dat. and ace. 
heiSi ; pi. hei$ar), f. heath, moor. 

hei^r (gen. heitSrs), m. honour. 

hei(5r (gen. -ar), m. honour, worth. 

hei^ra (acS), v. to honour. 

heicS-rikr, a. cloudless, serene. 

hei?5rs-inat5r, m. man of honour. 

heiS-skirr, a. bright, cloudless (-skirt 
ve6r) ; -vanr, a. accustomed to the 
clear sky ; -viSri, n. bright iveather. 

hei$-virSr, a. honest, honourable. 

heila-bust, f. crown of the head. 

heilag-leikr, m. holijiess ; -liga, 
adv. holily ; -ligr, a. holy. 

heilagr (ace. helgan (heilagan), pi. 
helgir (heilagir), &c.), a. (i) holy ; (2) 
inviolable, sacred. 

heilan, f. healing. 

heil-brig^i, f. health ; -brigSr, a. 
hale, healthy. 

heilendi, heilindi, n. good health. 

heil-eygr, a. ^ hale-eyed \ having 
sound eyes; -foettr, a. ^hale-legged'; 
-hugat5liga, adv. sincerely, = af heli- 

um huga; -hugac5r,a. ^whole-minded*, 

heilhuga-friSr, m. sincere peace ; 
-rdt5, n. sincere purpose. 

heil-hugi, m. sincere person ; -hug- 
liga, adv. sincerely. 

heili, m. brain, — hjarni. 

heili-vdgr, m. healing liquor, balm, 

heill, a. (i) hale, sound; ilia h., i?i 
ill health ; hann afigSi at t)ar var vel 
heilt, he said they were all well there; 
kona eigi hell, enceinte ; grceQa e-n at 
heilu, to heal one fully ; (2) whole, 
healed, in respect of wounds or illness, 
with gen. (verda h. sdra sinna) ; er um 
heilt bezt at binda, it is better to bind 
a hale than a hurt limb ; (3) blessed, 
happy ; nj6ti6 heilir handa, ' bless 
your hands \ well done ; kom heill ! 
welcome J hail I iax h.., farewell / (4) 
whole, entire ; h. hleifr, a whole loaf; 
sjau hundruS heil, full seven hundred; 
(5) trtte, upright; ra6a e-m heilt, to 
give one a wholesome {good) advice ; 
af heilum hug, af heilu, sincerely ; 
heilt ra3, wholesoifie advice ; heil ken- 
ning, a useful, profitable lesson. 

heill, n. and f. hick, omen, fore- 
boding; goSu (illu) heilii, in a good 
{evil) hour ; morg eru giptusamlig 
heill, there are many good auspices ; 
fall er farar h., a fall is a good omen ; 
hann bad feim h. duga, he wished 
thein good speed; heillum horfinn,y^?- 
saken by luck ; ok var brugSit heillum 
sverSsins, the spell of the sword was 

heilla (ac5), v. to enchant, spell-bind, 
bewitch ; heillud ertu {thou art in- 
fatuated), ef Jju ffitlar, etc. 

heilla-brigS, n. pi. turn of luck; 
-drjugr, a. fortunate, hapPy ; -leysi, 
n. ill-luck ; -maJSr, m. lucky man ; 
-rat5, n. good advice, wholesome coun- 
sel ; -vaenligr, a. hopeful, promising ; 
-vaBnn, a. bodifig good luck, pro- 
misifig well. 

heil-leikr, m. (i) health ; (2) sin- 
cerity, uprightness ; -liga, 2idv.f airly y 
candidly; -ligr, a.. fair; -naBmligr, a. 
wholesome ; -rdt5r, a. giving whole- 
some counsel ; -raetSi, n. wise {whole' 
some) counsel. 




heilsa (at5), v. to say hail to 07ie^ 
greet one (=bi6ja e-n heilan vera), 
with dat. ; h. i. e-n = h. e-m. 

heilsa, f. (i) health \ (2) restoration 
to health (hann var feginn heilsu 
sinni) ; (3) salvation. 

heil-samligr, a., -samr, a. whole- 
sofne, salutary. 

heilsan, f. salutation, greeting. 

heil-smitSliga, adv. tiprightly^ 
fairly, properly. 

heilsu-bot, f. improvement of health, 
recovery ; -bragtS, n. cure ; -drykkr, 
m. healing draught ; -far, n. state of 
health ; -gj of, f . cure, restoration to 
health ; -lauss, a. in bad health ; 
-litill, a. in weak health ; -rd^, n. 
means to recover one's health ; -sam- 
ligr, a., -samr, a. wholesome, salu- 
tary ; -tapan. f. perditiojt. 

heil-und, f. bi-ain wotind. 

heilundar-sar, n. = heilund. 

heil-vita, a. indecl. ^ hale-witted\ 
of sound 7ni7id, sane. 

heim, adv. home, hotnewards ; scEkja 
e-n h., to visit one ; to attack one. 

heima, n. home (ganga til sins h.) ; 
at h. minu, at my house ; eiga h., to 
have one's home, to live (i4allfre6r 
dtti h. at Haukagili). 

heima, adv. at home, at^ or in, one's 
own house (hair er heima hverr) ; 
sitja h., to remain at home. 

heima-bol, n. homestead, manor", 
-bondi, m. franklin or yeoman in a 
-bol ; ''hvvoa.nVyXW. home-well', -dyrr, 
f. pi. entrance to a dwelling-hoicse ; 
-elskr, a. fond of staying at home ; 
-folk, n. home folk, hotcsehold ; -griS- 
ungr, m. a bull kept at home ; -hus, 
n. pi. dwelling-houses ; -kona, f. 
house-tJtaid ; -land, n. hone estate ; 
-lic5, n. = -folk ; -m.a$r, m. one of the 
household, a servant ( = gri6ma6r)., adv. from home ; in some 

phrases the reference is to the mar- 
riage and dowry of women. 

heiman-bunaSr, m. preparation 
for a journey from home ; -fertS, f. 
journey {voyage) from ho?ne ; -fylgja, 

f. the dowry which the bride takes 

with her from home ; -for, f. = -fer6 ; 

-forull, a. strolling from home ; 

-gengt, a. n., in the phrase, eiga Iftt; 
-gengt, to have no time or opportutiity 
to leave home. 

heima-prestr, m. reside?tt priest, 
parsofi ; -seta, f. sitting at home ; 
-sveit, f. = -folk ; -ta^a, f. the hay 
from the home-field ; -vist, f. staying 
at home. 

heim-bot5, n. invitation, feast ; 
-dragi, m. a stay-at-ho?fte ; hleypa 
-draganum, to see the world. 

heimfarar-leyfi, n. = heiinleyfi. 

heim-fertS, f. ( I ) goitig home, return 
home ; (2) inroad into one's home^ = 
aifor, heimsokn. 

heimferSar-leyfl, n. = heimleyfi. 

heim-luss, a. longing for home ; 
-for, f,= -ferS; -ganga, {.going home', 
-gas, f. tame goose ; -ham.r, m. one's 
oivn skin. 

heimila (atS), v. to "ive a title or 
right to a thifig (heimilaSi jarl J)eim 
{)at er jDurfti at hafa). 

heimild, f. title, right. 

heimildar-matSr, m. a man from 
whom a title is derived', -tak, n. 
taking proper possession or title (-tak 
a skoginum). 

heimilda-vandr, a. fastidious in 
regard to title. 

heimili, n. house, home, homestead 
(eiga h. e-s staSar). 

heimilis-fang, n. domicile', -fastr, 
a. having a fixed hoinestead ; -htis, 
n. (i) closet', (2) privy, -kviSr, m. 
home-verdict ; -prestr, m. chaplain ; 
-sok, f. a charge that can be brought 
home to one ; -vist, f. permanent 
habitation ; vera -vistum med e-m, to 
reside with one. 

heimili, a., e-m er e-t heimilt, 07ie 
has a right to, is free to have a thi7ig ; 
heimili er matr peim, er hafa J)urfu, 
the food is free to those who 7ieed it', 
kvao honum heimilan sinn styrk, his 
help should be at his disposal ; segir, 

at t)at var skylt ok heimilt, dtie and 
just ; eiga heimilt (at gera e-t), eiga 

e-t heimilt, to have a right {to do a 

thin^), to have at one' s disposal', lata 

e-m e-t heimilt, to give one a right to, 

to place at one's disposal (let f*. honum 
heimilan hest sinn). 




heimis-gariSrtm./tomesfeaif ; -haugr, 
m. * ho)nestead-cairn ' ; -kvitSr, m. = 

heim-kvama, f. return home ; 
-kynni, n. home, household ; -lei^is, 
adv. homewards (fara -leiSis) ; -leyfi, 
n. leave to go home ; -ligr, a. worldly. 

heimoll, a. = heimill. 

heimol-leikr, m. intimacy \ -liga, 
adv. (i) with full right to possession ; 
(2) privately (fa e-m e-t -liga) ; -ligr, 
adv. [i) intimate \ {2) private (heimol- 
ligr klerkr). 

heimr (-s, -ar), m. (i) a place of 
abode, a region or world (niu man ek 
heima) ; spyrja e-n i hvern heim, to 
ask one freely ; (2) this world (segSu 
mer or heimi, ek man or helju) ; koma 
i heiminn, to be born ; fara af heimi- 
num, to depart this life ; liggia milli 
heims ok heljar, to lie between life 
and death ; (3) the earth ; kringJa 
heimsins, the globe. 

heim-reitS, f. (l) ride home ; (2) in- 
roadf attack. 

heims-aldr, m. age of the world; 
-dlfa, f. quarter {part) of the world ; 
-brestr, m. crash of the world \ -bygt$, 
f. the peopled world. 

heimska, {.folly, nonsense. 

heimsk-liga, adv. foolishly ; Idta 
-liga, to play the fool ; -ligr, 3.. foolish, 
silly (heimsklig orS). 

heiiQskr, a. foolish, silly ; verdr opt 
heitum h. ma6r feginn, fair words 
often make afooPs heart rejoice. 

heimsku-verk, n. foolish deed. 

heims-liga, adv. «= heimskliga. 

heim-sokn, f. (i) visit ; (2) inroad, 
attack on one's home (veita e-m -sokn). 

heims-slit, n. pi. the end of the 
world', -Bol, {. the sun ; undir heims- 
solu, on earth. 

heim-stoS, f. homestead. 

heims-vist, f. living, dwelling', 
-l)rit5jungr, m. = -dlfa. 

heim-soekja (see scskja), v. to visit. 

heimta (-m.ta, -mtr), v. (i) to draw, 
pull', h. upp akkeri, to weigh anchor', 
fig.,h. sik fram me6 fegjofum, to make 
one's way by giving presents ; h. sik 
i vin^ttu vi6 e-n, to get on friendly 
terms with one ; h. nyt af fe, to fnilk 

cattle ; (2) to get back, recover, regain 
(J)6ttust l)eir hafa hann or helju heim- 
tan) ; esp., to get home the sheep from 
the summer pastures ; (3) /<? clai?n 
(h. e-t at e-m) ; h. arf, skuld, toll, to 
claim an inheritance^ debt, toll ; h. 
vilmasli, to claim the fulfilment of a 
promise ; h. e-n d tal vid sik, to ask 
for an inten'iew with one ; (4) im- 
pers., e-n heimtir, one longs (sliks var 
v^n, at I)ik mundi pangat h.) ; (5) refl., 
heimtast fram at aldri, to advance in 
years ; h, saman, to gather together, 
join (heimtust brdtt skip bans saman). 

beimta, f. (i) claim, demand (of 
payment due to one) ; (2) esp. in pi. 
(heimtur) bringing home sheep from 
the summer pastures (verda h. godar). 

heimting, f. claim, demand. 

heimull, a. = heimoll, heimill. 

heim- van, f. (i) prospect of coming 
ho7ne ; {2) prospect of salvation. 

hein, f. hone^ whetsto?ie. 

heinar-smjor, -sufl, n. the grease 
or liquor which mowers put on the 

heiQ-berg, n. hone-quarry, -bryni, 
n. hone, whetstone. 

heipt, f. {\) feud, deadly war ; vinna 
e-m h., to wage war against one\ 
deila heiptir, to wage deadly feud ; 
(2) deadly hatred, spite (meirr af h. 
en dst) ; h. ok harSindi, ill-will and 
tyranny ; hafa h. d e-m, to hate. 

heiptar-bloS, n. bloodshed', -feng- 
ian, a. breathiiig hatred against one ; 
-hugr, m. wrath, hatred (hafa -hug i. 
e-m) ; -mal, n., -ort5, n. pi. words 
breathing hatred. 

heipt-fenginn, a. = heiptarfenginn ; 
-gjarn, a. spiteful', -moSr, a. wrath- 
ful ; -m.ogr, m. foeman, adversary ; 
-raskr, a. vindictive, revengeful \ 
-utS. f. deadly hatred, revengefulness ; 
-yrtSi, n. pi. words of hatred. 

heit, n. (l) solemn promise, vow; 
efla (stofna, festa) heit, to make a 
vow ; strengja e-s h., to make a solemn 
vow ; (2) pi. threats (hann st66 undir 
heitum ok illyrdum). 

heita (heit ; h6t, h6tum ; heitinn), 
v. (i) to call, give a name to ; Grimni 
mik hetu, they called me G. ; heitinn 




eptir e-m, called {natned) after one ; 
(2) to call on one ; h. e-n ^ brott, to 
call on one to be gone, lid one go 
(heitit mik het3an); h. ^e-n, to exhort 
one (in battle); to invoke (h. i. hinn 
heilaga Olaf ) ; h. d e-n til e-s, to in- 
voke {appeal to) one for a thing (hann 
hdt i. t>6r til fulltings); (3) intrans., 
the pres. 'heiti* (not 'heit'j, to be 
highly be called; OSinn ek nu heiti, 
now I am called Odin ; Olafr heiti 
ek, viy name is O.; Ulfr het ma6r, 
there was a man, whose name was U. ; 
beer heitir d Bakka (at Burfelli), there 
is a farm called B. ; h. (to be reckoned) 
frjals ma6r, hvers manns nidingr ; (4) 
with dat. to promise (h. e-m e-u); 
mantu, hverju J)li h^zt m^r, do you 
remember what you promised m.e ? h. 
e-m horSu, to threaten one ; B^rdi 
var heitit meyjunni, the maid was 
promised to B.\ (5) refl., heitast, to 
vow, plight one's faith (J^eir hetust 
reka Hakon or landi); h. e-m, to vow 
ones person to o?ie (h. hinum heilaga 
Olafi konungi) ; to be betrothed to one. 

heita (heitta, heittr), v. (i) to heat 
(h. spjot i eldi) ; (2) to brew (h. mun- 
gat, h. ol). 

heita, f. brewing (cf. olheita). 

heitan, f. threatening. 

heitanar-ort$, n. pi. menaces. 

heitast (aS), v. refl. to make threats, 
to speak threateningly (^aldrei heitaSist 
hann vi3 uvini sina) ; h. til e-s, to use 
threats to obtain a thing; h. at gera 
e-t, to threaten to do a thing. 

heit-bundinn, pp. bound by a vow 
(i e-u vi5 e-n); -fastr, a. true to one's 
word ; -fengi, f. the being -fengr ; 
-fengr, a. able to eat one's food burn- 
ing hot ; -f6, n. votive money ; -gut5, 
m. a god to whofn one makes a vow. 

heiti, n. najfie, denomination. 

heiti ngar, f. pi. threats, impreca- 
tions (h. ok hrakning). 

heit-kona, f. on^s promised spouse ; 
•oro, Xi, promise {of marriage). 

heitr. 2l.{\) hot, burning', eldi heitari, 
hotter than fire ; e-m verSr heitt, one 
gets warm ; (2) hot, ardent, zealous 
(verSa h. vi3 e-t). 

heit-ramr, a. boasting, braggart, 


heit-rof, n. breach of faith ; -rofi, m. 

heitsi, a., verSa e-s h., to engage 
oneself to a thing. 

heit-strenging, f. making a solemn 
vow ; -strengja (-da, -dr), v. to vow 
solemnly {■=■ strengja e-s heit) ; -songr, 
m. votive song. 

heitu-hus, n. brew-house ; -ketill, 
m. boiler ; -matSr, m. brewer. 

hekla, f. cowled or hooded frock. 

hel (gen. heljar, dat. helju), f. (i) 
Hel {the goddess of death) ; blar sem h., 
black as Hel ; (2) abode of the dead 
(gr^ta Baldr or helju) ; leysa hofu6 
sitt (>r helju, to save oneself from 
death ; rasa 1 helina opna, to rush 
into open death ; liggja i. heljar J)remi, 
to be on the verge of death ; (3) death 
(|)ykkir ekki betra lif en hel) ; berja 
e-n grjoti 1 hel, to stone one to death, 

h61a, f. hoarfrost, rime. 

hela h61d.i, h61dr), v. to cover with 
rime ; to fall as rime. 

hel-blar, a. black as death, 

heldr, adv. compar. {\)more^ rather \ 
h. en, rather than^ more than (vdpn 
t^eirra bitu eigi h. en vendir); (2) at 
h., any the more ; also, all the more 
(at h. tveimr, at ek mynda gjama 
veita ySr ollum); at heldr f)6tt, even 
although ; (3) rather (nu vartu h. til 
skjotr, en ek h. til seinn) ; var brudrin 
d6pur Li., the bride was rather sad; 
(4) after a negative, but, on the contrary. 

heldri, a. compar. better ; helztr, a. 
superl. best; i heldra lagi, in a high 
degree; pykkir monnum sd helztr 
kos:r, the best choice. 

hel-fuss, a. murderous (-fus bond) ; 
-for, f. death, 

helga (at5), v. (i) h. sdr land, to 
appropriate land by performing some 
sacred rites ; (2) to hallow to one (het 
hann at helga |^6r allt landnam sitt) ; 
(3) h. ping, to proclaifn the sanctity 
of a meeting; h. e-n, to proclaim a 
person inviolable; (4) refl., helgast, 
to be sanctified, 

hel-galdr, m. death-dirge, 

helgan, f. {i) sanctification^ safictity ; 
(2) sacrament, 

helgar-fritJr, m. holiday-truce. 




helgi, f. (l) holiness^ sanctity (h. Olafs 
konungs); (2) inviolability, security. 

helgi-brigtSi, n. Sabbath-breaking \ 
-hald, n, holiday -keepings -staSr, 
m. holy place. 

helgr (gen. helgar, dat. and ace. 
helgi ; pi. helgar), f. holiday, festi- 
val \ hringja til helgar, to ring for a 

hel-gratSr, m. voracity betokeniiig 
death ; -grindr, f. pi. Net's gate. 

heljar-karl, m., -mat$r, m. (i) ac- 
cursed fellow ; (2) one doomed to die ; 
-skinn, n. a dark-skinned person. 

hella, stone, slab of rock. 

hella (-ta, -t), v. to pour out (h. e-u) ; 
var hellt 1 J)ik mjolk, tnilk was poured 
into thy tnouth ; h. ut blodi, t^rum, to 
shed blood, tears. 

hellir (gen. hellis, dat. and ace. 
belli ; pi. hellar), m. cave, cavern. 

hellis-berg, n. cavernous rock ; 
-dyrr, f. pi. door {entrance) of a cave ; 
-matSr, m. cave-dweller, outlaw ; 
-munni, m. mouth of a cave ; -skuti, 
vci. jutting cave. 

hellna-grjot, n.flat stones, slabs. 

hellu-steinn, vsx.flat stone^ slab. 

helma, f. haulm, straw. 

helming, f. = helmingr. 

helminga (ac5), v. to halve. 

helminga-skipti, n. division in two 
equal portions. 

helmingr (-s, -ar), m. half; at helm- 
ingi, by half; skipta i helminga, to 
share in two equal portions. 

helmings-f61ag, n. joint ccmipany 
(with equal shares). 

helsi, n. collar ^ esp. for a dog. 

hel-skor, m. pi. shoes for the dead ; 
-stafir, m. pi. baneful characters ; 
-strit5, n, agony. 

heltast (t), V. refl. to become lame. 

helti, f. lameness. 

h61u-fall, n. fall of rime ; -kaldr, 
a. rime-cold ; -l)oka, f . rime-fog, tnist. 

hel-vegr, m. the way to Hel ; -viti, 
n. hell, the abode of the damned. 

helvitis-kvalir, f. pi. tonnents of 
hell ; -maSr, m. a man doomed to hell. 

helvizkr, a. hellish, infernal. 

helist, adv. superl. (ef. ' heldr '), most 
of all, especially (hefi ek J)at helzt 1 
hug mer). 

helzti, adv. far too (= helzt til) ; h. 
lengi,yij;r too long. 

helztr, a. superl., see * heldri '. 

hemingr, m. the skin of the shanks. 

henda (henda, hendr), v. (i) to 
catch with the hand (hann kastaQi 
heininni i lopt upp, en aUir vildu h.) ; 
to pick out or up (hann safnar monn- 
um til at h. svinin) ; h. e-t augum, to 
catch with the eyes ; h. til smatt ok 
stort, to pick up small and great alike, 
look closely after ; h. gaman (skemtan) 
at e-u, to take a delight in (hann 
hendi skemtan at sogum ok kvasQum); 
h. sakir i. e-m, to pick up charges 
against one ; (2) to touch, concern one 
(tiSendi J^au, er baeSi okkr henda) ; 
(3) /^ befall, happen to one ; J)d hafdi 
hent glcepska mikil, they had com- 
mitted a great folly ; hann kvaS Jjat 
dugandi menn h. {it happened to brave 
men) at falla i bardogum. 

hendi-langr, a. helpful, ready to 
help (vera e-m -langr um e-t). 

hending (pi. -arj, f. (i) catching \ 
var i hendingum meS |)eim, they were 
near coming to close quarters ; (2) 
rhyme or assonance ; rhyming or 
assonattng syllable. 

hendingar-ort5, n. rhyming syllable. 

hendi-samr, a. picking, thievish. 

hengi-skafl, vafuttingheap of snow. 

hengja (-da, -dr), v. to hang up, 
suspend ; to hang on a gallows ; h. 
sik, to hang oneself. 

henta (-nti, -nt, or atS), v. to ft, be 
suitable for (s^rum monnum hentir 
betr mj61k en mungat) ; eigi hentir 
sva, // will not do that way. 

henti-ligr, a. befitti 


hent-leikr, m. opportunity. 

hentr, a.yf/, suited for one ; er slik- 
um monnum bezt hent t)ar, there is 
the right place for such men. 

hentug-leikr, m.«» hentleikr. 

hentugr, a. befitting, convenient. 

heppi-fengr, a. making a good catch, 

heppinn, a. lucky, fortunate. 

hepta (-pta, -ptr), v. (i) to bind, 
fetter ; h. hross, hest, to hobble a horse ; 
(2) to impede, hinder (illt er flyjanda 
at h.) ; h. sik, to restrain oneself, for- 
bear-, refl. to be thwarted (heptist 
ferd l)eirra). 




hepti, n. haft (of a dirk), 
hepting, f. tether ; iinpediment, 
hepti-sax, n. a kind of digger. 
h6r, adv. (l) here ; i. landi h., in this 
country ; h. ok hvar, here and there ; 
(2) here^ hither (margir peir er h. 
koma); (3) with preps., h. af, here 
from, from this ; h. eptir, hereafter, 
according to this\ h. iyx\r, for this, 
therefore-, h. til, hereto \ h. um, in 
this, as regards this. 
heratS, n. (i) district \ (2) country, 
opp. to 'beer' {town). 
heratSs-bondi, m. franklin ; -bot, f. 
bettering the affairs of a district ; 
-brestr, m. a crash that can be heard 
all over the district ; -bygS, f. a dis- 
trict and its people ; -deild, f. district 
quarrel; -flleygr, a. quickly known 
over a district ; -flotti, m. flight or 
exile from a district', -fundi*, m. 
district meeting ; -iseta, f. = -vist ; 
-kirkja, f. parish church ; -konungr, 
m. kinglet ; -rikr, a. of influence in 
one's district', -sekr, a. outlawed 
within a district ; -sekt, f. outlawry 
within a district ; -stjorn, f. district 
government ; -vist, f. abiding within 
a certaiti district ; -vsert, a. n., eiga 
-Vcert, to te at liberty to reside within 
a district \ -J)ing, n. district assembly 
(in contrast to the * alj)ingi '). 
heratS-vaert, a. n. = heraSs-vasrt. 
her-baldr, m. poet., warrior. 
her-bergi, n. (i) room ; (2) lodgings, 
quarters (var J)eim visat fyrst i gesta- 
hus til herbergis). 

herbergis-maSr, m., -sveinn, m. 
groom of the chamber. 
herbergja (-cSa, -tSr), v. (i) to har- 
bour (a person) ; (2) to lodge, take up 
one's qua7'ters (= h. sik). 
her-blastr, m. blast of trumpets ; 
-bot5, n. war summons ; -brestr, m. 
explosion ; -but5ir, f. pi. camp ; -buinn, 
pp. armed ; -biinaSr, m. armament. 
hertSa (-rt5a, -rt5r), v. (i) to make 
hard, temper (h. j^rn, sverd) ; (2) to 
press, clench ; h. hendr (knua) at e-u, 
to clench with the hands \ fists) ; fig., h. 
atgongu, to make the attack harder ; 
(3) to make firm, exhort', h. huginn, 
h. sik, to take heart, exert oneself'. 

(4) absol. to follow closely, pursue 
vigorously (Birkibeinar herSu eptir 
t>eim) ; h. dfram, to push on', h. at 
(e-m), to press hard {upon one); (5) 
impers. to become hard; ve6r (ace.) 
herdi, // blew up a gale ; herSi seglit, 
the sail was strained hard (by the 
gale) ; (6) refl. to take heart (bad 
konungr menn vel vi6 herdast). 

liercSa, f. (i) tempering (of steel), 
steeling; (2) hardness, severity. 

hercSa-drengr, m. hump on the back 
(cf. 'herdar'); -litill, a. narrow- 
shouldered', -munr, m. superiority, 
supe7i or force. 

hertSar, f. pi. shoulders, the upper 
part of the back. 

her^ar-blatS, n. shoulder blade. 

hert5a-sar, n. a wound over the 
shoulders ; -toppr, m. shoulder tuft 
(of a horse's mane). 

herSi, f. hardness, hardihood. 

hertSi-breic5r, a. broad-shouldered; 
-litill, a. = herdalitill ; -lutr, a. with 
stooping shoulders. 

herSi-matSr, m. hardy man. 

hertSi-roikill. a. = -breiSr ; -I)ykkr, 
a. thick-shouldered. 

hercSu-goSr, a. well tempered (0x 
herSugoS ok snarpegg). 

her-draga (see draga), v. to drag 
violently (at gripa, sla, e5a h.). 

her-fang, n. booty (taka fe e-s at 
-fangi) ; -fenginn, pp. captured, taken 
by force ; -fert5, f. ( i ) warfare, military 
expedition ; (2) host. 

herfi, n. harrow. 

herfi-liga, adv. wretchedly ; -ligr, a. 

her-f j oturr, m. * war-fetter ' ; -flokkr, 
m. body of warriors ; -folk, n. men 
of war; -forur, f. pi. harness; 
-foerr, a. able for war service; -f6r, 
f. = -ferS (i); -ganga, f. inarch; 
-gjarn, a. warlike; -glotuSr, m. 
destroyer of hosts ; -hlaup, n. rush- 
ing to arms ; -horn, n. war trumpet. 

heri, m. hare ; hafa hera hjarta, to 
be hare-hearted. 

herja (acS), v. (i) to go harrying or 
freebooting; (2) vi^ith ace. to harry, 

despoil, waste (h. land) ; refl., herjast 

i., to harry {wage war on) one another- 




hei^a-foSr, nx.jather of hosts, Odin. 

Herjan, m. Lord of hosts (a name 
of Odin). 

herjans-kerling, f. ha^'^ -sonr, m. 
''deviPs limb\ wi-etch. 

her-kastali, m. castle^ stronghold. 

her-kerling, f., only in ' hver -kerl- 
ing ', every old womaii. 

herkja, v. to drag oneself along. 

her-klukka, f. alar-m-bell \ -kleet^a 
(-dda, -ddr), v. to clothe in armour \ 
refl., -klas^ast, to put on arinour ; 
-klsstSi, n. pi. armour ; -konungr, m. 
warrior-king \ -kumbl, -kuml, n. 
war token, arms (on shields). 

h6r-kvdma, f. arrival. 

her-land, n. harried land; -leitSa 
(-dda, -ddr), v. to lead off into cap- 
tivity ; -leiSing, f. captivity ; -lei(5sla, 
f. = -leiSing. 

h§r-lendr, -lenzkr, a. domestic, 
native, opp. to * litlenzkr ' {foreign). 

her-liS, n. war-people, troops ; -ligr, 
a. martial-looking ; -lii^r, m. war 
tru7)ipet (peyta h.). 

herma (-da, -dr), v. (i) to relate, 
repeat, rep07't (h. orS e-s) ; (2) h. eptir 
e-m, to imitate or mi7nic 07ie, 

her-maSr, m. man of war, war- 
rior (hann var mikill h.). 

hermann-liga, 2.^\. gallantly, -ligr, 
a. gallant, martial. 

hermast (d), v. refl. to wax wroth 
(e-m hermist vi6 e-n). 

hermd, f. vexatioji, anger. 

hermdar-fullr, a. wrathful', -litr, 
m. colour of wrath ; -orS, n. pi. angry 
words ; -verk, n. deed of renown (?) ; 
-yrtSi, n. pi. = -or6. 

her-megir, m. pi. warriors. 

hermi-kraka, f. mimic, ape. 

hermi-liga, adv. right angrily. 

herming, f. indignation, wrath. 

herm.t, pp. n., e-m ver6r h. vi3 e-t, 
to wax angry with a thing. 

h6rna, adv. here (= her). 

herna^ar-folk, n., -menn, m. pi. 
plunderers, foray ers ; -ra5, n. pi. a 
planning for phinder ; -sok, f. a case 
of raid. 

hernatSr (gen. -ar), m. (i) harrying, 
plunderifig ', (2) warfare, raid, foray 
(heQa hernad, fara i hernaS). 

her-nema (see nem.a), v, to cap* 
ture, take by force. 

hemeskja, f. artnour. 

her-numi, a., -numinn, pp. captive \ 
-op, n. war-cry, war-whoop. 

herr (gen. hers, older herjar), m. 
(i) crowd, great number (fylgdi oss h. 
manna) ; me6 her manns, with a host 
of men ; uvigr h., overwhelming host ; 
(2) army, troops (on land and sea). 
Cf. 'allsherjar-'. 

herra (indecl. in sing. ; pi. herrar), 
m. master, lord. 

herra (at5), v. to coftfer the title of 
' herra ' upon a person. 

herra-domr, m., -dcBmi, n. lordship ; 
do7ninion ; -ligr, a. lo7'dly ; -maSr, 
m. lordly man, lord, knight. 

herramann-liga, adv. i7i lordly 
manner; -ligr, a. lordly. 

herra-samligr, a. = herraligr. 

her-saga, f. war-news. 

hers-borinn, pp. born of a hersir. 

hers-hofSingi, m. co7nmander of an 
ar}7iy ; general. 

hersir (-is, -ar), m. a local chief or 
lord (in Norway). 

herskapar-buningr, m. warlike 
equipment ; -foer i, n . i7nplement of war. 

her-skapr, m. har7ying, warfare ; 
-skar, a. (l) warlike, i7iartial', (2) ex- 
posed to raid or warfare, i7i a state 
of war (landit var J)a -skatt ; f J^ann 
tima var mjok -skatt) ; -skip, n. war- 
skip', -skjoldr, m. war shield', fara 
land -skildi, to ha7-ry a land (= herja 
land); -skru^, n., -skruSi, m. har- 
ness ; -skryddr, pp. clad in armour \ 
-spori, m. caltrop. 

herstast (st), v. refl. to speak hatshly 
to one (h. i. e-n). 

hersti-ligr, a. harsh. 

her-stjori, m. co7nmander ; -stjorn, 
f. conmiand of troops. 

herstr, a. harsh ; masla herst vi6 e~n, 
to speak harshly to one. 

her-taka (see taka), v. to capture ; 
-taka konu, to abduct a wo7nan ; -taka, 
f. captivity ; -taki, m. captive ; -tekja, 
-teknlng, f. = -taka. 

hertoga-domr, m. leadership; duke- 
do7n ; -doemi, n. duchy ; -nafn, n. 
title of a duke. 




her-togi, m. ( i ) commander of troops ; 
(2) duke\ -vdSir, f. pi. armoury 
-vapn, n. pi. weapons ; -vegr, m. 
highway ; -virki, n. ravaging^ plun- 
dering^ damage. 

h6r-vist, f. dwelling here. 

her-vigi, n. ravage^ 7nan- slaughter ; 
"■v^^in^v ,T!\. plunderer ^ pirate \ -vaetSa 
(-dda, -ddr), v. = -klaeSa. 

herzla, f. tempering (of steel). 

her-t)urft, f. wa7it of troops ; -or, f. 
'■war-arrow' (sent round as a token 
of war) ; skera upp -or, to su?n?tio?i a 
district to arms. 

'heaiiy-n. hazel-wood\ -kylfa, f. hazel- 
club ; -skogr, m. hazel-wood \ -stong, 
f. hazel-pole ; -vondr, m. hazel-wand. 

hespa, f. (i) haspy fastening \ (2) 
skeiti (of wool). 

heata-at, n, horse-fight \ -birgr, a. 
well provided with horses ; -geldir, 
m. hoi'se gelder ; -geymala, f. hof-se 
keepings -gneggjan, f. 7ieighing of 
horses ; -gnyr, m. noise (din) of horse^ 
7nen ; -jdrn, n. pi. horse-shoes ; -keyr- 
sla, f. drivi7ig the horses on, in a 
horse-fight ; -kostr, m. supply of 
horses (hafa litinn -kost) ; -lic5, n. 
horsemen ; -matSr, m. = -sveinn ; 
-skipti, n. change of horses ; -stafr, 
m. horse stafi^ {used in a horse-fight) ; 
-stallr, m. = hest-hus ; -sveinn, m. 
horse doy, groo7n ; -vatS, n. horse ford ; 
•vig, n. horse-fight ', -J)ing, n. a 77zeet- 
ingfor a public horse-fight. 

hest-bak, n. horse-back ; -bein, n. 
horse bone ; -birgr, a. = hestabirgr ; 
-brynja, f. ar77iour for a war-horse ; 
-bunatSr, m. horse-gear \ -foerr, a. 
able to ride ; -gangr, m. set of horse- 
shoes ; -gjof, f. gift of a horse ; -bus, 
n. horse-stall^ stable ; -kldrr, m. hack\ 
-Idn, n. loan of a horse ; -lauss, a. 
without a horse. 

bestr (-S, -ar), m. (l) stallion (hestar 
l)rir ok merhross eitt) ; (2) horse. 

best-skeitS, n. race-course ; -skor, 
m. horse-shoe ; -tonn, f. horse'' s tooth ; 
•verts, n. horse's worth ; -^^t n. 
= hesta-vig ; -v6rc5r, m. mounted 
guard (halda hestvorS). 

betja, f. herOy dauntless man. 

betju-skapr, m. courage^ valour. 

betta, f. (i) hood\ (2) a kind oi cape. 

bey (dat. beyi or beyvi), n. hay ; 
hirSa h., to get in hay ; pi. stores of hay 
(hann hefir rasnt mik ollum heyjum). 

bey-annir, f. pi. hay-7)iaking ti77ie, 
haying season ; -bjorg, f. stores of 
hay (var6 all-litil -bjorg manna) ; 
-des, f. hay-rick ; -fang, n. p7'oduce of 
hay ; -fatt, a. n., var -fatt, there was 
little hay ; -garcSr, m. stack-yard. 

beygja (-tSa, -Sr), v. to bury in a 
how i,haugr), = haugfcera. 

bey-gjof, {.giving hay (to horses or 
cows); -hj^lmr, m. hay-rick] -blass, 
n. load of hay. 

lieyja (liey» bdtSa, baiSr), v. (i) to 
hold, conduct (h. ping, dom) ; h. gle3i, 
to indulge in mirth ; h. sdr orSfjolda, 
to acquire a store of words \ (2) h. 
orrostu, bardaga, holmgongu, to fight 
a battle or duel (hann haf5i margar 
orrostur hadar) ; refi,, heyjast v\6 {viz. 
bardaga), to fight, bandy words (t)eir 
haSust par vi3 um stund). 

beykjast (t), v. refl. to bend, cower 
down (h. ni3r). 

bey-kleggi, m. = -des ; -kostr, m. 
stores of hay ; -lauss, a. short of hay ; 
-leiga, f. rent paid in hay ; -leysi, n. 
failure in hay; -litill, a. short of 
hay ; var -litit, there was little hay. 

beyra (-Sa, -tSr), v.{\)to hear ; hann 
heyrir pat, er gras grcer i. jor6u, he 
hears the grass grow ; h. ilia, to be 
hard of hearing ; h. e-t til e-s, to heat 
[a sound) fro77i one ; hefir hv^rki heyrt 
til hans styn ne hosta, neither groan 
7tor cough has been heard fro7n him ; 
heyrir blastr (ace.) hans i alia heima, 
when he blows, it ca7i be heard in all 
the worlds ; {1) to listen to, give ear 
to ; h. been e-s, to liste7i to (to grant) 
07te''s prayer; h. a e-t, to listen to 
(=hly(5a a e-t); (3) h. til e-s or h. 
e-m til, to belong to, concer7i (petta 
mal, er heyrir til dottur pinnar) ; pat 
er til min heyrir, as far as I a77i con- 
cerned ; (4) with dat. to behove (m^r 
heyrir eigi at pegja vi3 y6r) ; (5) refl., 
e-m heyrist e-t, one thinks he hears ; 
pa heyrSist peim ollum sem sveinninn 
kvseSi petta, they all thought they 
heard the boy say this {verse). 




heyrandi (pi. -endr), m. hearer \ i 
heyranda (gen. pi.) hlj63i,/« the hear- 
ing of all ^ in public. 

heyrt5r, pp. (i) able to hear (h. vel) ; 
(2) listened to, paid heed to, esteetned 
(biskup vel heyrSr). 

heyri-ligr, a. becoming ; mer er -ligt 
at, it is incumbent on Jiie to. 

heyrin-kimnigr, -kunnr, a. well 
known, known to all. 

heyrn, f. hearing] i h. e-m, in one's 
hearing] sumt ritaSi hann eptir sjalfs 
sins \i.,fro7n what he heard himself. 

heyrum-kunnr, a. = heyrin-kunnr. 

liey-sala, f. sale of hay ; -stal, n. the 
middle of a hay-stack ; -taka, f. plun- 
der of hay ; -teigr, m. strip of a hay- 
field ; -tjuga, f. pitchfork ; -verS, n. 
payment for hay \ -verk, n. hay- 
inaking] -vondull, m. wisp of hay ] 
-J)rot, n. %uant of hay ; -J)rota, a. 
indecl. short of hay ; -onn, f. = -annir. 

hifna-, = himna-. 

higat, adv. = hingat. 

hildi-leikr, m. game of war, battle 
(poet.) ; -mei^r, m. warrior (poet.). 

hildingr (-s, -ar), m. chief, hero. 

hildr (gen. hildar, dat. and ace. 
hildi), f. battle (poet.) ; vekja hildi, to 
wage war, to fight. 

hilmir (gen. -is), m. chief , prince. 

himbrin, n. great northern diver. 

himin-bora, f. = -rauf ; -fastr, a. 
fixed in heaven (of stars) ; -geisli, m. 
heavenly beam ; -jo^urr, m. the rim of 
heaven ; -lopt, n. the vault of heaven. 

himinn (gen. himins, dat. hitani ; 
pi. himnar), m. heaven ; undir berum 
himni, in the ope?t air. 

himin-raufar, f. pi. the windows of 
heaven ; -riki, n. kingdofn of heaven ; 
-skaut, n. quarter of heaven ; -tungl, 
n. heavenly body ; -vangr, m. field of 
heaven (a -vanga). 

himna-brautS, n. bread of heaven, 
manna ; -drottinn, m. king of heaven; 
-fagnaSr, m. heavenly joy ; -mjol, n. 
flour of heaven, man?ta ; -riki, n. kiftg- 
dom of heaven ; -vald, n. heavenly 
power ; -vist, f. abode in heaven, 

hinmeskr, a. heavenly. 

hind, f. hind (female of 'hjortr *). 

hindra (atS), v. (i) to keep behind^ 

hinder ; (2) to loiter, linger ; h. eptir 
e-u, to loiter about a thing ; (3) im- 
pers., e-n hindrar e-t, one wants or 
lacks a thing. 

hindri, a. compar. (rare) , hind ra dags, 
the next day, 

hindr-vitni, f. idolatry, sicperstition. 

hingat, adv. hither ; -burtSr, m. the 
birth of Christ ; -ferS, -for, f. journey 
hither] -kvdnia, f. coming hither ^ 

hinka (ac5), v. to limp, hobble. 

hinkr, n. loitering, delay. 

hinn (bin, hitt), dem. pron. (i) the 
other ] A hinn fotinn, on the other leg ; 
pi. the others, the rest (Kimbi bar sar 
sin engan mun betr en hinir) ; (2) em- 
phatically, that ] hitt ek hugSa, that 
was what I thought] hitt vil ek vita, 
that I want to know. 

hinn (bin, h't), def. art., before an 
adjective standing alone or followed 
by a substantive, the^ = inn, enn (eptir 
hinni eystri kvisl). 

hinn a, {.film, membrane. 

hinnig (=hinneg, hinnog), adv. 
(i) there, in the other place, opp. to 
' her' ; (2) the other way ( = hinn veg) ; 

( 3 ) thus, so ] (4) the other day, formerly ; 
(5) hither. 

hinztr (hinnstr), a. superl. hind- 
7nost, last] hinzta smn\, for the last 
ti?}ie ] h. fundr, the last 7neeting. 

birS, f. a ki?igs or earPs bodyguard ; 
the kings men (hann hefir ok h. um 
sik sem konungr). 

bir^a (-rSa, ^-r(5r), v.{\) to keep in 
abox or chest{ksg<txhx\i\xh'\^\<£.hwxvi2.x, 
{)ar sem a6r voru); (2) h. hey, to 
gather in hay] (3) to hide, conceal] 

(4) to jnind, care for (aldregi hirSi ek 
t)at) ; h. eigi um e-t, not to care about 
(t)eir hir6u ekki um lif sitt) ; hirS eigi, 
hiiQit eigi, do not seek (bird eigi J)u at 
hopa a hasl !). 

hir ^-biskup, m. king^s bishop] 
-broSir, m. comrade ajnong king's 
men ; -bunac5r, m. apparel for king's 

hirtSir (-is, -ar), m. herds7nan, shep- 
herd] pastor. 

hircS-liS, n. the king's troops ; -ligr, 
a. belonging to the king's 7nen, courtly 




(-lig mdlsnild) ; -16g, n. pi. laws and 
statutes of the kin^s men, their com- 
rminity or fellowship (taka e-n i -log) ; 
-ma^r, m. king^s man. 

hirSmanna-iutSr, m. a trtmipet be- 
longing to the king's men ; -stefna, f. 
a hustings of king's men. 

hirtS-meBr, f. court lady \ -prestr, 
m. king's chaplain ; -prutSr, a. cottr- 
teous ; -prytSi, f. royal po7np ; -sit5ir, 
m. pi. the customs of the king's men ; 
-stefna, f. ?neeting of the king's men ; 
-stjori, m. the captain of the ki7tg's 
men ; -stjorn, f. the dignity of a -^Xj^oxx ; 
-stofa, f. king's hall; -sveit, f. the host 
of king's men ; -vist, f. the position 
of a king's man, 

hirtSu-leysa, f. carelessness, neglects 

hirsi, n. millet. 

hirta (-rta, -rtr), v. to chastise. 

hirting, f. chastiseme7tt. 

hirtingar-lauss, a. unchastised ; 
-leysi, n. want of chastise7nent ; -ortS, 
n. pi. severe words ; -samr, a. severe. 

hirzla, f. (i) keeping; (2) box^ chest. 

hita, f. heati7ig, heat. 

hiti, m. heat, war7nth. 

hitna (at$), v. to beco7ne hot ; impers., 
e-m hitnar, one gets hot {war7n). 

hitta (-tta, -ttr), v. {i) to hit upon, 
meet with one ; \i.xi.1S, to hit upon a 
device ; h. leiSina, to find one^s way ; 
absol., h. inn i vaginn, to find the way 
into the bay ; sjaldan hittir leiSr i 116, 
an unwelco7ne guest always 77iisses 
the feast ;. h. f vandrasSi, to get into 
scrapes', h. i. e-t, to hit upon (hitti 
hann ])ar a |>6rolf ) ; (2) to hit, strike 
(spjotit hitti i brjost hestsins); (3) to 
visit, call on, see (foru J)d margir 
menn at h. Hakon konung) ; (4) refl., 
hittasr, to 77ieet one another-, hann 
bad J)a vel fara ok heila h. {7neet agai7i 
safe and sound). 

hitu-eldr, m. a fire for heating 
{brewing) ; -hiis, n. brew-house ; 
-ketill, m. boiler. 

hixta (-xta, -xt), v. to hiccough ; to 
sob ; mefian i ond hixti, while the 
breath rattled in his throat. 

hixti, m. hiccough ; sobbing, 

hi-byli, n. see ' hy-byli *. 

liitS, n. lairy den^ esp. of a bear. 

hit$-bj6rn, m. cotnmon bear. 

hit, f. skin-bag. 

hjal, n. chatter, talk. 

hjala (atS), v. to chatter, talk (h. vi3 
e-n); hjalast vi6, to talk together. 

hjaldr (-rs), m. fight, battle (poet.). 

hjal-drjugt, a. n. talkative, chatter- 
ing; peim ver3r -drjiigt, they have 
7nuch to say. 

hjalli, m. ledge in a 7nountain side. 

hjallr, m. (i) scaffold, frame of ti7n- 
ber; (2) shed (for drying fish). 

hjals-kona, {.fe7nalefrie7id. 

hjalt, n. (i) the boss or knob at the 
end of a sword-hilt (eptra, efra hjaltit) ; 
(2) the guard between the hilt and 
blade (fremra hjaltit). 

Hjalt-land, n. .S'/^^//<^;?rt^; -lendingr 
(-S, -ar), m. Shetlander; -lenzkr, 
-neskr, 2i.fro7n Shetland. 

hjara, f. hinge, — hjarri. 

hjart5ar-sveinn, m. = hjarS-sveinn. 

hjart5-hundr, m. shepherd's dog; 
-reki, m. = -sveinn ; -rsekr, a. able to 
drive a drove ; -sveinn, m. shepherd 
boy ; -tik, f. shepherd's dog. 

hjarn, n. hard frozen snow. 

hjarna (atS), v. to revive, recover 
strength (h. vi3). 

hjarni, m. brai7t, = heili. 

hjarn-skdl, m. brainpan, skull. 

hjarri, m. hinge. 

hjarsi, m. the crown of the head. 

hjarta (pi. hjortu, gen. hjartna), 
n. (i) heart; (2) 7ni7id, feeling. 

hjarta-blauSr, a. cowardly; -bloS, 
n. heart's blood; -gotSr, a. kind- 
hearted; -ligr, a. hearty; -pruSr, 
a. stout-hearted, ge7ierous ; -pry Si, f. 
stoutness of heart, courage ; -ragr, a. 
= -blaudr ; -roetr, f. pi. heart-strings ; 
-sar, n. heart wound; -tregi, m. 

hjart-bl6t5, n. = hjarta- bl66 ; -folg- 
inn, pp. heart-felt, cherished in the 
heart ; -morr, m. the fat about the 
heart; -naemr, a. heart-touching; 
-sari, a. heart-sore, broken-hearted, 

hjart-skiim, n. deer-skin (hjart- 
skinns glofar). 

hjassi, m. see 'hjarsi*. 

hjassi, m. a fabulous beast. 

hja, prep, with dat. (i) by, near; 




liggja (sitja) h. e-m, to lie [sit) by one ; 
sofa (hvila) hji e-m, to sleep with one\ 
h. durunum, near {close to) the door ; 
(2) ^j, with ; vera h. e-m, /^ stay with 
one ; vera i gistingu h. e-m, to lodge 
with one ; maSr einn var eptir h. hon- 
um, was left with hi?n ; (3) present ; 
sv^ at Flosi var h., i7i the presence 
of F.\ (4) past^ by\ fara, ganga h. 
e-m, to go by ^ pass one (md^naSi siSarr 
foru l^eir h. mer katir) ; farast h., to 
pass by one another \ fara h. ser, to go 
beside oneself \ fram h. Knafaholum, 
past K. ; I)eir riSu h. fram, they rode 
by\ is) in comparison ivith {to) ; hofSu 
J)eir iixx kvikfjar h. {)vi sem J)urfti, 
they had few live stock in comparison 
with what was needed. 

hjd-bu, n. out-lyitig estate ; -hvila, 
f. concubinage \ -kona, f. concubine \ 
-leikr, m. trick. 

hjdlmat5r, pp. helmed. 

hj dim-bar (5, n. hebnet-rim ; -b6nd, 
n. pi. helmet strifigs ; -drott, f. helmed 
hostf war host ; -gjortS, f. ri7n of a 
hehnet\ -hottr, m. helmet-hood (a 
kind of cowl put over the helmet) ; 
-laukr, m. a kind of leek, gaidic. 

hjalmr (-s, -ar), m. ( i ) heh7i^ helmet ; 
(2) rick {of hay or barley). 

l^dlm-stafr, m. warrior (poet.) ; 
-stofn, m. the head; -vitr, f. ^ helm' 
wight \ Valkyrie. 

hjdlmun-volr, hj dim- voir, m. tiller 
of a hebn. 

hjdlp (-ar, -ir), f. help. 

lydlpa (help ; halp or hjalp, hulp- 
um; holpinn), v. (i) to help (h. 
e-m); h. e-m vi6 = h. e-m; (2) to 
save (h. lifi si'nu) ; refl. to be saved 
(Jjd, munu ver hjalpastallir saman). 

hjdlp a (at5), v. = prec. 

hjdlpar-gata, f. a way to help. 

hjdlpari, m. helper, saviour, 

hjdlpar-lauss, a. helpless \ -mat$r, 
m. (i) helper \ (2) one saved \ ek mun 
vera -maSr, ef, / shall be saved^ if\ 
-rdtS, n. helping advice. 

hjdlp-lauss, a. helpless ; -leysi, n. 
helplessness ; -rdt$, -raetJi, n. helping 
advice ; help., means of saving ; -sam- 
ligr, a. helpful, salutary ; -semd, f. 
helpf salvation ; -vsenligr, a. promis' 

i7ig help, likely to help, salutary ; 
-vaBnn, a. = -vaenHgr. 

hjd-mdll, a. refractory, obstinate ; 
-statSa, f. assista7tce ; -stigr, m. by- 
path ; -tcekr, a. i7iissing 07ie's hold ; 
-vera, -vist, f. p7-esefice. 

hjol, n. wheel (vagnar i. hjolum) ; 
brjota a hjoli, to break {a person) on 
the wheel. 

hjol-vagn, m. cart on wheels. 

hjon or hjun, n. (i ) one of the house- 
hold {gr\<Skom. \2ir hit t^riSja h.); (2) 
pi. married couple, man a7id wife 
(Hoskuldr bad hanavinna J)eim hjon- 
um); (3) do7nestic, se7^'a7tt (ef J)u 
synir skilriki, at harm se J)itt h. = J)inn 
vinnuma6r); rezt hann J)ar at hjoni, 
he took service there. 

hjona, n. = hjon (rare). 

hjona-band, n. 77iatri77io7iy ; -li^, n. 
do77iestic serva7its\ -ligr, a. connubial; 
-skilnat5r, m. divorce ; -tak, n. hiring 
of servants ; -val, n. choice of ser- 
vants (eigi hefik dyggt h.). 

hjon-margr, a., hafa -margt, to have 
77iany servants. 

hjii (pi. hju, dat. hjum), n. = hjon, 
hjun; (i) t)eir r^ku hann 1 stofu ok 
hju hans oil, and all his household- 
people; (2) hju gorSu hvilu, i7U7n and 
wife went to rest; (3) hann reid heim 
i. Laugaland ok red s^r hju, and en- 
gaged serva7tts. 

hjufra (aS), v. to weep. 

hjuka(at5),v. to nurse a sick person 
(h. e-m, h. at or vi6 e-m) ; refl., to 
recover strength (hon hjukast litt vici 
pessa fceSu). 

hjukan, f. 7iursing (of a sick person), 

hju-kolfr, m. co7ivivial 7neeti7ig. 

hjun, n. = hjon. 

hjupa (atS), v. to shroud (a corpse). 

hjupr, m. a kind of doublet. 

hjuskapar-band, n. bond of 7natri- 
77iony ; -far, n. cohabitation ; -mdl, n. 
a case referring to 77iarriage ; -rat5, 
n. pi. the contracting of 77iatri7nony ; 
-samlag, n. wedlock. 

lyu-skapr, m. matri7no7iy. 

hjdlp (gen. hjalpar), f. = hjdlp. 

hjortS (gen. hjartSar, dat. hjortSu; 
pi. hjartSir), f. herd, flock. 

lyor-drott, f. sword- co7npany ; 




-leikr, m. ^ sword-play \ Jight \ -logr, 
m. ' sivord-Hquid\ blood (poet.). 

hjSrr (gen. hjarar and hjors, dat. 
lyorvi), m. sword, 

hjor-stefna, f. *" sivord-meetlng\ 
battle, fight (poet.). 

hjortr (gen. hjartar, dat. hirti ; pi. 
hirtir, ace. hjortu), m. ha7t, stag. 

lyor-undaSr, pp. wotmded by a 
sword \ -l)ing, n. = -stefna. 

hla(5, n. (i) pile, stack \ {2) pave- 
ment (in front of a homestead) ; (3) 
border, lace-work ; feldr buinn hlo6um, 
a laced cloak. 

hlatSa (hlet5; hloS, hlo^um; hlatS- 
inn), V. (i) to pile up (h. korni i 
hjalma) ; h. grjoti (helium) at hofdi 
odrum, to be present at another's 
burial, to survive ; (2) to build, with 
ace. (h. v^%^, vor6u); (3) to load^ esp. 
lade a ship (h. skip e-u, af e-u, me6 
e-u) ; kistur hladnar af gulli, chests 
laden with gold ; (4) /<? fell, lay pro- 
strate, with dat. (gdtu J)eir hladit honum 
um si6ir ok bundu hann) ; h. seglum, 
to take in sail', (s) to slay (bera vapn 
^ Finnana ok fl hladit J)eim) ; (6) 
refl., hiaSast at, to throng, crowd; 
ver viljum eigi, at fjolmenni hlaSist 
at {throng to see), er vererum afklaed- 
dir ; hlaoast d mara boga, to mount 
the horses. 

hlaSa, f. store-house, barn. 

hla(5-bu5, f. a booth with walls of 
turf or stones. 

hlac5-buinn, pp. oi'najnented with 
lace, laced (= hloSum buinn). 

hlaSi, m.pile, stack. 

hlakka (aS), v. (i) to cry, scream 
(of the eagle) ; (2) to i-ejoice ; h. yfir 
e-u, to exult over a thing. 

hlamm, n. a dtill, heavy sound. 

hlamma (aS), v. {\) to give a dully 
heavy soicnd; (2) to exult. 

hland, n. urine ; -ausa, -skjola, f., 
-trog, n. urine trough. 

hlass, n. cart-load. 

hlaup, n. (i) leap, jump (Egill hlj6p 
yfirdikit,en J)atvar ekki annara manna 
h.); (2) run,running; taka h., to take 
to running, to run (hann tok h, heim 
til herbergis) ; vera i hlaupum ok 
sendiforum, to run on errands \ (3) a 

sudden rise (in a r'wer), fiood, freshet 
(hlaup kom i dna) ; (4) assault («= 

hlaupa (hleyp ; Ujop, hljopum ; 
hlaupinn), V. {\) to leap, jump (hann 
hljop meirr en hae6 sina); hljopu l)eir 
a hesta sina, they sprang upon their 
horses ; h. fyrir boro, utbyrSis, to leap 
ove7-board ; h. a sund, to leap into the 
water; h. upp, to spring to one's feet, 
start up (J)d hljopu varSmenn upp) ; 
(2) = renna, to run (Jjcir hlaupa eptir, 
en hann kemst i. skog undan) ; refl., 
hlaupast a brott, to rtm away; (3) of 
a river, to flood; hljopu votn fram ok 
leysti amar, the waters rose in flood 
and the ice was broken ; of ice, mikit 
svell var hlaupit upp \there was a 
great sloping sheet of ice) 66ru megin 
fljotsins ; (4) with preps., h. at e-m, 
h. a e-n, to attack one; h. ^, to come 
suddenly on, spring up, of a gale i^i. 
hljop a utsynningr steinoSi) ; h. saman, 
of a wound, to heal over ; h. 1 sundr, 
to open up again (s^rit var hlaupit i 

hlaupa-far, n. assault; pi. -for, up- 
roar; '-piltr, m. errand boy. 

hlaupari, m. (i) landlouper; (2) 
charger (horse). 

hlaup-ar, n. leap-year. 

hlaupingi (pi. -jar), m. landlouper, 
r tin aw ay. 

hlaup-oSr, a. in a great flurry, 
-rifr, a. precipitate ; -stigr, m. run- 
away-path (taka e-n i. J)eim -stigi). 

hlaut, f. blood of sacrifice. 

hlaut-boUi, m. sacrificial bowl\ 
-teinn, m. sacrificial twig (for sprink- 
ling the blood with). 

hldka, f. thaw. 

hlana (aS), v. to thaw (ve6r tok at 
J)ykkna ok hldna). 

hlalr (gen. -rar and -rs), m. laugh- 
ter; reka upp h., to burst out laugh- 
ing; hafa e-t at hlatri, to ridicule^ 
make a laughing-stock of. 

hlatr-mildr, a. prone to laughing. 

hl6, n. (i) shelter; (2) lee, lee side; 
sigla a h., to stand to leeward. 

hl6-bar$r, m. (1 ) leopard (also poet. 
bear, wolf) ; (2) shield (poet.). 

hl6-bortS, n. the lee side. 




hlet^i, m. shutter (= hleri). 

hleifr (-s, -ar), m. loaf. 

hleifs-efni, n. dough for a loaf. 

hleina (-da), v. to guard oneself i^?). 

hlekkjast (t), v., in the phrase, e-m 
hlekkist d, one gets iinpeded^ suffers 

hlekkr (-s or -jar ; pi. -ir), m. link ; 
pi. a chain of links. 

hlemmr (-s, -ar), m. trap-door, 

hlenni, m. robber (poet.). 

hlenni-macSr, m. robber^ thief. 

H16r (gen. Hies), m. the Sea. 

hler, n. listening', standa a hleri, to 
stand eaves-dropping or listening. 

hlera (acS), v. to listen. 

hlesrpa (-ta, -t), v. (i) to make one 
run or go ; to move or impel in some 
way ; h. njosnarmonnum i. land upp, 
to send spies ashore ; hleypti hann 
annarri briininni ofan a kinnina, he let 
one eye-brow sink upon the cheek ; h. 
hurd i Ms, to shut a door ; h. dnni i 
veg sinn, to lead the river into its 
channel \ h. e-u i. e-n, to cause to fall 
upon 07te (hleypti Groa skrifiu d ^^) ; 
hann hleypir ut vatni miklu or sulli- 
nxxvsx^he presses much water out of the 
sore ; h. or e-m auganu, to poke the eye 
out ; (2) to throw off (h. heimdraga- 
num) ; h. akkerum, to cast anchors ; 
(3) h. berki af trjam, to cut the bark 
off the trees \ h. upp dominum, to break 
up the court (by violence) ; (4) to 
gallops ride swiftly = h. hesti (Hrung- 
nir var6 reiSr ok hleypti eptir honum). 

hleypi-fifl, n. a headlong fool\ 
-flokkr, m. band of rovers \ -for, f. 
ramble, roving \ -hvel, n. a kind of 
war engine ; -ma^r, m. rover. 

hleyping, f. galloping. 

hleypi-piltr, m. errand-boy ; -skip, 
n., -skuta, f. swift boat. 

hleyta-menn, m. pi. kins^nen. 

hleyti, n. (i) part==\&y\.\ ; (2) pi. 

affinity ; g0ra h., bindast hleytum vi6 

e-n, to marry into atiother's family. 

hliS, n. (i) gate, gateway (h. heitir 

d garfii) ; (2) wide gap ; (3) space, 

interval (var hvergi h. 1 milli) ; (4) 

space oj time ; pause, halt (eptir {)at 

vard h. i. orrostunni). 

hlitS (pi. -ar), f. side ; standa i. aSra 

h. e-m, to stand on one side of one ; ^ 
tvasr hli^ar e-m, on either side of one \ 
i. allar hliSar, on all sides. 
hlit5a (at5), v. to give way, recede 
(h. undan, h. fyrir e-m) ; refl., hliSast, 
to become open. 
hlitS-farmr, m. *■ side-burthen'' , load 
(-farmr Grana); -lauss, a. without 
a gate or openiftg (veggir -lausir) ; 
-msBltr, pp. said in oblique speech, 
HliS-skjalf, f. the seat of Odin. 
hliS-skjar, m. side window ; -veggr, 
m. side wall. 
hlic5-v6rt5r, m. porter. 
lili(5 (pi. -ir), f. mountain side^ slope 
(fagrar hliSir grasi vaxnar). 
hlif (pi. -ar), f. cover, shelter, pro- 
tection, esp. shield. 

hlifa (-tSa, -t), v. [i) to shelter, pro- 
tect, with dat. (h. sdr med skildi, en 
vega me5 sverSi) ; (2) to spare, deal 
gently with (mun ek ekki h. pdr i g0rS- 
inni) ; refl., hlifast vi6 e-n, to spare 
one (hann hlifSist '^i. vi6 engan mann) ; 
h. vi5 at g0ra e-t, to refrain fro7?i 
doing a thing', h. vi6, to hold back 
(sumir hlifdust vid mjok). 
hlifar-lauss, a. uncovered. 
hliftS, f. protect io7i, defence. 
lilifSar-lauss,a. = hlifarlaus ; -sta^r, 
m. safe place ; -vdpn, n. weapon of 
hlifi-skjoldr (hlif-skjoldr), m. shield 
of defence (hafa e-n at -skildi). 
hlit, f. sufficiency, satisfaction ; til 
(nokkurrar) hlitar, tolerably, pretty 
well ; at go Sri h., very well indeed. 
hlita (-tta, -tt), v. {i) ,to rely on, 
trust, with dat. (hlitir AstriSr ekki 
oSrum konum at J)vi at J)j6na honum 
i lauginni) ; (2) to rest satisfied with, 
be content with (var hann kvasntr, en 
hiitti J)6 eigi J)eirri einni saman) ; eigi 
ma l)vi einu h., er bezt J)ykkir, one 
must put up with somethitig short of 
the best ; eigi mun minna vi8 h., less 
than that will not do ; eigi muntu J)vi 
einu fyrir h., thou shall not get off 
with that ; (3) to submit to, abide by 
(h. sastt, h. orskurSi, domi, rdSum e-sj. 
hljoS, n. (i) silence, hearing', bi6ja 
(kveSja sdr) hljoSs, to beg {ask for) a 
hearing (Njdll kvaddi sdr hljods) ; ii. 




h., to get a hearings Jsegja Jjunnu 
hlj63i, to keep a watchful silence ; af 
hlj66i, i hljoSi, in all stilhiess, silently ; 
(2) sound (f>orfinnr kom engu hljoSi 1 
luSrinn) ; konia a h. um e-t, to be- 
come aware of\ drepr h. or e-m, one 
is struck dumb ; (3) musical sound, 
tune ; (4) trujnpet (h. Heimdallar = 

hljoSa (aS), V. to sound (hverr stafr 
hIjoSar me6 longu hlj6c3ie5a skommu). 

Iilj6(5a$r, a. soundi7ig\ sorgsamliga 
h., having a plaintive 7iote. 

hljo^a-grein, f. distinction of sou?id, 

hljot^an, f, sound, tune. 

hljoS-bjalla, f. tinkling bell\ -fall, 
n. conso?iancy ; -fegi cS, f. euphony ; 
-fyllandi, m., -fylling, f. = stuSill ; 
-foeri, n. inusical instrument ; -gotSr, 
a. well-tuned \ -Idtr, a. reticent, taci- 
ttirfi ; -leikr, m. silence, sadness ; 
-liga, adv. i7i all stillness, silently ; 
-ligr, a. silent; -lyndr, a. taciturn ; 
-IsBti, n. stillness ; -iQikill, a. shrill- 
sounding ; -maBli, n. secrecy ; fcera 
e-t i -mseli, to hush up. 

hljo^na (aS), v. to become silent', 
t)ar til hljodnar um mal f)essi, //// the 
noise about it subsides. 

hljo^r (hljotS, hljott), a. silent^ taci- 
turn ; tala hljott, to speak in a low 
voice ; lata hljott um sik, to keep 
quiet : var hljott, there was silence. 

hljotS-sainliga, adv. = hljoSiiga ; 
-samr, a. = hljoSr ; -semd, -semi, f. 
stillness^ calmness. 

hljoSs-grein, f. (i) ^ kind of sotmd \ 
(2) pronunciation ; (3) accentuation, 

hljotS-stafr, m. vowel. 

hljomr (gen. -s), m. sound, tune. 

hljota (hlyt ; hlaut, hlutum ; hlot- 
inn), V. (i) to get by lot, to have al- 
lotted to oneself {hon hlaut at sitja hja 
Bjorgolfi) ; (2) to get (h. sigr) ; margir 
hlutu gott af hans ra6um, many bene- 
fited by his counsels ; (3) to undergo, 
suffer (h. hogg, ufor, harm) ; (4) to 
be obliged to ; s va mun nu h . at vera, 
it must needs be so ; fara hlytr J)u me6 
m^r, thou 7nust go with me ; ( 5 ) refl. , 
hljotast af e-u, to result or proceed 
from (mun her h. af margs manns 

bani) ; hlauzt svi til, at ^i. tunnu ^tti 
Ingimundr, it so happened that. 

hlotnast (at5), v. refl. to fall to one's 
lot {%-m hlotnast e-t). 

hloa, V. to be boiling hot. 

HloSyn (gen. -ynjar), f. the Earth. 

hlummr (-s, -ar), m. handle of an oar. 

hlumr (-S, -ir), m. (i) = hlummr; 
(2) roller = hlunnr. 

hlunka (a(5), v. to give a dull, hollow 
sound (bruin hlunkaSi undir hofunum 

hlunn-gotl, m. poet. ship. 

hlunnindi, n. pi. emohiments. 

hlunnr (-3,-ar),m. roller for launch- 
ing or drawing up ships. 

hlunn-vigg, n. poet. = -goti. 

hlust (pi. -ir), f. ear (= eyra). 

hlusta (at5), v. to listen (h. til e-s). 

hluta (a$), V. (l) to draw (cast) lots 
for a thing (h. e-t or h. um e-t) ; (2) 
to select by lot (voru menn hlutadir til 
skipstjornar) ; (3) refl., hlutadist sva 
til, at, // so tur7ied out that ( = hlauzt 
sva til, at) ; hlutast til e-s, to meddle 
with a thi7ig (ekk'i hefi ek hlutazt til 
mdlaferla yovarra) ; h. til me6 e-m, 
to assist one in a case. 

hlut-deila (-da, -dr), v. to meddle 
with a thing (-deila e-t) ; -deilinn, a. 
meddleso77ie ; -deilni, f. 7fteddleso7ne- 
ness ; -drjiigr, a. lucky, getti7ig the 
better share ; -fall, n. casti7ig of lots ; 
leggja e-t til -falls, to settle a thing by 
drawing lots ; bj63a til -falla, to bid 
one proceed to cast lots ; -gengr, a. 
up to the mark ; -gengr vi6 e-n, equal 
to one, a match for one ; -girni, f. = 
-deilni ; -gjarn, a = -deilinn. 

hluti, m. [i) part (1 J)eim hluta ver- 
aldar) ; at minum hluta, /(^r 77iy part, 
as far as I am concerned', (2) share, 
lot ; gera a hluta e-s, to wrong one ; 
eptir er enn ySarr h., your part [of the 
work) re77iains yet. 

hlut-lauss, a. not partaking in^ 
having taken no part in (-lauss eSr 
sykn af manndrapi) ; -laust, adv., riSa 
-laust, to pass free, un7nolested. 

hlutr (-ar, -ir), m. (i) lot', bera 
(leggja) hluti i skaut, to throw the lots 
into a cloth [lap of a garment) ; skera 
(marka) hluti, to mark the lots ; (2j 




mmilei, talisman (h. er horfinn or 
piissi pinum) ; (3) share, allotment, 
portion (hann foerSi 01vi skip sin ok 
kallar J)at vera bans hlut) ; (4) part 
(of a whole) ; hoggva 1 tvd hluti, to 
cut in two parts ; mestr h. Ii6s, the 
tnost part of the company ; meiri h. 
domanda, the majority of the judges ; 
tveim hlutum dyrra, twice as dear ; 
(5) participation ; eiga hlut i e-u or 
at e-u, to have part i?t, be concerned 
in (m^r uggir, at hdr muni eigi gasfu- 
menn hlut i eiga) ; par er J)u aettir hlut 
at, wherein thou wast concerned ; (6) 
condition, position, lot', eiga hlut e-s, 
to be in one^s place {position) ; ef l)u 
aettir minn hlut, if thou wert in my 
place ; Idta hlut sinn, to be worsted ; 
sitja yfir hlut e-s, to oppress, weigh a 
person down ; leggja hlut sinn v'vS e-t, 
to cast in one's lot with, to espouse a 
cause; hafa (fa) hasrra, meira (laegra) 
hlut, to get the best {worst) of it ; (7) 
thing', allir hlutir, ^//M/^^j- ; kynligr 
h,, a strange thing; uni alia hluti, in 
all things, in all respects. 

hlut-raBningr, m. one robbed of his 
share ; ver6a -rseningr e-s or fyrir 
e-m, to be unfairly dealt with ; -samr, 
a. meddlesome (um e-t) ; -seigr, a. 
tenacious, obstinate; -skipti, n. (i) 
sharing; (2) booty; (3) share, lot; 
-saell, a. getting the best share ; -tak- 
andi, -takari, m. partaker ; -vandr, 
a. upright, honest ; -verk, n. work 
allotted, task. 

hlykkjottr, a. crooked. 

hlykkr (-3, -ir), m. bend, curve. 

hlymja (hlym, hlumda, hlumit), 
V. to 7nake a loud noise. 

hlymr (-s, -ir), m. a resounding 
noise (hlymr var at heyra). 

hlynna (-ta, -t), v. to prepare the way 
for 07ie (h. fyrir e-m). 

hlynr (-s, -ir), m. maple tree. 

hly, n. warmth (sumar-hlyit). 

hlytSa (-dda, -tt), v. (i) to listen 
(eyrum hlySir hann, en augum sko6- 
ar) ; h. e-m, to listen {give ear) to 
one ; h. messu, ti5um, to hear mass, 
attend service ; h. d e-t or til e-s, to 
listen to (sitja menn I)ar umhverfis ok 
hlyda til sogunnar) ; (2) to yield to, 

obey (h. rdSum, orSum e-s) ; {2,) to do, 
be permissible or proper ; hlySir t)a3 
hvergi (// will not do) at hafa eigi log 
i landi ; engum 63rum skyldi f)at h., 
nobody else should dare to do so ; Einar 
let engum h. moti at masla, E. would 
not hear of any one' s gainsaying ; (4) 
refl. to listen (hann hlydist um, hv^rt 
nokkurir vekti) ; to be allowable (kon- 
ungr sagSi, at J)eim skyldi l)at ekki 

hly Sinn, a. (i) willing to give ear 
to one, cojnpliant (hann var h. vinum 
sinum um 611 gob r^Q) ; (2) yielding 
homage to one. 

hlyoi-samt, a. n. suitable^ proper ; 
vera h., = hlyQa (3). 

hlySnast (a$), v. refl. to obey (ef 
J)er vilid mer hlySnast). 

hlytSni, f. obedience, homage ; -brot, 
n. disobedience (vi6 e-n) ; -mark, n. 
tokefi of obedience. 

hlyja (hly, hlySa, hliiit), v. to cover, 
shelter (hly rat henni borkr ne barr). 

hlyr, n. (i) cheek; h. ro3na3i, her 
cheek reddened; (2) bow of a vessel, 
— kinnungr ; (3) the flat of an axe. 

hlyr-bjartr, a. having brightly 
painted bows (of a vessel). 

hlyri, m. friend, brother (poet.). 

hlaBJa (hlsB ; hlo, hlogum ; hleg- 
inn), v. (i) to laugh ; h. hdtt, to 
laugh loud ; h. at e-u, to laugh at ; 
J)au ti6endi,er J)eim hid hugr vi3, that 
gladdened their hearts ; (2) h. e-n, to 
laugh at, deride one. 

hlsBr (hl89, hls9tt), a. warm, mild 
(ve6r var pykkt ok hlaett). 

hloeSa (-dda, -ddr), v. (i) to lade 
(h. skip) ; h. hest, to load, saddle, a 
horse ; (2) with dat. to load (J)u munt 
gulli h. a Grana bogu). 

hloegi, n. ridicule ; fd e-m hloegis, 
to make one a laughing-stock. 

hloegi-liga, adv. laughably; -ligr, 
a. laughable ; -mall, -mdlugr, -orSr, 
a. humorous. 

hloBgja (-5i). V. to make one laugh ; 
t)at hlcEgir mik, at, it makes me glad, 
J am rejoiced, that. 

hloeg-ligr, a. = hloegiligr. 

hl66u-dyrr, f. pi. door of a barn ; 
-vindauga, n. barn window. 




hl0ra (a?5), v. = hlera. 

hna'^a (hnof ), v. to cut q^(ra.Te). 

hnakka-bein, n. neck-bo7ie ; -filla, 
f. the flesh and skin on the nape. 

hnakk-band, n. anchor cable. 

hnakki, m. the back of the head, 
nape of the neck. 

linakk-mi(Si, m. anchor-buoy. 

hnakkr, m. (i) nape = hnakki ; (2) 
stool = knakkr. 

hnefa (aS), v. to clasp with the fist. 

hnefa-hogg, n. a blow with the fist ; 
-tafl, n. a ki7id of chess. 

hnefi, m. (i) closed hand, fist \ (2) 
the king i 71 hnefa-tafl. 

hnef-tafl, n. = hnefatafl. 

hneigja (-c5a, -cSr), v.{\) to bow, bow 
down, bend, inclnie ; h. sik, to make a 
bow ; h. sik til vi6 e-n, to bow down, 
pay homage to one ; h. e-m, tobowdown 
to one ; h. eptir e-m, to be biassed 
towards one ; (2) refl., hneigjast, 
to lean ; h. af villu, to forsake heresy ; 
h. til e-s, to lean towards a person ; 
h. fyrir fortolur e-s, to be swayed by 
another'' s persuasions. 

hneisa, f. disgrace, shame (gera, 
vinna, e-m hneisu). Cf. ' neisa '. 

hneisa (-ta, -tr), v. to disgrace (h. 
e-n). Cf. 'neisa'. 

hneisu-liga, adv. (i) disgraceftflly ', 
(2) insultingly. 

hneita (-tta, -ttr), v. to cut (rare). 

hnekking, f., hnekkir, m. check, 
rebufi^ {\\2S2. hnekking). 

hnekki-stJkill, m. bump on the head. 

hnekkja (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to drive 
back, with dat. (si3an let Egill h. 
nautunum ut a myrar) ; h. e-m frd, to 
repel, repulse, (2) to check, thwart, 
prevent ; h. for sinni. to halt and go 
back again', h. vandu ra5i, to pre- 
vent an evil deed', ^(3) to fall back, 
withdraw (hnekkja Irar nu fra). 

hneppa (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to ctirtail ; 
hneppt em ek at brcedrum, / am be- 
reft of brothers ; {1) to thrust, force 
(Hrolfr hneppti hann undir sik, ok 
setti knd fyrir brjost honum) ; h. folk 
i praslkan, to keep a people bound in 

hneppi-liga, adv. scarcely, scantily. 

hneppr, a. scant', aetla hneppt til 

jolanna, to make scant provision for 

hneri, m. sneeze, sneezing. 

hneyking, f. shame, disgrace. 

hneykja (-ta, -tr), v. to put to shame, 
confound, with ace. (h. grimmleik 
heiflinna I)j65a). 

hneyksli, n. disgrace, dishonour \ 
-yr^i, n. ^l.foul lajiguage, cahcmny. 

hnigna (a3), v. to begin to sink, 
decline (e-rr er, gerist, hnignandi). 

hnipinn, a. drooping, downcast. 

hnipna (atS), v. to beco7ne downcast, 
to droop (hnipnaSi J)a Grani). 

hnippa (-ta, -t, or a5), v. to poke ; 
hnippadi kolli hverr at o3rum, they 
laid their heads together^ 7iodded signi- 
fica7itly ; refl., hnippast, to quarrel 
( = h. vi6) ; h. ordum vi5 e-n, to bandy 
words with one. 

hnita (aS), v. to weld together. 

kniga (hnig ; ]in6 and hneig, hnig- 
um ; hniginn), v. (i) to fall gently, 
si7ik down (hnd GuSrun holl vi6 bol- 
stri) ; h. at armi e-m, to si7ik into 
one's a7'7ns ; (2) to fiow (hnigu heilog 
votn af himinfjollum) ; (3) /<? siTik 
down, fall dead (= h. at velli) ; h. at 
grasi, i gras, to bite the grass, to die ; 
(4) to incline, turn ; eigi matti sja 
hvernig h. mundi, which way the scale 
would turn (in a battle) ; (5) h. til e-s, 
to tur?t towards{\3.r]2i[n3in {)eirra hlutr 
betri, er til bans hnigu) ; h. til liQs, 
hjalpar \\6 e-n, to side with one ; (6) 
pp., hniginn, adva7iced {stricke?t) in 
years, = h. a aldr, h. at aldri ; of a 
door, shut ; var hurS hnigin, the door 
was dow7i ; hur3 hnigin a halfa g^tt, 
i. miSjan klofa, half shut, half down. 

hnipa (-ta, -t), v. to be downcast, 
droop (hann hnipti i jorSina). 

hnisa, f. po7poise. 

hnita (hneit, hnitu), v. to strike, 
wotmd', hjorr hneit vi6 hjarta, the 
steel touched the heart. 

hnjoSa (hnyS ; hnautS ; hnotSinn), 
v. to rivet, clinch (Helgi hnau6 hjalt 
i. sverd). 

hnjotS-hamarr, m. rivet ting ha7n- 
mer ; also as a nickname. 

hnjosa (hnys, hnaus), v. to stteeze. 

hnjoskr, m. touchwood, = fnjoskr. 




hnotSa, n. clew. 

hno8-saumr, m. clincher nails. 

hnoss (pi. -ir), f. costly thing, orna- 
ment (hverr vildi m^r hnossir velja). 

hnot (gen. -ar, pi. hnetr), f. nut. 

hnot-skogr, m. nutwood, hazelwood. 

hnugginn, pp. bereft (miklu h.). 

hnuka (-ta, -t), v. to sit cowering. 

hnuta, f. = knuta. 

Iiny5ja, f. club, rammer. 

hnykill (gen. -s, dat. hnykli ; pi. 
hnyklar), m. knot, tumor. 

iinykka-stafr, m. a kind oi pegij) 

hnykking, f. pulling. 

hnykkja (-ta, -tr), v. to pull vio- 
lently, with dat. (h. e-m til sin) ; h. 
e-u upp, to pull up a thing', absol., 
pykkist sveinninn hafa vel hnykkt, he 
thought he had made a good pull. 

hnySingr (-s, -ar), m. dolphin. 

hnyfil-drykkja, f. drinki?ig-bout. 

hnyfill, m. short horn (= knyfill). 

ImcBfi-ligr, a. taunting (-lig or6). 

hnoefil-yrtSi, n. pi. taunts, gibes. 

hn0ggr (ace. -van), a. stingy (h. fjir). 

hn0ri, m. = hneri. 

hodd, f. hoard, treasure (poet.). 

hof, n. heathen temple. 

liof-ferS, f. pride, pomp ; -folk, n. 
courtiers ; -garSr, m. lordly mansion, 

hof-go(5i, m. temple-priest ; -gytSja, 
f. priestess ; -helgr, f . temple-feast. 

hof-lytSr, m. = hof-folk ; -matSr, m. 
courtier ; gentleman in waiting. 

hofs-dyrr, f. pi. teinple-doors ; -eiSr, 
m. temple-oath ; -gooi, m. = hofgoSi ; 
-helgi, f. sanctity of a teinple ; -mold, 
f. tevipie-earth, holy mould. 

hof-statSr, m. sanctuary ; -toUr, m. 
iempie-toll, rate. 

hoka, hokra (at$), v. to crouch (h. 
e6a skriSa) ; h. undan, to slink away. 

hoi, n. hollow, cavity, esp. cavity of 
the body ; ganga (hlaiipa) i. h., to 
pierce to the inwards (of weapons) ; 
hit efra h., the cavity of the chest ; 
nefira h., the stomach. 

hoi a, f. hole, hollow. 

hola (atS), V. to make hollow. 

hol-blotS, n. blood from the inwards. 

hold, n. {i) flesh ; svorSr ok h., ski?t 
and flesh ; bjarnar h., bear's flesh ; 

(2) ^\.fleshiness\ -borinn, pp., -borinn 

broSir, one's own brother; -fui, m. 

holdgan, f. incarnation. 

holdgast (atS), v. refl. to take flesh. 

hold-groinn, pp. grown to the flesh ; 
-ligr, a. carnal (-lig dst) ; -ligr broQir, 
one^s own brother ; -litill, a. lean. 

holdr, a. fleshy ; vel h., well-fleshed. 

hold-rosa, f. fleshy side of a hide ; 
-tekja, f. = holdgan. 

hol-fenni, n. hollow pile of snow ; 
-gomr, a. having a hollow palate ; 
-hoggvinn, pp. cut iftto the cavity of 
the body. 

hollendr, m. pi. supporters. 

hollosta, i. faith, loyalty (vi3 e-n). 

hollr, a. {i) faithful, loyal (h. e-m) ; 
of the gods, gracious (hoU regin) ; (2) 
wholesojne, salutary (hoU rd,6). 

holl-rat5r, a. giving wholesojne coiai- 
sel ; -rastSi, n. wholesome counsel. 

holr, a. hollow ; h. innan, hollow 
within (petta gu6 er holt innan). 

hol-sdr, n, wound in a vital part. 

holt, n. (i) wood (opt er i holti heyr- 
andi nasr) ; (2) rough stony ridge. 

holt-ric5, n. wooded ridge. 

hol-und, f. a wound entering the 
cavity of the body ; mortal wound. 

holundar-sdr, n. = hols^r, holund. 

hopa (atS), v.{\)to move backwards ; 
h. hestinum undan, to back the horse ; 
(2) to draw back, retreat (= h. aptr, 
a hsel, undan). 

hoppa (atS), v. to hop, skip. 

hor-digull, m. a clot of mucus hang- 
ing froin the nose. 

horfa (-Sa, -t), v. (i) to turn {be 
turned) in a certain direction ; horldi 
upp eggin, the edge turned tipwards ; 
su6r horfSu dyrr, the door looked 
south ; h. baki viQ e-m, to turn the 
back against one ; h. vi6 e-m, to face 
one ; fig. to set oneself against one 
(]3eir er heldr hofflu vi6 honum horft 1 
sinum huga) ; (2) to look in a certain 
way, to have a certaift appearance ; 
h. uvaent, to look unpromising (uvaent 
horfir um ssettir) ; hvarum horfir 
^•aenna, who is more likely to get the 
better; h. fastliga, erfiSliga, to look 
diffi-ciilt ; horfir mjok i moti oss, mat- 
ters look bad for us ; horfir til gamans 




mikils, there is a prospect of much 
entertainment \ (3) refl., Hjalta J)6tti 
i)d uvasnt d. horfast, H. thought that 
matters looked unpromising'^ horfSust 
{)eir Gizurr hofSum at, he and Gizurr 
lay with their heads together, 

horfa (at5), v. = horfa. 

horfin-alda, a. indecl, -heilla, a. 
indecl. luckless ; horiinheilla er mer, 
luck has left me. 

horfinn, pp. ; see ' hverfa (4) '. 

horn, n. (i) horn (of cattle) ; vera 
hardr 1 h. at taka, to be hard to take 
by the horns, hard to deal with ; (2) 
drinking-horn ; (3) horn, trumpet 
(bMsa i h.) ; (4) corner, angle ; skytr 
i tvau h. um e-t, there is a great dif- 
ference between ; skytr i tvau h. me6 
okkr, we are at variance ; (5) nook, 
corner (in a house). 

horna-flattr, m. flaying a hide with 
the horns ; -skvol, n. noise of horns ; 
-tog, n. a rope round the horns. 

horn-blastr, m. sound of trumpets ; 
-bogi, m. horn-bow ; -fiskr, vn. garfish 
or green-bone ; -gofugr, a. proud of 
his horns ; -kerling, f. old woman in 
the cor7ier ; -kona, -reka, f. = -kerl- 
ing ; -sil, n. stickle-back ; -skafa, f. 
a scraper made of horn ; -spann, m. 
hor7i spoon ; -stafr, m. corner pillar 
in a building. 

hornungr (-s, -ar), m. (i) bastard 
son ; (2) scamp, outcast (vera h. e-s). 

horr, m. (i) starvation ; detta nidr 
i hor, to starve to death ; (2) mucus 
from the nose, 

horsk-leikr, m. knowledge, wisdom ; 
-ligr, a. wise, noble, 

horskr, a. wise (h. ok J)6gull). 

hortugr, a. pert, impertinent, 

hosa, f. hose, legging. 

hosa^r, pp. wearing hose. 

hosna-reim, f., -sterta, f. garter, 

hot-vetna, see ' hvatvetna '. 

ho, interj. hoh / ah ! oh / 

hoa (at5), v. to shout * hoh ' (h. d feit). 

"hof, n,{i)moderation,measure ; kunna 
h., to show {observe) moderation ; J)d, 
er h. i. {or at), then it is all right ; 
at hofi, tolerably, moderately (jarl 
svarar j)essu at hofi vel) ; e-t gegnir 
holi, it is fair ; vel er J)essu til hofs 

stillt, this affair is well settled \ 6x 
hofi, beyond measure ; (2) proportion, 
equal degree (hefSi hann lio at ^v\ 
hofi, sem hann er sjilfr fioekn ok 
djarfr) ; {2,) judge?nent (vil ek, at J)u 
hafir t)ar engis manns h. nema l^itt). 

hof, n. feast, banquet. 

hof-gullinn, a. with golden hoof\ 
-hvarf, n. pastern of a horse. 

hof-lauss, a. immoderate ; -leysa, f. 
immoderation, excess ; -liga, adv. (i) 
with moderation ; {i) fitly ; {"i) fairly 
(munu I)eir nu vera -liga hrasddir) ; 
-ligr, a. moderate. 

hofr (-B, -ar), m. hoof (of a horse). 

hof-samligr, -samr, a. moderate, 
temperate ; -semd, -semi, f. modera- 
tiofi, temperance. 

hof-skegg, n. fetlock. 

hofs-matSr, m. temperate, just man. 

hof-stilling, f. moderation. 

hog-bsBrr, a. easy to bear ; -foerr, a. 
lively, light (of a horse) ; -latr, a. 
of easy temper ; -leiki, m. = -vaeri ; 
-liga, adv. calmly, meekly ; taka -liga 
d, to totich gently ; -ligr, a. easy, 
gentle ; -lifi, n. easy {quiet) life ; 
-Ijmdi, n. easy te?nper; -lyndr, a. 
easy-tempered, peaceable ; -Iseti, n. 
gentleness ; -samr, a. gentle ; -semd, 
f. gentleness ; -seta, f. =» -lifi ; -styrt, 
pp. n. easy to steer (eigi ver3r mer nu 
-styrt fotunum) ; -vsera (-$a, -t5r), v. 
to calm, appease ; -veertS, -vaeri, f. 
calmness of mind ; -veerligr, -vserr, 
a. gentle, meek of mind. 

hoi, n. praise, flattery. 

holfa (-di, -t), v. to capsize (t)ar 
holfir skip i. sjonum). 

holkr (-S, -ar), m. ring or tube {of 
metal) on a staff, knife-handle, etc. 

hoU (-S, -ar), m. = hvdll. 

holmi-ganga, f. * hobn-going\ a duel 
or wager of battle fought on an islet 

holmgongu-botJ, n. challenging to 
holmganga ; -log, n. pi. the law, rules 
of h. ; -matSr, m. duellist ; -statSr, 
m. a place where a ' holmganga ' is 
fought; -sverS, n. a sword used in 
' holmganga '. 

holmi, m. (i) islet, »= holmr; (2) 




h61m-lausn, f. releasing oneself by 
paying the ransom after a duel. 

holmr (-S, -ar), m. holm^ islet ; falla 
d hoi mi, to fall in a duel ; skora e-m 
d holm, to challe7ige 07ie ; leysa sik af 
holmi, to redeem oneself after a duel. 

h61rQ-sta(5r, m = holmgongu-stadr ; 
-stefna, f. meeting [duel) on a holm 
(koma, ri5a til -stefnu). 

hon, pers. pron. she. 

hop, n. a small land-locked bay or 
inlet (connected with the sea). 

hopr (-S, -ar), m. troop, flock, crowd. 

hor (gen. hos), va. pot-hook. 

hora (at5), v. to cojnmit adultery (h. 
^r horast undir bonda sinn). 

hora, f. whore, harlot. 

horan, f. adultery. 

h6r-d6nir, m. adultery ; -karl, m. 
adulterer ; -kerling, f. harlot ; -kona, 
f. adulteress. 

horr (gen. hors), m. adulterer. 

hosta (at5), v. to cough. 

hosti, m. cough, coughing, 

hostr, m. ; see ' ostr '. 

hot, n. whit^ bit ; hoti heldr, a bit 
more, a good deal more ; with superl., 
h6ti h'kast, most likely ; t)at er hoti 
umakhgast, that is least undeserved. 

hot, n. pi. threats ; hafa i hotum vi6 
e-n, to threaten one. 

hota (a§), V. to threaten, = hoeta (h. 
e-m) ; hotan, f. threatening. 

hot-samr, a. menacing. 

hra^a (at5), v. to hasten^ with dat. 

hraS-byri, n. a fresh fair wind] 
-byrja, a. indecl., sigla -byrja, to sail 
with a strong wind \ -fara, a. indecl. 
= -fcerr ; -feigr, a. doomed to instant 
death ; -foerr, a. fleet, swift (hestr 
-fcerr); -^e6\,Ti. hasty temper \ -liga. 
adv. swiftly ; -meeltr, a. quick of 
speech ; -maslt tunga, a glib tongue. 

hratSr (hro5, hratt), a. swift, fleet. 

hrafn (-s, -ar), m. raven. 

hrafn-hvalr, m., -reySr, f. a kind of 
whale ; -tinna, f. obsidian or agate. 

hrak-, in compds., denoting wretched, 
vile\ -bu, n. wretched hoti s eh old-, 
-dyr, n. hunted deer\ -ferS, -for, 
f. disgraceful journey ; -liga, adv. 
wretchedly ; -ligr, a. wretched, dis- 
graceful'^ -magr, a. wretchedly thin. 

hrakning (pi. -ar), f. wretched treat- 
ment, injury, instill (ek hefi af {jer 
heitingar ok hrakning). 

hrakningr (-3, -ari, m. = prec. 

hrak-yrt5i. n.foul langtiage. 

hramm-dyr, n. beast of prey. 

hrammr i-j, -ar), m. bear's paw. 

hrapa (a5), v. (i) to hurl, with dat. 
(h. e-m til helvitis) ; (2) to htirry on^ 
hasten (h. ferS sinnij ; (3) to rtish on, 
hurry (h. i. fund e-s) ; h. til dauSans, 
banans, to rush headlong to destruc- 
tion ; (4) to fall, tuiKble dowti (hrapafii 
hann nidr i fjoruna). 

hrapaSr, m. hurry ; af hrapaQi, 

hrapal-liga, adv. htirriedly, head- 
long (fara -liga I ; -ligr, a. htirried. 

hrapan, f. downfall. 

hrap-ort5r, a. hasty in one's lan- 
guage (Sasmundr var6 vi5 h.). 

hrata (ac5), v. (i) to reel, stagger 
(hann hrataSi vid, en fell eigi) ; {2) to 
ttimble down, fall (hrataSi hann ofan 
af pekjunni). 

hrati, m. rubbish, trash. 

hrauk-tjald, n. rickformed tent. 

hraun, n. ( i ) rugged grotmd, wilder- 
ness ; (2) lava field, lava. 

hraun-bui, m. dweller in a ' hraun *, 
giant; -hvalr, m. monster of the 

hraun ottur, a. rugged, stony. 

hraust-leikr, m. prowess, valour; 
-liga, adv. valiantly; -ligr, a. bold, 
valiant ; -mannligr, a. = -ligr ; -men- 
ni, n. a strong, stout man. 

hraustr, a. {i) valiant, doughty ; (2) 
strong, hearty (gamall, en J)6 h.). 

hrd-blautr, a. moist, raw, of hides 
(nautshuS hrdblaut). 

hraki, m. spit, spittle. 

hrdr (hrd, hrdtt), a. (i) raw, of 
meat or food (hrdr fiskr, hrdtt kjot) ; 
(2) raw, fresh, sappy (h. vi3r). 

hrd-skinn, n. shelter, refuge ; -vi?5i, 
n. saplings, yoting pilants ; -asti, n. 
raw flesh used as food. 

hretSa, f., see 'hroeSa'; hreSu- 
lauss, a., see * hroeSulauss '. 

hreSjar, f. pi. the scrottim. 

hregg, n. storyn, blast (var basSi h. 
ok regn). 




hregg-vi(5ri, n. tempest, 

hreit^r, n. bird*s nest. 

hreif^rast (a5), v. refl. to nestle. 

hreitSr-bollr, m. '' nest-b<ill\ e^^. 

hreifi. m, (i) ivrist, = \i\?i\6v ; {2) the 
ha7id and fingers ; ( 3 ) seal* s Jin, flipper. 

hreimr, m, scream, cry. 

hreina (-da, -dr), v. to make (swine) 
sqtieal {e:i svin eru hreind). 

hrein-bjdlbi, m. reindeer^s skin ; 
-dyri, n. re'ndeer. 

hrein-fert5i, n. purity ; -ferSugr, a. 
pure, chaste. 

hrein-galkn, n. poet. 'wolf{Y). 

hrein-hjartaSr, a. pure of heart ; 
-latr, a, clean, chaste ; -leikr, m. (i) 
cleanliness ; (2) chastity ; -lifnac5r, m. 
= -lifi ; -liga, adv. (i) cleanly; (2) 
with purity, -IJgr, a. (i) clean, 
cleanly ; (2) pure ; -lifi, n. pure life, 
chastity ; -lifr, a. pure of life ; -lyndr, 
a. pure of heart, upright ; -laeti, n. 
cleanness, chastity ; -mannligr, a. of 
noble or manly bearing. 

hreinn, a. (i) clean (hrein klasSi) ; 

(2) bright (hreinir kyndlar, hrein 
vdpn) ; (3) clear (hrein rodd) ; (4) 
pure, sincere. 

hreinn (-s, -ar), m. reindeer. 

hreinsa (aSt, v. (i) to make clea7i, 
cleanse ; 12) to purge ^ clear (h. land 
af vikingum). 

hreinsan, f. cleansing. 

hreinsanar-eldr, m. purgatory, 

hrein-staka, f. reindeer skin. 

hreistr, n. scales (of fish). 

hrekja (hrek ; hrakta, hroktum ; 
hraki^r, hraktr), v. (i) to drive 
away, chase off (h. e-n af m^li) ; (2) 
to annoy, vex, ill-treat (Sigmundr 
sagSist heldr vilja h. p^ sem mest) ; 
h. e-n i orSum, to scold and abuse one ; 

(3) to damage, spoil i^. m^l fyrire-m) ; 
absol., h. fyrir e-m, to do damage to 
one ; (4) to abuse (= h. e-n 1 orSum). 

hrekkr (pi. -ir), m. trick, piece of 
w/j-^/^z^ (hrekkir ok slcegdir). 

hrekk-visi, f. trickiness ; -viss, a. 
tricky, mischievous. 

hrella (-da, -dr), v. to distress, 
annoy, trouble (h. e-n). 

hrelling, f. anguish, affliction. 

hremma (-da, -dr), v. to clutch. 

hremsa (at$), v. = hremma. 

hremsa, f. ( i ) clutch ; (2) poet, shaft. 

hreppa (-ta, -tr), v. to catch, obtain ; 
en er hann hreppti dverkann, when 
he received the wound. 

hreppa-skil, n. ^^X. poor-law matters. 

hreppr (-s, -ar), m. poor-law dis- 
trict (in Iceland). 

hrer, n. corpse, — hr0r. 

hress, a. hale, hearty, ift good spirits. 

hressa (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to refresh, 
cheer ; hann bad hann h. slk, he bade 
him cheer up ; refl., hressast, to re- 
cover strength, be refreshed', (2) to 
restore (h. staSinn). 

hress-leikr, m. good health, 

hret, n. star in, = hregg. 

hreyfa (-tSa, -cSr), v. to move, stir, 
with ace. ; refl., hreyfast, to put one- 
self in motio7i, stir. 

hreysar, f. pi. heap of stones. 

hreysi, n. (i) = hreysar; (2) cave, 
den (skriSa 1 hreysi). 

hreysi-kottr, m. erinine, weasel. 

hreysta (-sta, -str), v. to encourage, 
make valiant ; h. sik, to cheer up, 
take heart or courage. 

hreysti, f. valour, prowess. 

hreysti-bragtS, n. feat of prowess \ 
-liga, adv. stoutly, boldly, -ligr, a. 
stout, bold ; -maSr, m. valiant fnaft ; 
-mannligr, a. gallant, bold ; -or$, n. 
word of prowess ; -raun, f. trial of 
valour ; -verk, n. deed of prowess. 

hreyta (-tta, -tt), v. to cast, scat- 
ter, throw about, with dat. (h. mold- 
inni, hringum). 

hreyting, f. spreading, scatterifig. 

hreyti-speldi, n. top (a child's toy). 

hrifllinga-bjorg, f. hand-to-mouth 
life (er slikt kallat -bjorg). 

hrifj, n. robbery, pillaging. 

hrifsa (at$), v. to rob, pillage. 

hrifsan, f., hrifsing, f. = hrifs. 

hriki, m. huge fellow. 

hrikja (-pa), v. to creak (rare). 

hrinda (hrind; hratt, hrimdum ; 
hrundinn), v. (i) to push, thrust, 
with dat. (hann hratt hestinum 1 vok 
eina) ; var J)d hrundit batnum, the 
ship's boat was put out; h. hur6 
(upp), to push the door open ; h. e-m 
f myrkvastofu, to cast into prison ; h. 




d braut, fo drive away ; h. skipi fram 
or lit, to launch a ship ; impers., hratt 
stundum fyrir, en stundum ixi., the 
clouds were drifting on and off {the 
moon) ; (2) to cast {throw) off (h. 
harmi, 6tta) ; h. m^li, to make a case 
void, clear oneself of it', h. e-u af e-m, 
to free one from, rid one of a thing. 

hringa (atS), v. to furnish with a ring. 

hringa-brynja, f. coat of ring-7nail. 

hring-broti, m. ' breaker of rings ^ 
prince (poet.) ; -drifi, m. * distributor 
of rings ', prince, king (poet.). 

hringing (pi. -ar), f. bell-ringing. 

hringja (-da, -t), v. to ring bells. 

hringja (-da, -dr), v. to encircle, 
surround; h. e-u um e-n, to encircle 
with (cf. kringja um, umkringja). 

hringja, f. buckle. 

hring-leginn, pp. coiled up (of a ser- 
pent) ; -leikr, m. ring-dance \ -ofinn, 
pp. woven with rings. 

hringr (-s, -ar), m. (i) ring, circle ; 
sla bring um e-n, to make a ring 
around one ; 1 bring, in a circle ; 
hann for f bring um skipit, he swam 
in a circle round the ship ; me3 hring- 
um, all around, altogether (brendu 
upp boeinn me6 bringum) ; (2) ring 
(on tbe finger or arm, at tbe end of a 
cbest, in a door, at tbe end of the 
bilt) ; link (in a cbain). 

bring- variSr, pp. * ring-mounted* ; 
mdlmr -variSr, a sword with rings, 

hrinr, m. howling, screaming, 

hrip, n. box of laths, basket. 

hripu(5r, (poet.). 

hrista (-sta, -str), v. to shake (b. 
bofuSit) ; b. e-t af ser, to shake it off"; 
marir hristust, the horses shook their 
manes', J)eim bristust tennr i bofSi, 
the teeth chattered in their head. 

hritS (pi. -ir), f. (i ) storm, esp. snow- 
storm ; b. mikla gerSi at l)eim, laust 
i. fyrir J)eim b. mikilli, they were 
caught by a violent snow-storm ; (2) 
attack, onset, in a battle (horS, snorp 
b.) ; (3) a while ; nokktira b., for a 
while ; langa (litla) b., a long {little) 
while ; J)essar bri6ir allar, all this 
while ; um h.,fora while (bann dvald- 
ist Jjar um b.) ; um briSar sakir = um 
b. ; i briSinni, immediately, at once 

(hann for i hrfSinni upp til Hofs) ; hriS- 
um, frequently (stundum i Hvammi, 
en briSum at Sta6) ; (4) space, dis- 
tance (var t)6 h. long 1 milium). 

hritS-drepa, a. indecl. killed by a 
snow-storfn ; -fastr, a. detained by a 

hriSottr, a. stormy (h. vetr). 

hriS-vicSri, n. storm, tempest, 

hrifa (hrif ; hreif, hrifum ; hrif- 
inn), V. (i) to catch, snatch (b. til 
e-s) ; h. vi5, to take hold, to grip 
(kasta akkerum, ok brifa l)au vi6 um 
si6ir) ; impers., brifr vi6, it takes effect, 
it turns out well ; (2) /<? scratch (bann 
let b. ser me6 kombum). 

hrim, n. ( i ) rime, hoar frost ; (2) the 
black soot on a kettle (ketil-hrim). 

hrim-aldi, m, lazy lout. 

hrim-drif, n. ritne-drift ; -frosinn, 
pp. rimy ; -kaldr, a. rime-cold ; 
-kalkr, m. foami?tg cup ; -stelnar, 
m. pi. rime-covered stones; -J)ursar, 
m. \A. frost-giants. 

hrina (hrin ; hrein, hrinum ; hrin- 
it), y. {i) to squeal (of swine) ; h. vi3, 
to neigh to a horse (of a mare in beat) ; 
(2) b. i. {or i. e-m), to take effect, esp. 
of imprecations. 

hris, n. (i) brushwood ; {2) faggots. 

hris-byrSr, f. load of faggots ; -fieki, 
m. hurdle of brushwood ; -Isjarr, n. 

hrisla, f. sprig of a branch, twig, 

hrisottr, a. grown with shrubs. 

hris-runnr, m. bush. 

hrisungr, m. a kind of bast a'^d. 

hrja (hrjai, hrja^a, hrjaSr), v. to 
vex, harass (a person). 

hrjoSa (hryS ; hrau^, hruSum ; 
liro(5inn), v. (i) to unload (b. skip 
sin) ; (2) to strip, disable, esp. a ship 
in a sea-fight (bann brand oil vikinga- 
skipin) ; (3) impers., brySr e-u, it 
clears away ; mun hroSit myrkvanuni, 
the fog will have cleared away ; braud 
upp or honum miklu\, he brought 
tip much water; (4) refl., hrauSsk or 
skikkju, she threw off her mantle. 

hrjosa (hryss, hraus, hrosit), v., 
only in the phrase, hryss mer hugr vi3, 
/ shudder with horror (avalt hryss 
m^r hugr vi6, er ek se pik). 




hijostr, n. barren^ rocky place, 

hijostugr, a. 7'ough, barren. 

hrjota (hryt; hraut, hrutum ; 
hrotinn), v. {i) to fall, Jly^ be fiung 
(0xin hraut or hendi honum) ; hraut 
upp hurSin, the door was filing open ; 
eldr hraut or hlunnunum,y7r^ sprang 
from the rollers ; hrjota spoenirnir upp 
1 moti honum, the chips fiew up into his 
face ; h. i sundr, /<? ^^ snapped asunder 
{i sundur hrutu baugar) ; (2) to snore 
(hann svaf ok hraut sterkliga). 

hrjufr, a. (i) rough to the touch (h. 
hals) ; (2) scurvy. 

hrotSa-ligr, -vaBnligr, a. likely to 
cause disturbance. 

hroc5-gas, f. = hrot-gas. 

hroSi, m. (i) trash, rubbish \ (2) 
disturbance, riot (h. ok stormr). 

hrogn, n. roe, spawn. 

hrogn-kelsi, n. lumpfish, 

hroka (atS), v. to fill above the bri7n. 

hrokl, m. a heap above the brim. 

hrokkin-harr, -hserSr, a. curly- 
haired (bleikhdrr ok hrokkinhdrr). 

hrokkinn, pp. curly (hrokkit hdr) ; 
wrinkled (hrokkit skinn). 

hrokkin-skinna, f. ' wrinkle-skin *, 
i>ld woman. 

hroUa (-di), v. to shiver, shudder 
(hrollir hugr minn). 

hrollr, m. shivering i^from cold). 

hross, n. (i) horse ; {2) mare. 

hrossa-bein, n. pi. horse bones ; 
-fulga, {.fodder or pay given to keep 
a horse ; -foetr, m. pi. horses^ hoofs ; 
-gaukr, m. the snipe ; -geymsla, f. 
horse keeping ; -hus, n. stable ; -hofn, 
f. horse pasture', -kipping, f. quarrel 
abotit horses ; -kjot, n. horse fiesh ; 
-kyn, n. horse kin ; -maSr, m. groom ; 
-reiS, f. = hross-reid ; -sldtr, n. horse 
vieat ; -st6t5, n. stud of horses and 
mares ; -stuldr, m., -taka, f. horse 
steali7ig ; -vondr, m. horse- whip ; 
-l)j6fr, m. horse-thief. 

hro3s-bak, n. horseback ; d -baki, 
on horseback ; -bein, n. horse's bone ; 
-eigandi, m. horse-owner ; -fellir, m. 
loss of horses (from hunger or disease) ; 
•fjoldi, m. drove of horses ; -gjof, f. 
the gift of a horse ; -g0rsemi, f. a 
treasure of a horse, a valuable horse ; 

-hall, m. horse's tail; -hauss, m. 
horse's head {skull) ; -hus, n. stable ; 
-hvalr, m. walrus ; -h6fu5, n. horse'' s 
head ; -iss, m. ice that is strong enough 
to ride on ; -klyf, f. horse pack ; -lil'r, 
f. horse'' s liver; -nautn, -neyzla, 
f. using another's horse ; -reiS, f. 
riding a7iother s horse; -rofa, f. horse's 
tail ; -siSa, f. horse's side ; -tagl, n. 
horse's tail ; -ver(S, n. the worth of a 
horse; -"^^oiVfrn.. horsestealer; -aeta, 
f. eater of horse-fiesh. 

hrosti, m. the mash (in brewing). 

hrot-gas, f. barnacle-goose. 

hrot-garmr, m. ' howling dog' ; 
-garmr s\h2.r,fire (poet.). 

hrotta-meiSr, m. warrior (poet.). 

hrotti, m. (i) sword (poet.) ; (2) a 
coarse, rude fellow. 

hro^r (gen. -rs and -rar), m. praise. 

hrocSr-baSmr, -barmr, m. the fa- 
mous branch (the mistletoe) ; -fuss, a. 
eager for praise. 

hro^ugr, a. triumphant, glorious. 

hrof, n. shed (under which ships are 
built or kept). 

hrokr (-s, -ar), m. rook (the bird). 

hrokr, m. rook, castle (in chess). 

hrop, n. slander, foul words. 

hropa (acS), \.{\)to slander, defame \ 
(2) to shout (h. i. e-n). 

hrop-yrtSi, n. pi. slander, cahnnny. 

hrosa (atS), v. to praise, with dat. ; 
h. ser, to boast; h. sigri, to triumph. 

hrosan, f. praise, boasting. 

hrosari, m. boaster. 

hrufa, f. rough surface, crust, 

hrufla (at5), v. to scratch. 

hrukka, f. wrinkle. 

hruma (atS), v. to enfeeble, make in- 
firfn ; hruma6r, infirm, worn by age. 

hrum-ligr, a. infirm. 

hrumr, a. infirm, decrepit, stagger*- 
ifig (h. i gongu). 

hrundning, f. kicking, pushing. 

hruSr, m. crust, scab on a sore, 

hriiga, f. heap (liggja i hrugu). 

hriigald, n. heap, mass. 

hrut-manat5r, m. the third month of 
wi7iter (Dec-Jan.). 

hriitr (-s, -ar), m. ram. 

hruts-fall, n. a ram's carcase; 
-geera, f. the skin and fleece of a ra7n ; 




-hofutJ, n. a ram's head\ -mark, 
-merki, n. the sign Aries. 

hryt^ju-verk, n.foul deed, outrage. 

hrygS, f. affliction, grief, sorrow 
(mikil hrygS ok hormung). 

hrygSar-buna^r, -buningr, m. 
mourning dress ; -dagr, m. day of 
sorrow ; -efni, n. cause of sorrow ; 
-fullr, a. sorrowful, rueful', -mark, 
n. token of sorrow, -samligr, a. 
mournful', -svipr, m., -yfirbragS, 
n. mournful look. 

hrygg-afl, n. strength of the back ; 
-bjiigr, a. crook-backed; -brotinn, 
pp. broken- backed; -brotna (a6), v. 
to break ofie's back. 

hryggiligr, a. mournful, sad. 

hryggja (-(5a, -Sr), v. (i) to distress, 
grieve, with ace. (ekki hryggja mik 
hot J)in) ; refl., hryggjast, to become 
sad or sorrowful ; (2) to cause to look 
sad{^. andlit sitt), 

hrygg-knyttr, pp. humpbacked, 

hrygg-leikr, m. = hrygd. 

hrygg-lundir, f. pi. loins. 

hryggr (-jar, -ir), m. (i) backbone, 
spine ; (2) ridge, mountain-ridge. 

hryggr (ace. -van), a. afflicted, 
grieved, sad; er J)er hryggt 1 hug, art 
thou heavy of heart ? 

hrygg-spenna (-ta, -tr), v. to clasp 
the arms round another's back. 

hrygg-sterkr, a. strong-backed. 

liryggva, V. = hryggja (old form). 

hrygna, f. spawner. 

hrym.(j)ast (d), v. refl. to become 
old and infirm ; hrymdr, i?ifirmfrom 
age (h. bae5i at syn ok elli). 

hrjm-henda, f. a kind of 7netre 
(having lines with four stresses). 

brynja (hryn, hrunda, hruninn), 
V. (i) to fall in, collapse, topple down 
(veggrinn hrynr, bjorgin hrynja) ; (2) 
to flow, stream (hrundu tarin a kinnr 
honum) ; (3) to fall loosely (klasSit 
hrundi ofan um hann) ; latum and 
hanum h. lukla, let the keys rattle 
down from his girdle ; (4) h. d haela 
e-m, to shut upon one's heels. 

hryssa, f. mare (cf. ' merhryssi '). 

hrytr, m. snoring. 

hrygja (-tSa, -Sr), v. to heap together 
(h. hverjum ofan i. annan). 

hrae (gen. pi. hrsBva), n. (i) dead 
body, carrion ; (2) fragments (of a 
thing), scraps. 

breetSa (-dda, -ddr), v. to frighten ; 
refl., hrasSast e-t or vi6 e-t, to be 
afraid of, to fear, dread. 

hraeddr, a. afraid (vi3 e-t, of), 
frightened {at) ; vera h. um, at, to 
fear, be afraid, that. 

hraBc5i-liga, adv. dreadfully, fear- 
fully • -ligr, a. dreadful, fearful, 

hraBoinn, a. timid. 

hrsB-dreyrugr, a. gory. 

hraefa (-c5a, -t), v., h. um e-t, to 
bear with, tolerate ; ma ekki um J)at 
h. lengr, it is no lo7iger tolerable. 

hra9-gifr, n. * carrion beast ', wolf 

hraekja (-ta, -tr), v. to spit ; h. e-u 
ut, to spit out. 

hraela (acS), v. to beat the loom with 
a weaver's r^^(hrasll). 

brsBll, m. weaver's rod, slay. 

hrae-]j6mi, m., -log, n. the light from 
decotnposing 7natter. 

hrsBva-daunn, -l)efr, m. carrion- 
smell ; stench of dead bodies. 

braszla, f. dread, fear. 

hi aezlu-fullr, a. in great fear; 
-gceSi, n. tijnidity. 

hrceSa, f. disquiet, disturbance. 

hrofctSu-lauss, a. free from disturb- 
ance, quiet, peaceable (sjaldan mun 
-laust vera 1 ^essu heraSi). 

hroera (-tSa, -tSr), v. (i) to move^ 
stir (h. fingrna) ; h. i katlinum, to stir 
the pot ; h. e-t saman, to mix up 
(h. saman allt, moldina ok blofiit) ; (2) 
refl., hrcerast, to move oneself, to be 
i?i motion (J)a hrcerist heinin i hofuS 
l^or) ; to move from one's place, to 
budge, stir (ek setla h^6an hvergi at 

hroerar, m. pi. groin. 

hroeriligr, a. movable. 

hrcBring (pi. -ar),f. (i) motion^ stir\ 
(2) ificlination. 

hroesinn, a. boasting, vaunting, 

hrcBsni, f. boasting, bragging. 

hr0kkla (at5), v. to reel, totter. 

hr0kkva (hr0kk; hr6kk, hrukk- 
um; hrokkinn), v. (i) to fall back, 
recoil^ be repelled; h. frd, to shrink 
back ; h. fyrir e-m, to give way before 



one (gekk konungr svd hart fram, at 
allt hrokk fyrir honum) ; h. undan, to 
give way, draw backy retreat ihrukku 
Baglar l^a undan) ; h. vi3, to stand at 
bay, make a stand (verdr Sigvaldi nu 
vi5 at h.) ; {'2) to curl, of hair (hann 
hafdi gult har, ok hrokk mjok) ; (3) 
to suffice. 

hr0kkva (-ta, -tr), v. (i) h. e-u um 
e-t, to lash {switch) with a thing ; 
beit eigi heldr i. en talknskiSi {a piece 
of whalebofie) vaeri hr0kt um ; (2) to 
spur or whip a horse (eptir J)at hrwkti 
hann hestinn) ; (3) refl., hr0kkvast, to 
coil, wriggle, of a snake (undan honum 
hr0ktist ein naSra at Oddi) ; hrekkvast 
aptr, to turn back (G. reid siSastr ok 
skyldi geyma, at engir hr0ktist aptr). 

hronn (gen. hrannar, pi. hrannir), 
f. wave ; dat. pi., hronnum, in heaps 
(drepr hann hir3menn konungs ni6r 

]ir0r, n. corpse = hrer. 

hrpr-ligr, a. dilapidated, ruinous. 

Iir0rna (at5), v. (i) to fall into decay 
(of buildings); (2) to wither (treit 
deyr, J)egar J)at hrornar). 

huga (a5), V. (i) to excogitate, think 
out (hugat hefi ek mer xi.h) ; (2) h. 
e-m e-t, to think of, intend, for one 
(verk hefi ek hugat p^r) ; (3) h. at e-u, 
to attend to, look after i^i. var at 
hugat sarum Kormaks) ; h. um e-t, to 
be concerned about ; h. fyrir e-u, to 
provide for. 

hugatS-ldtr, a. engaging^ amiable ; 
-liga, adv. a?niably, lovingly. 

hugatSr, a. (i) courageous, bold; (2) 
h. e-m vel (litt), well {ill) disposed 
towards one ; (3) e-m er mest um e-t 
hugat, one has 7nost at heart (Haflidi 
kvad pat synt, at henni var mest um 
hann hugatj. 

hugatS-samliga, adv. carefully ; 
•samr, a. gentle, engaging. 

hugatSs-roec5a, f. sensible speech. 

huga-fuUr, a. anxious ; -goSr, a. 

hugall, a. mindful, thoughtful. 

hugalt, adv. carefully (geyma h.). 

hugan, f. care, concern (konungr bar 
h^r mikla hugan fyrir). 

hugar-angr, n. heart's grief ; -bot. 

f. comfort ; -ekki, m. heart-ache, diS' 
tress of mind'y -far, n. disposition^ 
frame of mind; -ffat, {. desire ; -gotSr, 
a. kind of heart; -hert5i, f. hard- 
heartedness ; -hroering, f. e?notion ; 
-hvarf, n. estrangemetit ; -kraptr, 
m. strength of mind; -Idtliga, adv. 
amiably, gently ; -lund, f. disposition 
of ynind, fmcy ; -otti, m. fright, 
anxiety ; -reikan, -ruglan, f. wander- 
ing of mind ; -sturlan, f. insanity ; 
-styrkr, m. streitgtk of mind; -um- 
skipti, n. pi. change of mind ; -valat5, 
n. anguish of mi?td ; -oet5i, f. fury ; 
-CBsingr, m. excitement, agitation of 

hug-ast, f. heartfelt affection ; unna 
-astum,/^ love with all one's heart; 
-blautSr, a. cowardly ; -bleySi, f. 
cowardice ; -bli5r, a. gentle of mind ; 
-bo5, n. foreboding, anticipation, 
fancy (J)at er nasr minu -bo6i, at); 
-booit, pp. n., hafa e-t -bo6it, to i?i- 
tend; -bortS, n. courage; -borg, f. 
the breast (poet.) ; -bbt, f. comfort; 
-brigt5r, 2i. fickle, false (vi5 e-n). 

hugS, f., only in compds,, hugSar-. 

hugcSa, f. interest, affection ; leggja 
hugfiu til e-s, to take interest in, feel 
affectioft for one (konungr leggr enga 
hugSu til bests sins) ; masla, rceSa af 
hugdu, to speak from one's heart. 

hugtSar-erindi, n. a matter which 
one has at heart ; -m.a$r, m. intimate 
friend; -mdl, n. = -erindi. 

hug-dirfa (-tSa, -cSr), v. to encourage ; 
-dirfS, f. courage; -djarfr, a. coura- 
geous, stout-hearted. 

hugtJu-matJr, m. = hugSar-maSr. 

hug-dyggr, a. steadfast; -fastliga, 
adv. steadfastly ; -fastr, a. steadfast, 
fixed in one's mind ; e-m er e-t -fast, 
one is bent on ; -fatt, a. n., e-m verQr 
-fatt, one loses heart ; -feldr, a. agree- 
able; -festa ("Sta, -str), v. (i) to fix 
in Okie's mind; (2) to make up one's 
mind about ; -ixxUx^d^. full of courage. 

hugga (at$), v. to comfort, console ; 
refl., huggast, to be comforted. 

huggan, f. comfort, consolation. 

hugganar-ortS, n. word of comfort ; 
-vdn, f. hope of comfort. 

huggandi, huggari, m. comforter. 




hug-g6t5r, a. kind-hearted, cheerful ; 
-gaBfr, a. cheerful ; -gcetSi, n. goodness 
of heart ; -hress, a. cheerful, at ease ; 
-hreysti, f. courage ; -hvarf, n. change 
of 7mnd\ telja e-m -hvarf, to persuade 
one to change his 7Jiind\ -hoegr, a., 
e-m er -hoegt, one feels at ease. 

hugl, m. mi7td ( = hugr) ; ilium huga, 
with evil mind, ill, badly ; hafa e-t i 
huga, to have in one's mind^ to think 
of\ lei3a e-t huga, to consider. 

huginn, m. the wise raven of Odin. 

hug-kvsemligr, a. ingenious, apt ; 
-kvaem.r, ( i ) recurring to one's mind ; 
(2) 77iindful, attentive ; -koemligr, a. 
= -kvcemligr ; -lauss, 2i. faint-hearted, 
cowardly, -leggja (see leggja), v. 
to lay to 7nind, to reflect on ; -lei^a 
(-dda, -ddr), v. to pay attention to, 
C07isider\ -lei^mg,{. reflection; -l§tt, 
a. n., e-m er -\6tt = e-m er -hoegt ; 
-lettir, m. mind's ease, co77tfort ; 
-leikit, pp. n., mer er eigi -leikit at, 
I have no 77iind to ; -leysa, f., -leys!, 
n.faint-heartedness; -litill, di. faint- 
hearted; -Ijufi, m. darli7ig (harm var 
-Ijufi allra manna) ; -ma^r, m. bold 
man ; -mannliga, adv. boldly. 

hugna (acS), v. to please ; e-m hug- 
nar e-t, one is pleased, satisfied with 
a thi7ig\ impers., mdr hugnar vel 
(ilia) vio e-n, I am pi eased {displeased) 
with one; refl., hugnast = hugna. 

hug-prutSr, a. stout-hearted, noble ; 
-pry^i, f. courage, 7iobleness. 

hugr (-ar, -ir), m. (i) 7nind\ { hug 
e5a verki, in 77iind or act; vera 1 hug 
e-m, to be in 07te's 7nind ; koma e-m 1 
hug, to come into one's 77iind, occur to 
one ; lei6a e-t hugum, to consider ; 
ganga (li6a, hverfa) e-m or hug, to 
pass out of 07ie^s 7ne7nory, to be for^ 
gotten ; snua hug sinum eptir (at, frjC) 
e-u, to turn 07te^s 77iind after {to, 
fro77i) ; maela um hug ser, to feign, 
disse77ible ; orka tveggja huga um e-t, 
to be of two minds about a thing ; 
orkast hugar i. e-t, to resolve ; ef per 
ler nokkut tveggja huga um ^etta, if 
thou be of two f7iinds about the 7natter ; 
(2) mood, heart, te77iper, feeli7ig ; g6c5r 
h., kind heart ; illr h., ill temper, spite ; 
heill h., sincerity ; reynast hugi vi6, 

to make close acquaintance ; hugir 
t)eirra foru saman, they loved each 
other; (3) desire, wish ; leggja hug i. 
e-t, to lay to heart, take interest in ; 
leggja litinn hug a e-t, to 77iind little, 
neglect; leggja hug a konu, to fall in 
love with a woman ; mer leikr h. d 
e-u, / long {wish) for a thing; e-m 
rennr h. til e-s, to have affection for 
one ; mer er engi hugr a at selja hann, 
/ have 710 7ni7id to sell hi77i ; (4) fore- 
bodi7ig; sva segir mdr h. um, I fore- 
bode ; hann kva3 ser ilia hug sagt 
hafa {he had evil fo7-ebodings) um 
hennar gjaforS ; mer by3r hugr um 
e-t, / anticipate (eptir gekk mer {)at, 
er mer bau6 hugr um) ; mer by6r e-t 1 
hug, it enters 77iy 7ni7id, I think ; g0ra 
ser i hug, to ii7iagine \ (5) courage; 
h. rasSr hdlfum sigri, a stout heart 
is half the battle ; her6a huginn (hug 
sinn), to take heart, exert oneself 

hug-rakkr, a. stout-hearted ; -raun, 
f. (i) trial of one^s 7nind ; (2) trial of 
valour; -rekki, f. courage, intre- 
pidity ; -renning, f. thought ; -ro, f. 
peace of 77ii7id. 

hug-ro, f. clinch on a swords hilt, 

hug-runar, f. pi. * 7nind-r7ines '. 

hugsa (ac5), v. to think, think upon ; 
hugsat hefi ek kostinn, I have thought 
over the ter7ns ; h. eptir um e-t, to 
co7isider ; h. e-t fyrir ser, to ponder 
over, reflect upon ; h. um e-t, to thi7ik 
about ; h. sik um e-t, to take counsel 
with oneself about a thi77g, consider. 

hugsan, f. (i) thought, thinking; 
bera h. fyrir e-u, to ponder over ; (2) 
opinion (her em ek i annari h.). 

hugsan ar-augu,n. pi. 77iental vision, 
intellect ; -stund, f., -timi, m. ti7ne 
for co7isideratio7i or reflection. 

hugsi, a. indecl. thoughtful, 7nedita- 
tive, abse7it-7ninded (hann for jafnan 
sem h. vasri). 

hug-sjukr, a. distressed, anxious ; 
-skot, n. 77iind, soul ; -sott, f. care, 
anxiety, conce7'7i ; -speki, f. saga- 
city, foresight ; -steinn, m. the heart 
(poet.) ; -sterkr, a. strong of 7nind; 
-stiginn, pp. in high spirits ; -stol- 
inn, pp. 7nad, crazy ; -storr, a. high- 
minded; -stoe^r, a. {i) fixed in one's 




mind\ (2) vera -stoett til e-s, to be 
opposed to one \ -syki, f. anxiety ; 
-sykja (-ta, -tr), v. to make one 
anxious ; -tregi, m. affliction^ g^^^f\ 
-trur, a. true^faitJiful. 

hugum-storr, a. great of heart. 

hug-veikr, a. weak-minded'^ -vit, 
n. understanding, sagacity, -{)ekkr, 
a. ejideared to one, after one's heart 
(-|)ekkr allri alpySu) ; -J)okkac5r, pp. 
well disposed; -{)okki, m. mind, dis- 
position, Jtidgement (hefir |3etta farit 
eptir -Jjokka minum) ; -J)ungt, a. n., 
e-m er -pungt, one is depressed. 

huld, f. giantess, = troUkona. 

hulda, f. (i) cover, veil (mikil J)oka 
ok h. liggr yfir eyju J)eirri) ; (2) hiding, 
secrecy ; drepa huldu i. e-t, to hide, 
conceal a matter. 

huldar-hottr, m. hood of disguise. 

hulitSr, pp. hidden, obscure. 

hulit53-hjalmr, hulins-, m. * hiding 
helmet ' ; bregSa -hjalmi yfir e-n, to 
make one invisible. 

hulning, f. hiding, covering. 

humarr (gen. -s, pi. humrar), m. 
lobster ; humra fjoll, waves (poet.). 

humott, f. = hamot. 

hunang, n. honey. 

hunang-ligr, a. honeyed. 

hunangs-dogg, f., -fall, n. honey 
dew ; -ilmr, m. sinell of honey ; -loekr, 
m. stream of honey. 

hund-, in compds., very, extreinely ; 
-djarfr, a. exceedingly bold; -forn, a. 
very old. 

hund-gd, f. barking; -heitSinn, a. 
*' dog-heathen\ = heidinn sem hundr. 

hund-margr, a. imitunerable. 

hundr (-s, -ar), m. dog, hotmd ; 
vera or hunda hljoSi or hlj65um, to 
have made one's escape. 

hundratS (pi. hundrucS), n. hundred; 
tiroett h. = 100; tolfroett h. = 120; 
hundruSum, by {in) hundreds-, as 
value, one hundred and twenty ells of 
the stt/ff^ wad7?ial ; h. fritt, a hundred 
paid in cattle ; tolf hundruS morend, 
twelve hundred in dark-striped wad- 
mal; hundrad sWirs,} the silver value 
of 120 ells ( = 20 ounces). 

hundratS-faldr, a. hundredfold. 

hundratSs-hoftSingi, m. centurion. 

hunds-bit, n. bite of a dog; -sotJ, n. 
broth 7nade from a dog. 

hund-tik, f. bitch. 

hund-villr, a. utterly lost, quite 
astray ; -viss, a. very wise (hundviss 

hungr (gen. -rs), m. and n. hunger. 

hungraTatS), v. impers., e-n hungrar, 
07ie hungers ; hungratSr, a. htmgry. 

hurts (pi. -ir), f. door ; h. er aptr, 
the door is shut ; drepa i h., to knock 
at the door. 

hurtSar-asar, m. pi. * door-beams ' ; 
-bak, n. the back of a door ; at -baki, 
behind the door ; -bora, f. S7nall hole 
in a door ; -flaki, m. hurdle ; -hringr, 
m. door-ring; -jarn, n. door-hinge; 
-klofi, m. door-groove; -oki, m. a 
cross-plank joini?ig the boards of a 
door l^i. boraSi A. hurdarokann). 

hurtS-ds3, m. * door-beam \ 

huttututu, interj., to express shiver- 
ing from cold. 

huts (pi. -ir), f. hide (of cattle). 

hu(5ar-J)vengr, m. a thong cut out 
of a hide. 

hutS-fat, n. a kind of hammock. 

hutSfats-f61agi, m. hatnmock mate. 

hutS-keipr, m. canoe of skin, kayak ; 
-Idt, n. loss of one's hide, flogging % 
-skor, m. a shoe of raw hide ; -strjuka 
(see strjuka), V. to flog; -stroka, f. 
floggi7ig; -strykja (-ta, -tr), v. to 
flog; -J)ak, n. roof of hides; -I)ekja, 
(see t)ekja), v. to cover with hides. 

hiifa, f. (i) cap, bonnet; (2) vault, 
ceiling of a church (hann Idt penta 

hufr (-S, -ar), m. hulk or hull of a 
ship (undir hufinn i. skipi). 

hiika (-ta, -t), v. to squat. 

hum, n. twilight, dusk. 

huma (atS), v. to grow dusk (var niS 
mjok humat). 

Huna-land, n. the land of the Huns» 

Hiinar, m. pi. the Huns. 

hiin-bora, f. the hole in the mast- 
head through which the halyard went ; 
vinda segl vi5 -boru, to hoist the sail; 
-dreginn, pp. hoisted to the top ; -kas- 
tali, m. the crow's nest at the mast- 
head (d knorrunum voru hunkastalar), 

Hunir, m. pi. the Huns. 




hun-lenzkr, a. Hiinnish ; -megir, 
m. pi. = Hunar, Hiinir. 

hunn (-S, -ar), m. the knob at the 
top of the mast-head ; draga segl vic3 
hun (i him upp), vinda upp segl vi6 
liuna, to hoist a sail to the top. 

hlinn (-s, -ar), m. (i) bear's cub] (2) 
urchin^ boy (poet.). 

hunskr, a. = hunlenzkr, hynskr. 

hiis, n. house (leita nu um hvert h. i. 
peim boe) ; pi. the groiip of bid I dings 
on a farniy — beer ; taka bus (pi.) i. 
€-m, to take a person by surprise in 
his house ; at hiisa baki, at the back 
of the houses. 

husa (atS), V. to build houses, furnish 
"With houses (Uni husafii parj. 

htisa-boer, m. farmstead, farm- 
houses ; -kostr, m. lodgings, house- 
acco7nmodation ; -kot, n. cottage ; 
-kynni, n. pi. = -kostr ; -mot, n. pi. 
the joining of buildings ; -skipati, f. 
arrangeme7it of buildings ; -snotra, f. 
an ornamefit on a gable-head or 071 
a ship ; -topt, f. house walls (without 
the roof) ; -umboetr, f. pi. house re- 
pairs ; -vitSr, m. house-ti77iber , -vist, 
f. abode (hann tekr ser J)ar -vist). 

hua-bak, n. back of the houses ; 
-bondi, m. master of the house ; 
-brenna, f. house-burni7ig, arson ; 
-bunatSr, -btiningr, m. house furni- 
ture, esp. hangings, tapestry ; -dyrr, 
f. pi. hoiise doors ; -endi, m. house 
end, gable ; -fastr, a. do7niciled ; 
-fresrja, f., -frii, f. (i) mistress of the 
house ; (2) wife ; -gafl, m. house-gable ; 
-ganga, f . ' house-walking \ visits ; 
-gangr, m. begging fro7n house to 
house (fara i. -gang) ; -gumi, m. = 
-bondi ; -gonguU, a. making many 
visits ; -g0rt5, f. house-making. 

husi, m. case (skcera-hiisi, scissor 

Iiu3-karl, m. (i) house-carle, man- 
se7'vant ', (2) pi. the ki?tg's men, his 

huskarla-liS, n. body ofhotise-carles. 

hus-kona, f. housewife, lady of the 
house ; -kytja, f. hovel. 

husl, n. housel ; husla (at$), v. to 
}ipusel, ad77tinister the Eucharist to 
vne (var hiisladr ok do stQan). 

hus-mcenir, m. ridge of a house', 
-prutSr, a. = hybyla-pruor ; -veggr, 
m. house wall', -Jjekja, f. house" 
thatch ; -])ing, n. council, 77ieeting (to 
which a king or chief summoned his 
people or guardsmen). 

hvaSan, adv. (i) whence", Jjottist 
engi vita, h. ve6r var d, whence {fro77i 
what quarter) the wind blew ; meSan 
ek veit eigi vist, h. G. hinn riki stendr 
at, as lo7ig as I know not what side 
G. takes ; (2) fro77i wheresoever ; h. 
SGm.,fro7n what place or source soever ; 
hann siglir h. sem a cr, he sails, what- 
ever wi7td i7iay blow ; h. aefa, from 
every side ({)ustu {)a borgarmenn h. 
ccfa at t)eim) ; on all sides ; hann 
vann svd[, at h. asfa voru i. honum 
hendrnar, he worked as if he had 
hands all over hi7n. 

hval-fong, n. pi. stores of whale 
{blubber) ; -grof, f. whale pit (where 
blubber was kept) ; -jam, n. harpoon ; 
-kaup, n. purchase of whale-blubber ; 
-kdlfr, m. young whale ; -koma, f . 
straftding of whales. 

hvalr (-S, -ar, and -ir), m. whale ; 
skera hval, to flense a whale. 

hval-rei^, f., -reki, m., -rekstr, m. 
stranding of whales ', -rif, n. whale's 
rib ; -saga, f. news of a whale, 

hvals-auki, m. spe7'77iaceti. 

hval-skurtSr, m. flensing {cutting 
tip) of a whale ; -skyti, m. whale 

hvammr (-s, -ar), m. grassy hollow 
or little vale (kaus hann ser bustaS i 
hvammi einum). 

hvann-njoli, m. angelica-stalk. 

hvar, adv. (i) where, in or at what 
place (h. vartu i nott, e6a h. er pitt 
heimili ?) ; h. skulu vit a leita ? where 
shall we search f ', (2) where, to what 
place, whither {s€ ek nu, h. sok horf- 
ir) ; (3) a7ty where ; h^r framarr en h. 
annars sta6ar, here mo7e than any- 
where else ; (4) in each place (urdu 
{)rju J)ing i hverjum fjorSungi ok skyldu 
pingnautar eiga hvar saksoknir sam- 
an); her ok h., here and there, now 
here 7tow there ; viSast h., in 7nost 
places, in 7nost instances ; h. sem, 
wherever (h. sem hann for) ; (5) ever 




so, very ; h. fjarri, ever so far, very 
far off {^ ligg einn i husi ok kerling 
min, en h. fjarri oSrum monnum) ; 
viSara h., ever so much farther (um 
allt Hilogaland ok J)6 vidara h.) ; h. 
meiri, ever viore, much more (ek skal 
f)6 h. meiri stund a leggja). 

hvarf, n. disappearafice (h. ISunnar) ; 
rann hann J)eim t)ar h., he ran out of 
their sight. 

hvarf a (at$), v. (i) to be turned 
7'0und\ let hann ser i hendi h. ker 
gullit, he rolled the gold cup round in 
his hand', (2) stroll about (filarnir 
hvarfa um skoginn) ; e-m hvarfar hugr, 
one's mind wavers ; (3) h. i milli, to 
stand between {in the way). 

hvar-fiiss, 2.. fickle (poet.). 

hvargi, adv. in each {every) place, 
everywhere ; h. er {or sem), whereso- 
ever (h. er Jdu tekr land). 

hvar-leitSr, a. loathso77ie to all men. 

hvarmr (-s, -ar), m. eyelid. 

hvars, adv. = hvar es, wheresoever. 

hvar-vetna, adv. everywhere. 

hvass, a. (i) sharp, keen (h. knifr, 
hvoss 0xi, hvasst vdpn) ; pointed, taper- 
ing (h. hjdlmr) ; (2) fig., of the in- 
tellect, keen (hvasst nasmi) ; of the 
eyes or sight (hvoss augu, hvoss sjon) ; 
(3) sharp, acute ; hvasst hljoQ, a sharp 
sound ; (4) of wind, sharp, fresh (h. 
byrr, hvasst ve6r, andviSri). 

hv ass-egg] ac5r, a. keett-edged; -eygr, 
a. keen-eyed ; -leikr, m. sharp?iess ; 
-leitr, a. sharp-looking; -liga, adv. 
sharply ; -nefjatSr, a. sharp-nebbed ; 
-tenntr, a. sharp-toothed ; -vitSri, n. 
sharp gale, = hvasst ve6r. 

hvat (old gen. hvess, dat. hvi),neut. 
pron. I. interrog. (i) what (h. synist 
p^r ri.6 ?) ; h. er Jjer, Hjalmar ? what is 
the matter with thee, H.f ; expressing 
wonder, what sort off (h. 0gmundr 
ertu .?) ; with gen., h. er |)at fira, flagda, 
drauma, fiska .'* what sort of men, 
witches, dreains, fishes? h. manna 
ertu ? what sort of a man art thoti f ; 
with dat., hann spurdi, h. monnum 
l)eir vaeri, what kind of 7nen they were ; 
(2) implying an answer in the negative, 
to what end? of what use? (h. skal 
rogum manni langt vapn ?) (3) how, 

— hve, hversu ; fr^ttir hann nd, h. 
Ii3i bonorSs-mdlum, how the wooing 
was go 1 71 g 071 \ II. indef. pron. (i) 
each, every ; h. at o3ru, ' each with the 
other', eve7y thing', {)at lid, er honum 
fylgdi, Ayr ser hvat, scattered in all 
directions', h. bidr sinnar stundar, 
there is a ti77ie for everything', (2) 
== hvatki, with the relat. part. ' er (es) * 
or * sem ' ; h. sem or h. es, whatso- 
ever ; (3) with compar., ever so 77tuch ; 
hann var til hans h. betr en til sinna 
barna, he was ever so 7nuch kinder to 
him than to his own children. 

hvata (at$), v. (i) to hasten, with 
dat., h. for sinni, h. ferdinni, to hasten 
one's journey ; h. gongunni, to quicken 
one's pace ; h. bdli, to htirry on the 
bonfire ; (2) absol, to hasten, speed 
(h. til skipa, h. heim). 

hvata-, gen. pi. from * hvot '. 

hvata-buss, m. busybody ; -matJr, 
m. pro7npter. 

hvatan, ace. from 'hvatr', adv. at 
a quick pace (ri6a h.). 

hvati, m. hurry, haste. 

hvatki, indef. pron. (i) each thing, 
eve7ything for itself (munu f)er pa 
vita til hvers h. kemr) ; (2) with 'er' ; 
h. er (es), whatsoever (heill er hugr 
Atla, h. es I)ik dreymir). 

hvat-ldtr, a. quick ; -leikr, m. 
alacrity, activity (-leikr 1 orrostum) ; 
-liga, adv. quickly (riSa -liga) ; -ligr, 
a. quick, brisk ; -ligt liS, active troops. 

hvatr, a. active, brisk, vigorous (h. 
maSr, h. hugr) ; neut. ' hvatt' as adv. 
quickly (ri6a hvatt, sem hvatast). 

hvat-raetSi, n. quick action ; -skeyti, 
n. precipita7icy ; -skey tiligr, a. rash, 

hvat-vetna (gen. hvers-, dat. hvi- 
vetnal, pron. n. a7ty thing whatever; 
vex \>tv hvatvetna i augu, everything 
g7'Gws big in thy eyes ; var Hrafn 
fyrir peim 1 hvivetna, H. was their 
superior in every respect. 

hvat-visi, f. ie77ierity ; -visliga, adv. 
rashly ; -viss, a. rash, headlong, reck- 
less (ma3r hvatviss ok ovitr). 

hvalf, n. (i) vault', (2) concavity 
(of a shield). 

hvalf a (-da, -t), v. = hoi fa. 




hvdll (-S, -ar), m. /////, hillock^ knoll 
(dalr var i hvdlinum). 

hvdptr (-S, -ar), m. mouth, chops. 

hvdrgi (neut. hvarki and hvartki), 
indef. pron. neither {oi two) ; h. Jjeirra, 
neither of them ; neut. ' hvirki ' as 
adv., hv^rki . . . ne, neither . . . nor 
(hefir h. heyrt til bans styn ne hosta). 

hvdrgin-ligr, a. neuter (-ligt kyn). 

hvdrigr or hvdrugr, indef. pron. 
neither, — hv^rgi. 

hvdrr, pron. (i) which (of the two) ; 
in pi. of two parties, hvdrir sigrast, 
which of both {hosts) will gain the 
day ; (2) each (of the two) ; h. vi6 
annan, each to the other ; sinn veg h., 
each his own way ; (3) at hvaru, j^/, 
nevertheless, however. 

hvarrgi, pron. = hvargi. 

hvarr-tveggi, -tveggja, pron. each 
of the two, either, both ; (l) as adj., or 
hvarritveggju hlustinni, out of both 
ears ; (2) as subst. with gen., -tveggi 
Jjeirra, both of them ; with a possess., 
-tveggi okkarr, both of us\ (3) the 
neut. hvdrttveggja, used as adv., both 
(hvdrttveggja karlar ok konur). 

hvdrt, neut. from ' hvdrr ', as interr. 
adv., whether, direct and indirect ; h. 
grastr pu ? whether dost thou weep {or 
not)? h. skalekfaraeSreigi? whether 
shall I go or not? hann vildi vita, h. 
hann var 1 brynju, he wanted to know 
whether he wore a coat of mail \ with 
the rel. part, er (es or sem), h. er . . . 
e6a, whether . . . or (h. er J)eir toluSu 
her til fleira eSa fserra). 

hvdrz = hvirts = hvdrt es (= er). 

Iiv6, adv. (i) how, in what manner 
(hv^ for me6 t>eim?) ; h. heitir J)u ? how 
art thou named?', (2) qualifying an adj. 
or adv., how, to what extefit ; h. gam- 
all ma6r hann vaeri, how old he was ; 
})eir vissu eigi, h. fram var, they did not 
know the time of day ; h. nasr ? when ? 
(hv^ naer mun hann heim koma ?) 

hv6gi, adv. howsoever, always with a 
following particle, er (es) or sem (h. 
lengi sem, h. vi3a sem). 

hveim, dat. from the obsolete pron. 
*hvar' = hverr; {\) to who7n ? (h. eru 
bekkir baugum sanir ?) ; (2) to any 
(manni h. or manna h.) ; h. er (es), to 

whomsoever (or5stirr deyr aldregi 
hveim, er ser goSan getr). 

hveiti, n, wheat ; -akr, m. wheat' 
field', -mjol, n. wheat meal, flour. 

hvel, n. wheel', d hverfanda hveli, 
on a whirling wheel. 

hvelfa ("da, -dr), v. to upset, over- 
turn, with dat. (hann hvelfdi nokk- 
vanum undir sdr) ; impers., skipinu 
hvelfdi, the ship capsized. 

hvell-msBltr, a. clear-voiced. 

hvellr, a. shrill, sharp in tone (h. 
Iu6r) ; hvell rodd, a clear voice ; masla 
(tala) \iixx ok hvellt, to speak loud and 

hvelpr (-S, -ar), m. whelp. 

hvenar, adv. when ? {— hve nser). 

hverfa (hverf ; hvarf, hurfum ; 
horfinn) ; v.{\) to have a circular or 
rotatory motion, turn round (himinn 
hverfr) ; with ace. of the place, himin 
h. {>au skulu hverjan dag, they shall 
wheel round the heaven every day, of 
the sun and moon ; (2) to be lost to 
sight (h. at syn) ; to disappear, vanish 
(hverfa af himni heiSar stjornur) ; e-m 
hverfr e-t, one loses a thing (Mdvi 
hurfu sau6ir nokkurir) ; siSan hvarf 
hann peim, he vanished out of their 
sight', (3) with preps, and advs., h. 
af at gera e-t, to leave off doifig a 
thing', h. aptr, to turn back, 7'eturn ; 
aptr hverfr lygi, |)d. er sonnu moetir, a 
lie recoils before the truth ; h. at e-m, 
to throng around one (^^i. hurfu {)egar 
at honum allir ok fognu6u honum) ; 
h. at e-u, to turn to, to adopt (h. at e-u 
rd3i) ; h. brott, to disappear', h. eptir 
e-m, to follow one ; h. fr^ e-u, to turn 
away from ; g0r6u-t far festa, a3r ]3eir 
frjt hyrfi, they did not moor the boat 
before they turned away ; to leave off 
(nu skal fiar til taka, sem fyrr var fr^ 
horfit) ; h. i sundr, to part', h. til e-s, 
to tur?i {go) to one, or to a place 
(hlaejandi Gu6run hvarf til skemmu) ; 
esp. to go to one and take leave (Gun- 
nar hverfr til allra manna, er hann er 
buinn) ; to fall to one's lot, accrue to 
one (J)6tti stor heill til bans horfit 
hafa) ; h. um e-t, to encircle, surround 
(h. um hodd go6a) ; h. undan e-m, to 
be withdrawn from, lost to one (hvarf 




riki i Noregi undan Dana konungum) ; 
(4) horfinn, pp. {i) surrounded {hce-r- 
inn var h. monnum) ; vera vel vinum 
h., to be well backed by friends ; vel 
um horfit, in good condition (l)ar stoQ 
naust ok var vel um horfit) ; (2) 
abandoned^ forsaken ; heillum \\.^ for- 
saken by luck ; sok h., having lost the 
suit ; heraSi h,, te?'eft of a divelling 
in the district. 

hverfa (-^a, -cSr), v. (i) to turn a 
thing (in a certain direction) ; h. e-m 
hugi (ace. pi.), to change a person's 
mind\ (2) h. e-u um e-t. to enclose 
with a things vera hverfSr utan um 
e-t, to encircle a thing. 

hverfi, n. cluster of farins. 

hverf-lyndi, n. fickleness ; -lyndr, 
a. fickle-minded. 

hverfr, a. (i) shifty, cha7tgeable (h. 
hugr) ; (2) neut., hverft, quickly (fara 
h.; styra h.). 

hverf-ratSr, 2.. fickle, wavering. 

hverfull, a. shifty, changeable. 

hvergi, pron. (i) each, every one 
(hann Idt sem hann eigi vissi, hvat 
h. talaSi) ; (2) adding 'er' or 'sem', 
whosoever (h. er ^6. beiQir) ; hverngi 
veg sem {howsoever) hann vill svara. 

hvergi, adv. (i) nowhere (hann undi 
h.) ; h. annars sta6ar, nowhere else ; 
(2) by no means, not at all; vil ek h. 
fara, I shall not go at all ; vera h. foerr, 
to be quite unable to go ; h. Xi?cx,far 
fro7n it (h. nasr allir) ; with compar. 
(Bergr var J^ess h. fusari) ; alls h., no- 
where at all. 

hver-gsBtir, m. ^cauldron-keeper', 
cook (poet.). 

hverigr, pron. = hvergi. 

hvernig, adv. how ( = hvern veg). 

hvemin, hvernug, adv. = hvernig. 

hverr (-s, -ar), m. (i) kettle, caul- 
dron ; (2) hot spring (hverrinn var 
bseSi heitr ok djupr). 

hverr, pron. (i) interrog., used both 
substantively and adjectively, who, 
which, what? hverjar ero J)cer meyjar? 
who are these maids f h. a hestinn ? 
who owns the horse ? h. er pessi ma6r? 
who is this man f hvern enda .'' what 
end? (2) indef. each, every one, as 
subst., with gen.; manna h., every 

man ; froSra h., every wise man ; h. 
varr, each of us ; as adj., h. gumi, 
every man ; hverjan or hvern dag, 
every day ; as adv., i hverju, every 
moment (veSrit ox i hverju) ; (3) any 
(fyrir utan hverja hj^lp) ; (4) with the 
relat. part. * er ' or '' sem ', whosoever, 
whichever (J)a skulu peir J)egar drepa 
hann h. sem hann er) ; (5) with another 
pron. or adj ; h. at oQrum, one after 
another (hverja nott eptir a6ra) ; at 
o3ru hverju, every now and then ; 
hverir tveir, every two and two ; 
J)ri6ja hvert i.r, every three years (= i. 
hverjum premrarum) ; hverr . . . sinn, 
every one . . . his (hverr ma3r i sinu 
rumi) ; (6) relat. (rare), who, which. 

hvera-dagliga, adv. (i) every day \ 
(2) commonly, generally (eigi var hon 
margmaslt -dagliga) ; -dagligr, a. (i) 
every day; (2) common. 

hversdags-matSr, m. an every-day 
man, ordinary person. 

hvers-konar, -kyns, adv. of every 
kind (a -konar lund). 

hversu, adv. how, = hve. 

hvert, adv. ( i ) zvhither, where (Gun- 
nar sag5i {jeim, h. hann astlaSi) ; (2) h. 
er, whithersoever (h. er hann ferr). 

hver-vetna, adv. eveiyzvhere ( = 

hvessa (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to sharpen^ 
whet (h. spjot) ; h. augun a e-t, to 
look keenly or hard at ; (2) to stir tcp^ 
instigate; (3) impers., hvessir veSrit 
(ace), it blows up a gale. 

hvetja (hvet ; hvatta, hvottum ; 
hvattr), v. {\) to whet, sharpen (h. 
s\erc3); (2) to encourage (si5an hvatti 
hann li6 sitt) ; hvat hvatti pik hingat? 
what urged thee to come here f 

hviSa, f . squall of wind. 

hvika (atS), V. to quail, shrink, waver 
(= h. undan) ; impers., hvi hvikar per 
svd ? why art thou so slow ? 

hvikan, f. wavering. 

hvik-saga, f. idle tale, slander. 

hvina-leicSr, a. loathsome, detested 
(-leiQr baeSi trollum ok monnum). 

hvimsi, a. taken aback, discomfited 
(verSa h. vi6). 

hvinn, m. pilferer; hvinnska* f. 
larceny ; hvinnskr, a. thievish. 




hvinr, m. whiz^ whistling (h. orvar- 
innar ; hvinrinn af hogginu). 

hvirfill (gen. -s, dat. hvirfli), m. 
(l) circle, ring\ (2) crown of the 
head (milli hvirfils ok ilja). 

hvirfil-vindr, m. whirlwind. 

hvirfing, f., hvirfingr, m. (l) circle 
(of men); setjast i hvirfing, to sit 
down in a circle ; (2) drinking match 
(drekka hvirfing). 

hvirfings-broSir, m. club-mate ; 
-drykkja, f. drinking bout (in a sort 
of club or guild). 

hvirfla (atS), v. to whirls spread 
(pser 3etlu6u at h. heyit). 

hviss, interj. whew ! 

hvi, (i) an old dat. of *hvat'; ^i. 
spurSi Hallr, hvi l)at ssetti, then H. 
asked what was the matter ; fyrir hvi, 
why, wherefore (fyrir h. biSr J)u eigi 
laekningar ?) ; (2) adv. why f = fyrir 
hvf (hvi ertu svd folr?). 

hvila (-da, -dr), v. (i) with ace. to 
rest ; h. lid sitt, to let one's troops rest\ 
h. sik, to take rest (J)eir hvildu sik par 
ok eyki sina) ; hvildr, rested (peir hafa 
moedda hesta, en ver hofum alia 
hvilda) ; refl., hvilast = h. sik ; (2) to 
lie, rest, sleep in a bed (h. i rekkju 
sinni) ; h. hja e-m, to sleep with one ; 
(3) to lie buried (til staSarins J)ar sem 
6lafr hinn helgi hvilir). 

hvila, f. bed\ ganga (fara) til hvilu, 
to go to bed, 

hvil-be$r, m. bed of rest ; -brog$, 
n. pi. = hvilubrogS. 

hvild, f. (i) rest, repose (taka h. or 
hvildir) ; (2) pause (pd, var h. nokkur 
i. um bardagann). 

hvildar-dagr, m. day of rest, the 
Sabbath ; -hestr, m. relay horse ; 
-lauss, a. restless. 

hvi-likr, sl. of what kind or sort. 

hvilu-br6gt^ n. pi. cohabitation ; 
-f61agi, m. bed-fellow ; -golf, n. bed 
closet ; -klastSi, n. pi. bed-clothes ; 
-tollr, m. hire of a bed; -J)r6ng, f. 
want of rootn in one^s bed. 

hvina (hvin ; hvein, hvinum ; 
hvininn), v. to whiz, whistle (orvar 
hvinu hjd l)eim oUum megin). 

hviskr, n. whisper, whispering. 

hviskra (atS), v. whisper. 

hvisl, n., hvisla, f. whisper. 

hviala (atS), v. = hviskra ; recipr., 
hvislast, to whisper to one another. 

hvita-bjorn, m. white bear, polar 
bear ; -dagar, m. pi. * the white days % 

hvitadaga-helgr, f. Whitsuntide', 
-vika, f. Whitsun-week. 

Hvita-kristr, m. the white Christ. 

hvit-armr, a. white-ar7ned. 

hvita-sunna, f. Whitsunday. 

hvitasunnu-dagr, m. = hvitasunna. 

hvita-vaSir, f. pi. the white dress 
worn by those newly baptized. 

hvit-beinn, a. white-legged', -ijat5- 
ratSr, a. white-feathered', -fyssa 
(-ti, -t), V. to be white with foam ; 
-haddatSr, a. white-haired, light- 
haired (meyjar -haddaSar) ; -harr, a. 

hviti, {.fair complexion. 

hvitingr, m. a kind of whale. 

hvit-klaaddr, pp. clad in white ; 
-leikr, m. whiteness. 

hvitna (at$), v. to become white. 

hvitr, a. white (hvitt silfr) ; h. a h^r, 

hvit-rondottr, a. white - striped ; 
-skeggj a^r, a. white-bearded; -skinn, 
n. white skin, ermine ; -vatSungr (-s, 
-ar), m. one dressed ift white weeds 

hvaasa (-ta, -t), v. to hiss, of ser- 
pents (h. sem hoggormr). 

hvasBa, hvsesing, f. hissing;. 

hvonn (gen. hvannar, pi. hvannir), 
f. angelica. 

hvot (gen. hvatar, pi. hvatir), f. 
instigation, encouragement, itnpiilse. 

hvotutSr, m. encoiirager, instigator, 

hyggendi, f. wisdom, prudence. 

hyggi-liga, adv. wisely, prudently ; 
-ligr, a. wise, prudent. 

hygginn, a. wise, prudent, intelli- 
gent (peir er hyggnastir voru). 

liygpja (hygg, hugt5a, hugt5r and 
hugatSr), V. (i) to tliitik, believe; 
hugSu 1)6 mjok ser hvarir-tveggju, 
they were of different opinions ; {2) to 
guess; fir hyggr pegjanda porf, few 
can guess t/ie needs of him that is 
silent ; il) to intend, purpose (soknar- 
gogn J)au, er hann hugSi fram at 




fcera) ; masla fagrt, ok fldtt h., to speak 
fair and mean false ; mae'.a hugat (af 
hugSu), to speak sincerely ; (4) h. e-m 
e-t, to intend a thi7tg for one, to have 
in store for one (pottist hann vita, at 
honum mundi slikr kostr hugaSr) ; h. 
e-m vel, to be well disposed towards 
a person ; h. e-u ilia, to be ill pleased 
with ; ok munu J)au vel h. {they will 
be glad), er pau hafa akrinn ; (5) with 
preps., h. af e-u, to leave off thinking 
about, forget or drop (h. af harmi, 
heimsku) ; h. af um leitina, to give 
up the search ; h. at e-u, to attend to, 
mind, look at] konungr hugSi vand- 
liga at manninum, the king looked 
closely at the tnan ; h. i. Q-l, to think 
of{\\. i. flotta) ; ef hann i. grid hygSi, 
tf he thought of a7iy breach of faith ; 
h. fyrir e-u, to look to, take heed to 
(hygg nu sva fyrir hag J)inum) ; h. til 
e-s, to look forward to with pleasure, 
&c. (hversu hyggr J)u til at deyja ? gott 
hygg ek til bana mins) ; h. um e-t, to 
think about a thing ; h. um me6 e-m, 
to deliberate with one about a thing; 
(6) refl., hyggjast, to think ; hyggst pu 
betr g0ra munu ? thi7ikst thou thou 
canst do it better? h. fyrir, to hesitate ; 
hyggst vastr hvatr fyrir, a valiatit fnan 
flinches for nought. 

iiyggja, f. thought, mind, opinion, 

liyggjandi, f. = hyggendi. 

hyggju-leysi, n. thoughtlessness. 

hyggnast (atS), v., h. af e-m, to gain 
knowledge from one. 

hylda (-Ida, -Idr), v. (i) to cut up 
(takit per Hogna ok hyldit me3 knifi) ; 
h. hval, to flense a whale', (2) refl., 
hyldast, to grow fat, get flesh. 

hyldr, ^^i^. fleshy. 

hylja (hyl, hulda, hulitJr and 
huldr), V. to hide, cover (hann huldi 
hofu6 sitt) ; fara huldu hofdi, to go 
' with the head covered ', in disguise, 
by stealth. 

hiyljan, f. hiding, covering. 

hylla (-ta, -tr), v., h. sik e-m, to court 
a person's friendship, make friends 
with ; h. fyrir e-m, to recofnmend one ; 
refl., hyllast e-n = hylla sik e-m ; h. 
e-n at, to pay homage to. 

hylli, {.favour, grace (hafa gu6s h.). 

hylma (-da, -dr), v., h. yfir e-u, to 
hide, conceal (Jjarf ekki lengr yfir 
J)essu at h.). 

hylming, f. conceahnent. 

hylr (-jar, -ir), m. deep place, pool, 
in a river (i hylnum undir fossinum). 

hyrna, {.point of an axe-head. 

hyrndr, a. (i) horned (hyrnd kyr) ; 
(2) ajtgular (t)rf-, fer-, dtt-hyrndr). 

hyrning (pi. -ar), f. corner, nook (of 
a house or room). 

hymingr, m. (i) a horned man (a 
bishop wearing a mitre) ; (2) angle 
(J)ri-hyrningr, triangle). 

hyrr (gen. hyrjar), m.fre (poet). 

hyski, n. = hyski. 

hybyla-, gen. pi. from hybyli ; -b6t,n. 
bettering of one's hofnestead; -brestr, 
m. home loss ; -hattir, m. pi, home 
affairs, home ?7ianners ; -prutSr, a. 
keeping a hospitable house (A. var 
-pru5r ok gleSimaQr mikill) ; -skomm, 
f. disgrace to the home. 

hy-byli, n. pi. (i) ho77ie, homestead^ 
house (1 annarra manna hybylum) ; 
(2) household. 

hyt$a (-dda, -ddr), v. to flog {=^ berja 
hu6 af e-m). 

hycSing, i-flogg.^ig {— huSstroka). 

Hynir, m. pi. = Hiinar. 

hf -TLott, {.night of anxious waiting{}). 

hynskr, a. Htmnish. 

hyrast (tS), v. refl. to be gladdened, 
b7ighte7i up (hyrSist hann skjott 1 

hyr-liga, adv. cheerily, with a 
S7niling face (lita -liga til e-s) ; -ligr, 
2i. friendly , smiling. 

hyrr, a. smiling, pleasant, mildy 
friendly (h. 1 viSbragSi). 

hysa (-ta, -tr), v. to house, harbour. 

hyski, n. household, family. 

hsetS, f. (i) height ; hann hljop meirr 
en h. sin a, he could leap ?7tore than 
his own height ; (2) height, eminence, 
hill (gengu {)eir upp i. h. nbkkura). 

hseSa (-dda, -ddr), \.to scoff at, 7nock 
(h. e-n or h. at e-m). 

hastJi-liga, adv. mockingly, scorn* 
fully (tala -liga til e-s) ; -ligr, a. (i) 
derisive, disgraceful ; (2) contemptible. 

haetSinn, 2^. fond of mocking. 

hflBtSi-yrtSi, n. pi. taunts, gibes. 




hsBtJni, f. mocking, 7nockery. 

\isstc,2L. fit, proper \ t.w<gw\i.^ good for 
nothing, useless, worthless. 

haBki-liga, adv. vehemently. 

liaBl-bein, n. heel bone ; -bitr, m. 
heel-biter', -dreginn, pp. dragging 
the heels in walking ; -drep, n. blow 
on the heel. 

hasli, n. shelter, refuge ; leita s^r 
haslis, to seek for shelter. 

hael-krokr, m. ' heel-crook *, catch 
with the heel (a trick in wrestling). 

hsBll (-S, -ar), m. heel; hlaupa (fara, 
ganga) i. haela e-m, to follow at one's 
heels ; hur6 fellr (lykst) i. hsela e-m, 
the door shuts {closes) upon one^s 
heels ; fara aptr i. hasli, to return zm- 
7nediately ; hopa (fara) i. hael fyrir e-m, 
to retreat, recede before otie. 

haall (-S, -ar), m. (i) peg, pin; (2) 
handle in a scythe-shaft (orf-hsell). 

hsell, m. a widow whose husband 
has bee?t slain in battle. 

haBl-sitSr, a. reachitig down to the 
heels (-si6r kyrtill). 

haBngr, m. ynale sahnon. 

hsBra, f. hoariness, grey hair (skegg 
hvitt af hccru) ; fa elli ok haeru, to live 
to a hoary old age ; esp. in pi., grar 
(hvitr) fyrir {or af) haerum, white with 
grey hair. 

hesrcSr, a. haired; h. vel, having fi7ie 
hair; h. mjok, havifig much hair. 

haBringr, m. hoary {old) man. 

haeru-karl, m. = hasringr ; -kollr, 
m. hoary head, a nickname ; -langr, 
a. having long grey hair ; -skeggi, m. 
hoary beard ; -skotinn, pp. grizzled. 

haBtta (-tta, -tt), v. to leave off, with 
dat. (h. heyverkum) ; with infin. to 
cease (h. at tala). 

haatta (-tta, -tt), v. to risk, venture, 
stake, with dat. ( L. vildi eigi ut h. sinum 
monnum) ; h. til pess virSing J)inni, 
to stake thy ho7tour on it; impers., 
litlu haettir nu til, there is but S77iall 
risk ; absol., hefir sd, er hasttir, he wi7is 
who risks, ^nothing venture 7iothing 
have' ; h. til e-s, to risk a thi7ig (vil 
ek heldr til J)ess h. en hitt spyrist a 
onnur lond) ; h. ^ e-t, to risk (kvaSust 
^ t)a6 mundu h. at berjast) ; to venture 
upony to trust to (h. ^ miskunn e-s) ; h. 

e-u undir e-n, to depend on one for a 

haBtta, f. danger, peril; eiga mikit i 
hsettu, to run a g7'eat risk; leggja e-t 
i hasttu, to expose to risk or da7iger 
(leggja sik, lif sitt, i€ sitt, i haettu) ; 
leggja i. J)a hsettu, to run the risk. 

haBtting, f. danger , risk. 

haettingar-ferS, f. dangerous jour- 
ney (= hasttu-fer6). 

haBtt-leggja (see leggja), v. to risk ; 
-liga, adv. dangerojtsly ; -ligr, a. dan- 
gerous ; koUuSu -ligan matt hans, they 
said that he was sinking fast. 

hasttr, a. (i) dangerous (slikr ma6r 
er hasttastr, ef) ; (2) da7igerously ill 
(vera, liggja, h.) ; (3) exposed to dan- 
ger; ekki h. fyrir vapnum, proof 
agai7ist weapons ; (4) e-m er haett vi6 
e-u, one is i7t danger of; var l^uriSi 
vi3 engu meini hastt, Thu7id was out 
of danger. 

li8Bttu-fer(5, -for, f. dangerous jour- 
ney ; -lauss, a. free from danger^ 
without danger ; -iitill, a. little dan- 
gerotis ; -mikill, a. very dangerous ; 
-rats, n. da7igerous plan. 

hoefa (-(Sa, -(5r), v. (i) to hit, with 
ace. ({)eir hoefa aldri dyr) ; hann hoefdi 
allt J)at, er hann skaut til, he never 
77iissed his 77iark ; h. til, to ai7n ; svd 
hafdi smi6rinn til hceft, so well had 
he ai77ied; (2) to fit, with dat. (hoefdu 
Kjartani J)au klasdi allvel); (3) to 
behove, be 77ieet (eigi hoefir at drepa 
syd fagran svein) ; sva hoefir eigi, segir 
Ulfr, that will not do, said t/. ; h. e-m, 
to be 7neet for one; (4) refl., hcefast, 
to fit each other, to correspond ; spjotit 
mun h. ok sar pat, the shaft and the 
wou7id will co7'respo7id ; h.d, to agree 
in ti77ie, coincide. 

hoefi, n. {\) fit7iess ; vera vi3 e-s h., 
tofit07ie, be suitable, C07ive7tie7it {Hrutr 
feick ser nu konu J)a, er honum J)6tti 
vi5 sitt h.) ; (2) skjota til hcefis, to 
shoot at a 7nark. 

hoefi-latr, a. 7node7'ate ; -liga, adv. 
fitly ; -ligr, a. fit, due. 

hoefindi, n. pi. what fits^ behoves. 

hoefing,f.<a'/wz;/^; g0rah., to take ai7n. 

hoefinn, a. ai7ning well, good at hit" 
ti7io- the 77iark. 




hoBfni, f. good marksmanship (Ein- 
driSi lofaQi hoefni konungs). 

hoBgindi, n. pi. (l) relief (for the sick 
and poor) ; (2) coinforts ; snuast til 
hcEginda, to turn to advantage^ for 
the better ; (3) in sing., bolster, pillow, 
cushion (undir hcEgindit i hvilunni). 

hoegja (-cSa, -t$r), v. (i) to abate, 
with dat. ; h. rds sinni, to slacken one's 
course \ (2) to relieve, seek relief for 
one (var t)eim hoegt i ollu sem matti) ; 
(3) refl., hoegjast, to abate (sjor tok 
at h.) ; to get sfnoother (kann vera at 
hoegist rdSit); impers., eptir allt J)etta 
hoegdist Fr65a litit, F. became more 
at ease. 

hoeg-liga, adv. with ease, gently ; 
-ligr, a. easy, cofivenient ; -lifi, n. easy 
or comfortable life. 

hoegr (ace. -jan and -an), a. easy, 
convenient', ykkr er J)at hoegst um 
hond, it is most at hand for you ; h. 
byrr, a gentle, fair wind ; ekki var 
samlag J)eirra hoegt, they were ?tot o?t 
good terms ; h. e-m or vi3 Q-n, gentle 
towards one. 

hoegri, a. compar. (from hoegr), 
right', til h. handar, til hcegra vegs, 
on the right hand, to the right. 

hoekil-bjugr, a, bowed in the knees. 

hoekja, f. crutch. 

hoela (-da, -t), v.^(i) to praise, with 
dat. (hann hoeldi Ulfari mjok) ; (2) to 
boast of (sverdi hoelir J)u J)ar, en eigi 
sigri); (3) refl.,hoelast, to boast, vaunt; 
h. e-u (af e-u, um e-t), to boast of; h. 
vi6 e-n, to boast over one. 

hoelinn, a. given to boasting. 

hoelni, f. boasting, bragging. 

hoena, f. hen (hani ok hoena). 

hoens, hoensn, n. pi. hens, fowls. 

hoeta (-tta, -tt), v. to threaten ; h. 
e-m e-u, to threaten one with a thing 
(hoetti honum dauda). 

hoeting (pi. -ar), f. threatening. 

hoetinn, a. given to threatening. 

hoeverska, f. courtesy , good manners . 

yiasvevakriigSi^yaidv . politely , fashion- 
ably {-\\g2i klaedd) ; -ligr, a. = hceverskr. 

hoeverskr, a. well-mannered, polite. 

hotSnu-kitS, n. female kid, young she- 
^oat (ci. 'huSna'). 

hoftSa (at5), w.{i) to cut the head off 

(h. fisk), to behead; (2) h. mil (sok) st 
hond (a hendr) e-m, to bring an action 
against one. 

hdf tSatSr, pp. headed (h. sem hundr ; 
cf. tvi-, t>ri-hof3a6r). 

h6ftSa-fj61, f. head-board of a bed" 
stead ; -hlutr, m. = hofuShlutr ; -lag, 
n. bed's head ; -skip, n. a ship with 
an ornamental prow ; -tal, n. ' tale of 
heads', nufnber of persons ^ etc. 

hof (Si, m. headland. 

hoftSingi (pi. -jar), m. (i) chief, 
leader; h. J)eirrar ra6ag0r5ar, at the 
head of that plan ; ( 2 ) captain, com- 
?nander (K. var h. yfir l)eim her) ; (3) 
chief, ruler, esp. in pi., 7nen of rank 
or authority (hofdingjar ok godir 
menn ; hann g0r6ist J)a h. mikill). 

hof Singja-, gen. from * hofdingi ' ; 
-ast, f. love for on^s chief; -bragS, 
n. the bearing of a chief {\\3i2i -bragd 
i. s^r); -djarfr, 3.. frank and bold in 
one' s intercourse with the great; -efni, 
n. a hopeful man for a chief ( L. t)6tti 
bezt -efni austr J)ar) ; -fundr, m. 77ieet' 
ing of chief s ; -hlutr, m. a chiefs s lot 
or share ; -ksBrr, a. in favour with 
the great; -laAiaat 3.. chief less ; -merki, 
n. chiefs sta?idard ; -nafn, n. chiefs 
title ; -skipti, n. change of rulers ; 
-son, m. S071 of a chief; -stefha, 
f. = -fundr ; -styrkr, m. support of 
great folk; -eett, f. noble ext7'actiony 
high birth. 

hof tSing-liga, adv. nobly, generous- 
ly ; -ligr, a. princely, noble ; -skapr, 
m. {i) power, do7ninion ; (2) authority, 
prestige ; (3) liberality, generosity. 

hofga (ac5), v. to make heavy ; impers., 
e-m {or e-nj hofgar, one beco77ies heavy 
with sleep. 

h6fga-vara, f. heavy wares. 

hofgi, m. (i) heaviness, weight; (2) 
sleep, nap (rann a hann h.); drow- 
siness (slo a \)i. hofga svi miklum, at 
J)eir md,ttu eigi voku halda). 

hofn (gen. hafnar, pi. hafnir), f. 
{\)have7i, harbour ; [^) faettis (a pann 
hdtt sem h. vex meS konu) ; (3) coat, 
cloak, = yfirhofn (hann tok af ser 
hofnina ok sveipaSi um konunginn) ; 
(4) tenure of land ( jarfiar h.). 

hofutS (dat. hdfSi ; gen pi. hof tJa), 




n. (i) head (hoggva h. af e-m) ; Idta 
e-n hof^i skemmra, to behead one ; 
strjuka aldrei urn frjdist h., to be never 
free, never at ease ; skera e-m h., to 
make a wry fate at one \ heita i h. 
e-m, to be called after a person ; hastta 
hofSi, to risk one's life ; leggja vid h. 
silt, to stake one's head \ Icera e-m h. 
sitt, to surrender oneself to an enemy \ 
drepa niSr hofSi, to droop the head', 
l^nku hof af hof5i, the fog lifted ; stiga 
yfir h. e-m, to overcome one ; hlada 
helium a6 hol6i e-m, to leave one dead 
on the spot ; ganga milli bols ok 
hofuSs e-s or i. e-m, to hew off one's 
head, to kill outright', senda e-n til 
\\'6i\ihs^-xi\,to sendo7ie to take another's 
head; leggja fe til hofuSs e-m, to set 
a price on o?te's head', leggjast e-t 
undir h.,to put aside^ neglect {pAa.g6]st 
eigi pessa ierd undir h.) ; vera hof6i 
hasrri, to be taller by a head ; (2) head, 
chiif (h. lendra manna) ; Jrandheimr 
hefir lengi veri6 kalla6r h. Noregs, 
the chief district of Norway ; (3) 
ornatnental prow of a ship (skip med 
gyltum hofSum) ; orname7ital head on 
a bridle (slitna3i sundr beizlit, ok 
tyndist h., er d var). 
iiofu^-a, f. chief river; -drr, m. 
archangel ; -dtt, f. cardinal point ; 
-batSmr, m. the ' head stem ', agnate 
lineage ; -band, n. head-baftd, snood, 
fillet ; -bani, m, death, destruction ; 
-bein, n. pi. head-bones ; -benda, f. 
(l) naut. stay, shroud', (2) fig. stay, 
support ; -blot, n. chief sacrifice ; 
-borg, f. head totun, capital ; -bol, n. 
chief estate, manorial estate ; -brot, 
n. great damage, ruin ; -burtSr, m. 
^bearing of the head\ fig. honour, 
credit, prestige ; e-m er litill -burSr at 
e-u, // does him little honour {credit) ; 
-beer, m. = -bol ; -diikr, m, head- 
kerchief hood', -facSir, m. protector, 
patron ; -firn, n. pi. great scajtdal', 
-gersemi, f. great je%uel ; -gjarnt, a. 
w. fatal, dangero7{s to one's life ; -gjof, 
f. capital gift ; -go(5, n. principal god ', 
-gsefa, f. great luck ; -hdtiS. f. prin- 
cipal feast ; -hetja, f. great champion, 
chief', -hlutr, m. the upper part of 
the body^ opp. to ' fotahlutr ' ; -hof, n. 

chief temple ; -isar, m. ^^X. great masses 
of ice, ice-banks ; -kempa, f. = -hetja ; 
-kennimatSr, m. great clerk, ecclc' 
siastic ; -kirl^a, f. high-church, cathe- 
dral', -klerkr, m. great clerk or 
scholar', -konungr, m. sovereign 
king ; -lausn, f. * head-ransom ' (the 
name of three old poems) ; -lauss, a. 
{ I ) headless, without a head ; ( 2 ) 7vith- 
out a leader (-lauss herr); -leSr, n. 
head-piece of a bridle ; -Iseknir, m. 
chief physician ; -Idstr, m. cardinal 
sin ; -matJr, m. head-man, chief; 
-mein, n. sore {boil) on the head', 
-meistari, m. head-tnaster', -merki, 
n. (l) chief mark, characteristic, (2) 
chief standard', -mikill, a. big- 
headed ; -mundr, m. ransom ; -nautS- 
syn, f. gi'eat need', -nitSjar, m. pi. 
head-kinsmen, agnates ; -orar, m. 
pi. delirium ; -rdt5, n. chief council ; 
-rdtSgjafi, m. chief adviser ; -sdr, n. 
wound ifi the head. 

hofu(5s-bani, m, = hofuSbani. 

\\.QfxL^'^\s^AfX\. great poet ; -skepna, 
f. prime ele7nent ; -skutilsveinn, m. 
head-cupbea7'er', -skomm, f. great 
sha?ne, scandal ; -skorungr, m. great 
and 7wble perso7t. 

hofuSs-matSr, m. head-7nan, leader ^ 
chief {vq\ til fallinn at vera -maQr). 

hofuS-smatt, f. the ope7iing for the 
head (in a shirt or smock-frock) ; 
-smiSr, m. chief builder ; -statSr, m. 
capital, chief place ; -steypa, f. tum- 
bling on the head{{siV3. -steypu) ; -svi- 
(Sa, f. si7iged sheep's head', -svortSr, 
m. head-ski7i, scalp ; standayfir -svorS- 
um e-s, to have an enemy's head in 
07ie's power ; -synd, f. cardi7ial sin ; 
-ssBti, n. chief seat; -tunga,f. chief lan- 
guage ; -vdpn, n. principal weapon ; 
-veizla, f. chief banquet ; -v61, f. chief 
device ; -verkr, m. headache ; -vinr, 
m. boso77i frie7id ; -vor^r, m. body- 
guard; -ping, n. chief meeting; 
-Jjvdttr, m. head-washing ; -astt, f.= 
-dtt ; -cerr, a. i7isane ; -oersl, n. pi., 
-oerslur, f. pi. = -orar. 

hofug-leikr, m. heaviness. 

hdfugr, a. (i) heavy (h. steinn) ; (2) 
heavy with sleep, drowsy ; e-m er 
hofugt, one is sleepy. 




hofundr (-ar, -ar), m. (i) author^ 

originator ; (2) judge (rare). 

hogg (dat. hoggvi), n. (i) stroke^ 
blow\ Ijosta h. d. dyrr, to knock at 
the door ; skamma stund ver6r bond 
hoggvi fegin, only a short while is 
the hand fain of the blow \ eigi fellr 
trd vi6 hit fyrsta h., no tree falls at 
the first stroke ; (2) beheadings execu- 
tion (leiQa e-n til hoggs) ; (3) fig. 
g.ip^ breach (kom t)d fljott h. i lidit). 

hogg-fcBri, n. the being within 
sword^s reach ; standa 1 -fceri (vi3 e-n), 
to stand within stroke of sword ; -jdrn, 
n. * hewing iron \ chopper ; -ormr, m. 
viper \ -orrosta, f. close fght \ -ro, f. 
clinch on a sword's hilt (cf. ' hugr6 '); 
-rum, n. room to use a sword ; -sax, 
n. a kind of cutlass ; -spjot, a kind of 
halberd \ -statSr, m. place for a blow 
(leita -sta6ar d e-m) ; -stokkr, m. 

hoggu-nott, f. = hokunott. 

hoggva {^9>gg\ hj6, hjoggum or 
hjuggum ; hoggvinn and hogginn), 
V. (i) to strike, smite (with a sharp 
weapon) ; h0ggr sa, er hlifa skyldi, he 
strikes who ought to shield] h. sverQi 
{or meS sverfii), to strike with a 
sword \ h. e-n bana-hogg, to give one 
his deathblow ; (2) to cut down, de- 
stroy (t)eir hjoggu drekann mjok) ; (3) 
to put to death, behead {snv^iSi let hann 
hengja e6a h.) ; to kill, slaughter (h. 
hest, bufe, kyr, naut) ; (4) to fell trees 
(hann hefir hoggvit i skogi minum) ; 
(5) to strike, bite (of a snake, boar) ; 
ormrinn hjo hann til bana, the snake 
struck him dead\ (6) with preps., h. 
e-t af, to hew or cut off i^. af kampa 
ok skegg) ; h. af fe, to kill {slaughter) 
cattle ; h. e-t af ser, to ward off\ h. 
eptir e-m, to cut at one, — h. til e-s 
(hjo eptir honum meci sver6ij ; h. i 
hofu6 e-m, to give one a blow on the 
head] h. e-t niSr, to cut down (var 
merki hans ni6r hoggvit) ; to kill, 
butcher ( I . hefir a5r nidr hoggvit broedr 
sina tvaj ; h. e-t or, to cut out; fig. 
to ?nake even, s?nooth (lata konung ok 
erkibiskup or h. slikar greinir) ; h. e-t i 
sundr, to hew asunder ; h. til e-s, to 
Strike {cut) at one, = h. eptir e-m ; h. 

upp tr^, to cut down a tree ; h. upp 
skip, to break a ship up; (7) refl. to 
be cut, hacked {h]6s\. skjoldr Helga) ; 
\)6ti\ honum nu taka mjok um at 
hoggvast, things looked hard ; reci pr., 
to exchange blows, fight {^t\r hjuggust 
nokkura stund). 

hoggvandi, m. (l) hezver, smiter; 
(2) headsman, executioner. 

hogg-vapn, n. ' cutting weapon *, 
sword or axe (opp. to ' lagvipn '). 

hoggva-skipti, -vicSskipti, n. pi. 
exchange of blows. 

h6gg-0x, f. ^hewing-axe\ hatchet. 

hdgld (pi. hagldir), f. a kind of 
buckle (shaped like 00), used to run 
a rope through with which hay is 
trussed (bregma reipum i hagldir). 

hoku-, gen. from ' haka ' ; -bein, n. 
chin bone (hokubeinit ok hakan) ; 
-langr, a. having a long chin. 

hokul-broekr, f. pi. ' cloak-breeches ' 
(exact meaning doubtful). 

hokull (dat. hoklij, m. pj-iesf s cope, 

hokul-skiiatSr, pp. ^ cloak-shod' {"i). 

hoku-mikill, a. having a large 
chin (hilslangr ok h.). 

hoku-nott, f. jnidwinter-night. 

hoku-skegg, n. beard on the chin. 

hold-borinn, pp. born of a ' holdr ', 
enjoying a hold's 7'ight, free-bom. 

holdr, m. (i) a kind of higher yeo- 
man; (2) in poetry, ;;/««; hoidasynir, 
sons of men. 

holkn, n. a rough, stony field. 

holl (gen. hallar, pi. hallir), f. large 
house, hall (esp. of a king or earl). 

h0lzti, adv. = helzti. 

horn (gen. hamar), f. ha?n or haunch 
(of a horse). 

homlu-, gen. from * ham la ' ; -band, 
n. oar-strap, oar-gru7nfnet. 

bond ( gen. bandar, dat. hendi ; pi. 
hendr), f. (l) ha?td ; taka hendi i. 
e-u, to touch with the hand; hafa e-t 
i hendi, to hold in the hand; drepa 
hendi vi3 e-u, to refuse ; halda hendi 
yfir e-m, to protect 07ie; laka e-n 
hondum, to seize, capture \ bera bond 
fyrir hofu3 se'r, to atfe7id oneself; eiga 
hendr sinar at verja, to act in self- 
defence ; Mta e-t hendi firr, to let go 





out of one's hands, to lose ; taka i h. 
e-m, to join hands with one ; eiga e-t 
jofnum hondum, to own in equal 
shares ; sverja ser af hendi, to for- 
swear-, af hendi e-s, on one's behalf 
on the part ofizi hendi landsmanna) ; 
at hendi, as adv. in turn ; hverr at 
hendi, each in turn ; felast d, hendi 
e-m, to be under one's protection ; 
hvat er J)dr i. hondum, what hast 
thou in handf; ef honum vasri ekki 
a hondum, if he had nothing in hand, 
if his hands were free ; eiga e-t fyrir 
hendi (hondum), to have in hand^ 
(duty, business, engagement) ; vera i 
hendi, to be at hand, at one's disposal ; 
hafa vel (ilia) i hondum, to behave 
well {badly) ; hafa e-t meQ hondum, 
to have in hand, manage, discharge ; 
hljota e-t undan hendi ^-s,froin one, 
at one's hand; i.\v.,i. hendr, against 
(lysa vigi i. h. e-m) ; snua vanda a 
hendr e-m, to throw the responsibility 
on one ; foerast e-t d hendr, to under- 
take; ganga (drifa) d h. e-m, to submit 
to one ; bjargast d sinar hendr, by 
one's own handiwork ; selja, gefa, ii. 
e-t i hond (hendr) e-m, to give into 
one's hands, hand over ; bua e-t i 
hendr e-m, to make it ready for one ; 
kalla til e-s i hendr e-m, to lay clai?n 
to a thing at the hands of atiother ; 
pd somu nott, er for i h., the following 
night; ve6r ox i h., the wind rose 
higher aftd higher ; vera hoegt um h., 
to be easy in hand; til handa e-m, 
into ones hands ; ganga til handa 
e-m, to put oneself in atiother' s hands, 
submit to him ; ef t)at berr J)dr til 
handa, if it befalls thee ; '^i. skomm 
kys ek m^r eigi til handa, / will not 
have that shame at my door ; bidja 
konu til handa e-m, on one's behalf, 
for him ; ( 2) the artn and hand, the 
arm (hondin gekk af axlarliSnum ; 
hann hefir d hoegri hendi bring fyrir 
ofan cilnboga) ; var eigi djupara en 
t)eim tok undir hendr, the water just 
reached to their armpits ; (3) hand, 
side ; i. hoegri (vinstri) h., on the right 
{left) hand, side ; d hvdra h., on either 
hand; minnar (ySvarrar) bandar, /<?r 
my {your) part ; (4) kind^ sort ; allra 

handa drgcezka, great abundance of 

all things. 

hdndla (acS), v. (i) to seize, capture 
(h. gloepamann) ; (2) to treat ; h. e-n 
ilia, to treat one ill. 

honk (gen. hankar, pi. henkr), f. 
hank, coil, loop, ring; sterkar henkr, 
stro7ig clasps. 

horta (atJj, v. to retire, withdraw 
(h. undan) ; h. fyrir e-m, to give way 
before one. 

h6r-gefn, f. poet, woman. 

hdrgr (-s, -ar), m. heathen place of 
worship, cairn or altar of stone (horg 
hann mer g0r6i hlaSinn steinum). 

hor-hnoSa, n. clew of flax. 

horkla (at5), v. to hobble, walk with 
difficulty (Jjat li6 tekr at dasast ok 
horklar af heiSinni ofan). 

horkull, m. noise, din. 

horniiigr, a. afflicted, sor?-owful. 

hdrmu-liga, adv. sadly; -ligr, a. 
sad, distressing (-lig tifiendi). 

hormung, f. grief affliction. 

hormungar-laBti, -ort5, n. pi , -tala, 
f . lamentaiions. 

horpu-, gen. from 'harpa*; -leikr, 
m. playing on a harp ; -skel, f. ^harp- 
shell ', scallop ; -slagari, -slagi, m. 
harper; -slagr, -slattr, m. striking 
the harp ; -stokkr, m. harp-case ; 
-strengr, m. harp-string. 

horr (dat. horvi and hor), m. flax, 
linen (af hor e6a hampi) ; diikr hvitr 
af horvi, a cloth of white linen, 

hdr-skryddr, pp. clad in linen. 

horund, n. and f. (i) htiman fleshy 
= hold (milli skinns ok horunds) ; 
(2) skin, complexion ; svartr i. har ok 
h., black in hair and skin. 

hdrundar-litr, m. colour of flesh 
(Hel er bid half, en half me3 -lit). 

horunda-litr, m. = horundarlitr ; 
-]j6ss, a. of bright co?npiexion. 

hos-magi, m. a sheep with a grey^ 
dusky belly ; -mogottr, a. grey on the 
belly (hriitr h. at lit). 

boss (ace. hosvan), a. grey, of a 

wolf (ulfr hinn hosvi). 

hdsvast (atS), v. refl. to approach 
one wrathful ly (h. at e-m). 

hottr (gen. hattar, dat. hetti; pi. 

hettir, ace. hottu), m. hood. 




i^a, f. eddy, whirlpool. 

ic5-gj61d, n. recompense, reward', 
-gnogr, a. over-abundaJit ; -gnott, f. 
great abundance. 

it5inn, a diligent, assiduous. 

it5ja (a (5), v. to do, perform. 

it5ja, f. activity, doing, business. 

i?ija-groenn, a. ever-green. 

iSj^-» gen. from ' i5ja ' ; -fullr, a. 
hard-working ; -laus3, a. idle ; -leysi, 
n. idleness ; -matSr, m. hard-working 
man ; -samr, a. industrious. 

iSka (ac5), v. /<? perfonn, cultivate. 

iS-lika, adv. exactly alike (e-m). 

iSn (pi. -ir), f. occupation, business. 

itSna (atS), v. (i) to do, perform, = 
idja ; (2) /<? ^e/^r/^ ^Z (a thing). 

itJnar-, gen. from ' i3n ' ; -mac5r, m. 
= iSjumaSr. 

itSr, n. pi. bowels, entrails. 

it5ra (acS), v. to jnake one repent (eigi 
i3ra mik minar g0r6ir) ; impers., e-n 
iSrar e-s or eptir e-t, and refl., iSrast 
e-s , to repetit of. 

it5ran, f. repentance. 

it5ranar-fullr, -fiiss, a. repentant, 
penitent; -lauss, a. unrepentant; 
-mark, n. mark of repentatice. 

it5randi (pi. -endr), m. repentant. 

itSrar, f. pi. (l) bowels, entrails = \6i; 
(2) repenta?ice. 

itSri, a. compar., see ' innri '. 

ic5ug-liga, -ligr, = i6u-liga, -ligr. 

i(5u-kast, n. whirling eddy, = i6a. 

i^u-liga, d^dy. freqtiently; -ligr, a. 
frequent, co7itinuous. 

iSur-liga, -ligr, = i3u-liga, -ligr, 

if, ifa, ifan, see ' ef , efa, efan.' 

il (pi. iljar), f. sole of the foot. 

il-band, n. strap under the foot. 

ilbanda-broekr, f. pi. breeches or 
trousers with ' ii-bond '. 

ilia ((_ompar. verr, superl. verst), 
adv. badly, ill; lika \., to dislike. 

ill-brag5, n., -brig^i, n. bad trick ; 
-byli, n. wretched home ; -deildir, 
f. pi. hostilities, quarrels ; -dyri, n. 
noxious afiimal. 

illendi, n. pi. (i) spite (til dleitni ok 
illenda) ; (2) gangrene (j)at sar greri 
ilia, svd at blastr'hljop ok illendi i). 

ill-felli, n. mishap ; -fengr, a. ill- 
natured', -ferli, n. pi. /// doings, evil 
ways', -fuss, a. ill -willed', -fygli, n. 
noxious birds; fystr, pp. bent on 
evil; -geta, f . imputation ; -girnd, f., 
-girni, f. ill-will, ill-nature, malice ; 
-gjarn, a. ill- willed, ill-natured, 
malicious ; -gjarnligr, a. ill-natured, 
spiteful ; -gresi, n, 'evil grass ', weeds, 
tares ; -grunat5r, pp. suspected of evil 
(um e-3) ; -gaeti, n. ill fare ; -g0rS, 
f. evil doing, misdeed. 

illg0r$a-flokkr, m. gang of evil- 
doers; -macSr, m. evil-doer', -samr, 
a. evil-doifig. 

ill-breysingr, m. savage, miscreant ; 
-hveli, n. evil {noxious) whale. 

illi-liga, adv. hideously ; -ligr, a. 
ill-looking, hideous (-lig gaulan). 

ill-kvikendi, -kykvendi, n. noxious 
beast ; -kyndugr, a. crafty, wily, cun- 
ning ; -kyngi, f. wiliness ; -leikni, f. 
ill-treatment (gora e-m -leikni). 

ill-lifnat5ar-m.at5r, m. a man of an 
ill life (-madr um kvennafar). 

ill-lifnaSr, m., -lifi, n. wicked life ; 
-lifr, a. wicked ; -lyndi, n. evil tem- 
per, ill-nature ; -laBti, n. pi. hideous 
grimaces ; -mannliga, adv. wickedly, 
c7-uelly ; -mannligr, a. inhumane, 
cruel, wicked; -malugr, a. foul- 
mouthed, slanderous ; -ir enni, n. 
wicked {cruel) man ; -mennaka, f. 
wickedness, cruelty ; -masla (-ta, -tr), 
V. to talk evil of slander, with ace. or 
dat. ; -msBlgi, f., -maeli, n. slander, 
calianny, libel; -orcSr, a. sUuiderouSy 

illr (compar. verri, superl. veratr), 
a. (i) /■//, evil, bad; illr madr, a bad 
}nan ; ill rad, evil counsel ; ilium huga, 
with evil intent; illu feginn ver J)u 
aldregi, never rejoice at evil; illar 
alogur, evil, oppressive burdens ; (2) 
hard, difficult, with gen.; illr vidr- 




eignar, ill to deal with ; (3) close, 
mean, stingy (illr af mat). 

ill-rd$r, a., -ra(5ugr, a. wicked) 
•raBt5i, n. evil deed, cri7ne. 

illraBcSis-ma^r, m. evil-doer. 

ill-sakar, f. pi , tro5a -sakar vi3 e-n, 
to have it out with one. 

illska, f. wickedfiess, cruelty. 

illskast (atS), v. refl. to wax wroth 
and furious. 

ill-skdi, m. the less of two evils. 

illsku-fullr, a. full of wickedness ; 
-kraplr, m. wicked power ; -ma'5r, 
m. wicked {cruel) man ; -J)ra, f. iti- 
clination to mischief or evil. 

ill-spdr, f. pi, evil prophecy, croak- 
ings; -svipligr, a. ill-looking-, -ucS, 
f. ill-nature ; -u$igr, a. ill-7iattired, 
evil-bodifig; -utJligr, a. ill-looking, 
grim ; -verk, n. evil deed ; -viSri, 
n. dad weather. 

illviSris-bakki, m., -klakkar, m. 
^\. foul-weather clouds. 

ill-vili, m. ill-will, hostility ; -vilja, 
a. indecl., -vilja^r, a. ill-willed, evil- 

illvilja-maSr, m. ill-wisher. 

ill-virki (pi. -virkjar), m. evil-doer^ 
criminal', -virki,n. evil doing, crime, 
robbery, ravage ; -vflBrt. a. n., illvcert 
var uti, one could hardly stay out-of- 
doors; -yr^a (-t$a, -tSr), v. to speak 
ill to, abuse ; -yrtSi, n. pi. abusive 
language ; -yrmi, n. noxious wortns, 
verfnin ; -ySgi, f. = -u6 ; -J)raBli, n. 
wretched thrall; -t)ySi, n. rabble, gang 
of thieves and robbers. 

illj)yt$is-f61k, n. = il]J)y6i ; -ma^ir, 
m. = illvirki (m.). 

ilma (-di, -t), v. {\) to smell sweet ; 
ilmandi, sweet-smelling; (2) to scent, 
perceive by smell (l)efja ok ilma). 

ilmr, m. sweet smell, sce?tt. 

imbru-dagar, m. pi. E7nber-days. 

imbrudaga-vika, f. Ember-week. 

imbru-dcsgr, n. pi. = -dagar. 

in, temp, adv., pleonast. before a 
compar., helt-a in lengr rumi, he kept 
not his place longer, he ra?i away ; 
mann in harSara = harSara mann, a 
hardier man ; nema J)u in snotrari 
ser, unless thou art wiser ; ne in heldr, 
neither ; ne bests in heldr, nor of his 

horse either; eigi in heldr aetla ek l)at, 
neither do I think that. 

inn (compar. innarr, superl. innst), 
adv. (i) i7i, into ; ganga inn i buSina, 
to go into the booth ; ganga inn, to go 
i7i-doors (Njall gekk ymist ut e3a inn); 
kasta e-m (setja e-n) inn, to cast into 
prison ; var l)ar glaumr mikill inn {in 
the house) at heyra ; inn eptir firSi, 
inwards along the firth ; (2) denoting 
the situation of a place, = inni (var5 
H^lfdan braSdauSr inn 1 f>randheimi); 
(3) innarr, 77iore inward, farther in ; 
innst, 7nost i7iward, farthest in. 

inn (in, it), def. art. the = hinn (hin, 

inna (-ta, -tr), v. (i) to pe7for7n (i. 
iprott); hafSi hann J)a af hendi innt 
alia sastt sina, he had the7i fulfilled all 
the ter77is of his ato7ie77ie7tt ; {2) to 
pay, discharge (i. gjald af hendi) ; 
hvat dttu mer illt at i., what evil hast 
thou to repay 7nef {^) to relate, tell 
(i. sin vandrseSi) ; innti orSstafi at 
eldi Ijosum, she read out the letters by 
the light of the fire; (4) i. til e-s, to 
allude to, 77ie7itio7i, speak of (J)d skatta, 
sem nu mun ek til i.) ; i. upp, to su77i 
up, expoimd (i. upp allan malavoxt); 
(5) refl., innast til um e-t, to discuss ; 
inntust })eir til um kaupakosti. they 
aiscussed the bargai7i ; innast or6 vi5, 
to exchange words. 

innan, sdv. {i) f?07n within, frotn 
a7i i7iner part (reru Jjeir innan i moti 
J^eim); Issti hon loptinu i., she locked 
the door fr 0771 the inside; (2) i7iter- 
7ially, withi7i ; gengu ^€\x um kirkjuna 
i., all round the i7iside of the church ; 
rak Jja si8an um haf i., all about the 
sea ; fyrir i., prep, with ace. inside of 
withi7i ; fyrir i. stokk, in-doors ; (3) 
prep, with gen. within ; i. litils tima, 
within a short ii77te, prese7itly ; esp. 
in a great many adverbial compds. 

innan-borfs, adv. on boa7-d; -borg- 
ar, adv. withi7i the tow7i ; -butSar, 
adv. within the booth ; -baBJar, adv. 
witlmi toivn ; -gengt, a. n. accessible 
f 7-0171 within (-gengt var 1 fjosit) ; 
-hiiss, adv. indoors, within the house ; 
-lands, adv. within the landj at 


innanlands-hofSingi, m. native 
chiefs -menn, m. pi. natives. 

innan-raein, n. internal coniplaijit ; 
-rifja, adv. within the ribs, inwardly, 
-sott, f. = -mein ; -vatr, a. wet within ; 
hafa -vatt, to have the sea washing 
over ; t)eir fengu mjok -vatt, they had 
a wet passage ; -vert^r, a. inward, 
interior', i -verSri buSinni, i?t the 
inner (inmost) part of the booth. 

innar-liga, 3.(\\. far inward. 

innarr, adv. compar., see ' inn '. 

innarst, adv. superl. farthest in, at 
the further end, = innst, see ' inn '. 

inn-bldstr, m. i?ispiratio7i ; -borg, 
f. the in7ier castle, keep ; -byr^is, adv. 
on board', -daeli, n. ease, comfort', 
-daB 1, a. quite easy ; -eygr, a. i7i-eyed, 
hollow-eyed', -firc5ingr (-s, -ar), m. 
a from the in7ier pa7't of a fjord ', 
'gsinga,f, en t7'a7tce ; bei6a e-n -gongu, 
to ash 07ie to be let in \ -gangr, m. 
(i) = inn-ganga ; (2) beginni7ig (fostu 
-gangr) ; -gjald, n. payi7ig in, opp. 
to ' utgjald ', outlay ; -groptr, m. en- 
gravi7ig (on a seal). 

inngongu-leyii, n. leave to e7iter. 

inn-hallt, adv. in towards land; 
sigla -hallara, to stand fiearer the 
shore \ -hlutr, m. i7i7ier part\ -hysa 
(-ta, -tr), V. to house, ha7'bour ; -hys- 
ingr, (-S, -ar), m. lodger', -hysis, 
adv. = innanhuss. 

inni, adv. in-doors ; uti ok i., out- 
doors a7td i7i-doors ; brenna e-n i., to 
burn 07ie to death i7i his house ; hafa 

bo9 !., to hold a {wedding-^ feast at 
one's ho7ne. 

inni, n. abode^ house, ho77ie ; nd sinu 
i., to get home. 

inni-hu3, n. dwelling-house ; -hofn, 
f. ha7-bouring, housi7i^', -liga, adv. 
exactly, 77iinutely (segja -liga fra e-u) ; 
-vist, f. dweHi7ig i7i a house. 

inn-koma, -kvdma, f. co77iing in, 
arrival', -kvasmt, a. n., er engum 
manni -kvasmt, 710 07ie is allowed to 
e7tter; -land, n. inland', -leiS, f. (l) 
coasting along, course nhmg the shore ; 
(2) entrails (innleitJ dyraj ; -leizla, f. 
introduction', -lendr, a. (i) ?iative, 
opp. to ' ut-lendr ' ; (2) residing in 
07ies coimtry ; -lenzkr, a. indigenous', 
-raptr, m. i7i7ier rafter', -rei$, f. 
ridi7tg i7i ; -renta, f. inco7/ie. 

innri, a. compar. i7i7ier, i7iniost, in^ 
terior, = iSri ; fara hit innra (iSra), to 
go by the in/ier road. 

inn-sigla (a(5), v. to seal. 

inn-sigli, n. seal, seal-ri7tg. 

innst, adv. superl. from ' inn '. 

inn-stolpi, m. = -stopull. 

innstr, a. superl. i7i7ier77iost. 

inn-strond, f. the inner strand; 
-stoetSa, f. invest7ne7it ; -sl opull, m. 
in7ter pillar ; -tak, n. co7ttents (of a 
book) ; -viSir, m. pi. ribs (of a ship). 

inn-virSiliga, -vir^uliga, adv. 
closely, J7ii7ttttely,-= einvirduliga. 

inn-yfli n. pi. e7it rails, bowels. 

Inn-j3rasndir, m. pi. the i7ihabitants 
of the inner part of TJirandhei77i. 

i, prep.— I. with dat., (l) in, within ; 
fela fe sitt i jor6u, to hide one's 77ioney 
i7i the earth ; fastir i vellinum,/^:^/ z« 
the ground ; vera i sveit, to live in a 
district ; i oSrum londum, i7i other 
la7ids ; (2) with local names (1 Orkney- 
jum, i Laxardal, i Borgarfir6i, &c.) ; 
{Z)in a certain spot; i einum sta3, i 
peim (hverjum) stad, i?i one, that 
{every) place ; standa i hoggfceri, 

with'' 71 sword's reach ; (4) i7i, a77tong\ 
i vain urn, a77iong the slain', (5) of 
clothes ; vera 1, to have 07t, wear (hann 
var i blam slakki, i litklasSum) ; (6) 
duri7ig, i7i ; {)enna vetr 1 jolum, during 
Yule', i sumri (hausti), this su77i7ner 
{autu77in) ; i J)vi bili, in that 77i077ient ; 
i t)vi er Gunnar stendr upp, at the 
very 7no77ie7it when G. rises ; (7) de- 
noting action, state, condition ; vera 



i for me6 e-m, fo travel in one's com- 
pany, vera i vikingu, to be engaged 
in freebooting ; i trausti e-s, in his 
trust, tinder his protection', vera i g66u 
yfirlasti, /^ <^/? zVz good quarters, live 
well', liggja 1 uviti, /^ /z> /« a swoon ; 
vera i goQu (illu) skapi, /^ <5^ in good 
{ill) hujnotir', (8) ifi respect o}\ in 
regard to', roskinn i orSum, mature 
in words ; lettr i mali, cheerful in 
speech ; i ollum mannraimum, 2>? tz// 
trials ; (9) denoting form or content, 
in ; at eigi hafi komit til Noregs meiri 
gersemi i skikkju, such a jewel of a 
cloak ; fe er i t)vi, there is value in it ; 
Hallr kva6 godan kost i henni, H. 
said she was a good inatcJi ; hvat er 1 
J)vi ? how is that? what is the matt erf 
(10) by fueans of, through (opt kaupir 
ser i litlu lof ) ; (11) equivalent to a 
gen. or possess, pron. ; hann braut 
hrygg 1 henni, he broke her back ; hann 
knytir saman alia halana i nautunum, 
all the cows' tails; II. with ace, (i) 
i7t, into (spjotit flo niSr i vollinn) ; 
leggja e-t i kistu, to put into a chest 
{coffin) ; steinninn kom i h6fu6 honum, 
the stone hit him in the head; sigla 
(Idta) i haf, to sta?td out to sea ; var 
t)at sagt Gunnari inn i bu6ina, word 
was carried into the booth to Gicnfiar; 
giptast 1 onnur lond, to mar?y into 
other countries, 7?iarry a7t alien ; deyja 
1 Mcelifell, to pass into M. after death ; 
t>6r5r svaf ok horfSi i lopt upp, with 
his face ttirtied upway'ds ; (2) of time ; 
in, during ; 1 J)at mund, at that hour; 
i nott, this night ; i vetr, this winter ; 
f (=um) fjortdn vtXx, for fourteen 
winters ; (3) denoting entrance into 
a state, condition, in, i7ito ; ganga i 
bond ok eiSa, to e7iter into bonds and 
oaths ; falla 1 livit, to fall i7ito a swoo7i ; 
taka e-n i friS, to pardon one ; bjoQa 
buum i setu, to call on the neighbours 
totake their seats; (4) denoting change 
into ; skjoldrinn klofnaSi i tva hluti, 
split in two ; brotna i spdn, to be 
shivered to pieces ; verja f6 sinu i lausa- 
eyri, to convert one s property into 
tnovables ; (5) denoting the object, 
purpose, &c.; gjalda i sonarbcetr, to 
pay as the son^s weregild ; l)iggja e-t 

i vingjafir, to accept as a friend' s gift ; 
kaupa e-t 1 skuld, to buy on credit', 
gjra e-t i hag (vil) e-m, to do so77ie- 
thing i7i one's favour. 

£-blar, a. bluish ; i-bldstr, m. in- 
spiration ; i-bua, f. fe77iale i7i77iate ; 
i-bu^, f. in-dwelli7ig; i-byggjari, m. 
inmate, inhabitant. 

its (pi. -ir), f. doi7tg, deed (poet.). 

i-endr, a. still breathi7ig, alive, opp. 
to *0r-endr'; i-fang, n. grappling 
with ; i-fellt, a. n., of the wind, filli7ig 
the sails ; i-fra, prep., see ' fr^ ' ; i- 
ganga, f . tmdertaking, entering upon ; 
i-gangr, m. (i) begi7ining; (2) wear- 
ing of clothes. 

igangs-klsB^i, n. pi. wearing ap- 
parel (hof6u menn -klseSi sin). 

i-gildi, n. equivalent, equal (t)eir 
pykkja vera lendra manna igildi) ; 
i-gjarn, a. eager for (e-s) ; i-grotSra, 
a. indecl. i7i full growth. 

igull, m. sea-urchin. 

ihlutanar-mikill, -samr, a. 7neddle- 
S077ie, inte7fering. 

i-hraBddr, a. a little ti7nid', i-huga 
(atS), V. to C07iside7', 77iuse over ; 
i-hugan, f. 7/ii7iding, co7isideration ; 
i-hugi, m. 77ii7iding, sy7npathy. 

i-hogg, n. striki7ig i7i. 

ikorni, m. squirrel. 

i-kynda (-da, -dr), v. to kindle ; refl., 
ikyndast, to be ki7idled, take fi7e'y 
1-lat, n. vessel i7ito which a thing is 
put ; i-lendast (d), v. refl. to settle in 
a country ; i-lendr, a. settled in a 
place, naturalized. 

im, n. dtist, ashes. 

ima, f. poet, strife, fight, battle. 

Irar, m. pi. I7ish77ien, the Irish. 

irast, V. refl. to be ru77ioured abroad. 

iri, m. ru77wur, gossip (rare). 

Irland, n. Ireland. 

irska, f. the Irish t07igue. 

irskr, a. Irish. 

isa (at5), V. to cover with ice (iss). 

iBdi-gdcngv^m. drifti7tg of ice ; -lauss, 
a. ice-f}-ee ; -log, n. pi. for7nation or 
layer of ice. 

isarn,n. iron,—]ixn ; -'kol,n. bellows; 
-leikr, m. battle (poet.). 

is-brot, n. broken ice; -hrun, f. edge 
of an ice-field; -hogg, n. ice-breaking. 




1-BJd, f. attention. 

is-jaki, m. ice-floe. 

isja-vertSr, a. worth looking into. 

i-sj6n, f. aspect, appearance (J)ann 
veg er himininn isjonar). 

is-kaldr, a. ice-cold. 

Is-land, n. Iceland. 

ia-lendingr (-s, -ar), m. Icelander. 

is-lenzka, f. the Icelandic tongue. 

is-lenzkr, a. Icelandic. 

is-16g, n. pi. = isalog ; -mol, f. 
ground {broken) ice ; -rek, n., -reki, 
m. ice-drift. 

iss (gen. iss, pi. isar), m. ice ; isa 
(ace.) leggr i. votn, the lakes {rivers) 
freeze over ; isa leysir, tekr af votnum, 
the ice thaws, breaks up. 

i-stac5 (pi. i-sto5), n. stirrup ; i- 
stangan, f. instigation, prickings i- 
stig, n. = istaS. 

istr, n., istra, f. paunch-fat. 

istd^u-lauss, a. weak, faint-hearted. 

itala, f. proportionate share in coin- 
mon pasture. 

itar-ligr, ?i. fine, glorious, lordly. 

itr (ace. itran), 2l. glorious, excellent. 

itr-borinn, pp. high-born; -hugatSr, 
a. high-minded ; -laukr, m. beautiful 
leek or plant', -mannligr, a. of stout, 
noble bearing; -skapacSr, pp. beauti- 
fully shaped; -vaxinn, pp. of beautiful 
staticre ; -{)veginn, pp. clean-washed, 
bright (itrj)vegnir armar). 

ivicS-gjarn, a. wicked, evil (rare). 

iviSi, n. (Volusp^ 2)? 

ivicSja, {.giantess, ogress (rare). 

ijjrott, f. accomplishvient, feat, arty 
skill (vel buinn at ij)r6ttum). 

iprotta-lauss, a. unskilled; -matSr, 
m. one skilled in bodily exercises. 

iprott-ligr, a. skilful ; -ligr fimleikr, 
dexterity in feats. 

ja^arr (gen. -s, dat. jatSri, pi. ja?5- 
rar), m. (i) edge, border, selvage (of 
cloth, of a sail, tent, &c.) ; (2) poet. 
prince, lord (dsa j., folks j.). 
ja^ra-skegg, n. whiskers. 
jafn, a. (i) even; jofn tala, even 
nu7nber; (2) equal, the same; Jjinar 
(viz. ferSir) ver6a flestar jafnastar, thy 
doings are mostly the same, all equally 
bad; hann var ellefu vetra ok sterkr 
at jofnum aldri, and strong for his 
age; jafn e-m, equal to one; jafnt er 
sem J)er synist, af er fotrinn, it is just 
as it appears to thee, the leg is off; 
komast til jafns vi6 e-n, hafa e-t til 
jafns vi6 e-n, to equal one, be one's 
match in a thing; at jofnu, equally, 
in equal shares. 

jafn-, in compds., such a, so ... a, 
equally, as ; er t)at skomm j.-morgum 
monnum, it is a shame for so many 
men ; j.-fraegr drengr, so fine a fellow ; 
j.-auSveldr, as easy. 
jafna (a(5), \.{\)to ctit even, to trim 
(morum sinum mon jafna6i); (2) to 
make equal; (3) to divide in equal 
shares (j. riki meS ser) ; (4) j. e-u til 
e-s, vid e-t, to compare (liken) one 

thing with {to) another ; j. e-u saman, 
to cojnpare, set off one thing against 
another (var J)d jafnat saman vigum) ; 
(5) refl., jafnast vi6 e-n, jafnast e-m, 
to ez>e?i ojteself with, call oneself a 
match for, aftother; j. orSum vi3 e-n, 
to bandy words with one. 

jafna, f. lez'el ground, plain (hann 
flySi af halsinum ofan d jofnu). 

jafnat5ar-boS, n.fair offer; -domr, 
m. fair judgement; leggjamdltil-doms, 
to put a case before an umpire ; -fundr, 
m. a meeting on equal terms ; -geS, 
n. even temper ; -kaup, n. equal bar- 
gai7i; -ma^r, m. (i) equcil match \ 
(2) fair {impartial) man ; -samr, a. 
fair; -oki-ptUn. fair dealiftg ; -I)okki, 
m. mutual affection. 

jafnacSr (gen.-ar),m.(i) comparisoti ; 

(2) equal share (en paSan af hofum vit 
jafnad badir) ; at jafnaSi, in equal 
proportions (skipta e-u at jafnaSi) ; 
usually, as a rule (= me6 jafnaSi) ; 

( 3 ) equity , fairness. 

jafn-aldra, a. indeel. of the sa?ne 
age ; -aldri, m. one of the same age 
(jDeir varu mjok jafnaldrar). 
I jafnan, adv. constantly ^ always. 




jafn-bj6(5a (see bjoSa), v. to be equal 
tOy be a match for one(e-m) ; -borinn, 
pp. of equal birth ; -borinn til e-s, 
having equal birthright to (-borinn 
til rfkis sem ek) ; -breiSr, a. equally 
broad \ -dodgvitn. equal length of day 
and night, equinox; -doemi, n. equit- 
able {fair)jtidgement, justice ; -doemr, 
2i.fair, iiiipartial. 
jafnendr, m. pi. daysmen, umpires. 
jafn-fram, adv. (l ) equally forward, 
side by side, with (leggr fram skeiSina 
-fram skipi Hruts) ; evenly, in a 
straight line (standa allir -fram fyrir 
konungsborSinu) ; {2) at the same 
time (t^eir riSutil things -fram Skeggja); 
-fram.t, adv. equally, in the same 
degree, = -fram ; -foetis, adv. on eqtial 
footing (standa -foetis e-m, vid e-n) ; 
-gegnt, prep, with dat. just opposite 
to ; -girnd, f. equity, fairness ; -gjarn, 
a. as eager ; just, equitable ; -hart5r, 
a. as hard', -hugatSr, a. (i) of even 
temper ; (2) of one mind. 
jafni, m. (i) equalness; maela til 
jafna ( = til jafns) vi6 e-n, to speak 
just as well as another', (2) even 
number (= jofn tala). 
jafningi (pi. -jar), m. equals match, 
jafn-keypi, n. equal bargain,= ]2S.n- 
aSarkaup ; -kominn, pp. on even 
terms ; with equal title (-komnir til 
erfSar) ; neut., -komit er i. me6 ykkr, 
you are well snatched ; -krappr, a. as 
strait, as narrow, i -krappan sta6, 
in such a strait', -leikit, pp. n. an 
equal game ; -lendi, n. a level piece 
of ground ; -lengd, f . the same time 
of the following day (til -lengdar 
annars dags) ; the same day in the 
next year, anniversary (eigi siQarr en 
fyrir -lengd) ; -16ttvigr, a. as active 
in wieldi7tg arms ; -lic5a, a. indecl, 
with an equal mwiber of men ; -liga, 
adv. (l) equally, fairly (skipta -liga) ; 
(2) usually, ahvays; -ligr, a. equal, 
fair ; -lyndi, n. evenness of te?iiper ; 
-lyndr, a. eve?-: -tempered', -maki, m. 
= jafningi ; -iienni, n. equal, match ; 
-menntr, a. of equal rank ', -maBli, n. 
fair play, equality ; -oki, m. equal, 
match (for one) ; -rffitSi, n. equcil 
match '^ -saman, adv. together (fyrir 

l)essa hugsan alia -saman); -skipti- 
liga, adv. equally ; -skjott, adv. im- 
mediately, at once ; -skjott sem, as 
soon as ; -snenima, adv. at the very 
same monent ; allir -snemma, all at 
the same time ; -seetti, n. an agree- 
ment on equal terms. 

jafht, adv. (i) just, precisely (pat 
var j. jolaaptan sjdlfan, er {jeir bor6- 
List) ; (2) cilways, perpetually. 

jafn-tefli, n. a?i eqiial, drawn game ; 
-vegit, pp. n. with an equal number 
slain on both sides', -vel, adv. {i) as 
well, equally well ; (2) likewise, even 
(-vel syniliga) ; -virtSi, n. equal worth ; 
-vigi, n. drawn battle ; -vaBgi, n. equal 
weight ; -vsBgja (-tSa, -t), v. to equal, 
7natch, with dat. ; -vaBgr, a. of equal 
weight', -vaBtta (-tta, -tt), v. to weigh 
against, counterbalance ; -yrtSa (-Sa, 
-tSr), V. to bandy words with one (e-n). 

jaga (aS), v.{\)to harp on one string ; 
j. ^vallt i. enni somu sok, to be always 
harping on the same case ; {Q.)to htmt 
(j. dyr), rare. 

jaka-for, f. drifting of ice-floes. 

jaki, m. broken ice^ ice-floe. 

Jakobs-land, n. Compostella in 
Spain; -messa, f. St. fatties' tnass. 

jalda, f. mare (1 joldu liki). 

jam-, jamn-, see 'jafn-.' 

Jamtar, Jamtr, m. pi. men from 
Jamtalatid in Sweden. 

jartSa (a$), v. to earth, bury. 

jarSar-, gen. from 'jord'; -avdxtr, 
m. produce of the earth ; -blomi, m, 
blootn of the earth ; -megin, n. stretigth 
of the earth (sd var aukinn -megni or 
-magni) ; -men, n. a long sod or ttitf; 
ganga undir -men, to creep under a 
sod partially detached from the earth. 

jarc$-bann, n. want of grazing (from 
snow or frost) ; -borg, f. stronghold 
of earth ; -bui, m. zittderground- 
dweller; -eldr, m. volcattic fire ; -fall, 
n. earth-slip ; -fastr, a. fixed iti the 
earth (-fastr steinn) ; -fe, n. treasure 
hiddeti in the earth ; -:Quk, n. drifting 
stiow ; -folginn, pp. hidden in the 
earth ; -hit a, f., -hiti, m. subterranean 

{volcanic) heat ; -hola, f. earth-hole ; 
-bus, n. utiderground rcotn or paS' 
sage ; -kostr, m. choice of lattd, land 




to be had\ -kroas, m. cross-shaped 
mark in the ground ; -laug, f. a bath 
in a ivarjn spring in the earth ; -ligr, 
a. earthly ; -lua, f . * earth-loicse ' ; 
-IfiBgr, a. lying on the ground ; -neskr, 
a. earthly ; -riki, n. the earthy worlds 
opp. to * himin-riki ' ; -skjalfti, m. 
eaj'thquake ; -stofa, f. ufiderground 
room ; -veggr, m. earthen wall. 

jarki, m. the outside edge of the foot. 

jarkna-steinn, m. glittering gem. 

jarl (-S, -ar), m. (i) poet, a high- 
born, noble man or warrior', (2) earl 
(in dignity next to the king); -borinn, 
pp. earl-born, an earl by birth ; 
-domr, m., -doemi, n. earldom, 

jarls-dottir, f. earPs daughter', 
-ma^r, m. an earPs follower ; -nafn, 
n. earl's title ; -riki, n. dojninion of 
an earl, earldom ; -saeti, n. eaj-Ps seat. 

jarma (ac5), v. to bleat, of sheep and 
goats (aerin jarmaQi). 

jarnar, m. bleating ( sauSa j.) ; scream- 
ing of birds (fugls j.). 

jarpr, a. chestmct, reddish-brown (j. 
i. har) ; j. hestr, chest?iut-horse. 

jarp-skjottr, a. bay-piebald. 

jar-tegn (-tein, -teiiai),n. (i) token, 
proof {oi a thing); hafa e-t til -tegna, 
to use as a token or evidence ; vera til 
jartegna, to serve as a token ; (2) 
miracle ; -tegna, -teina (at5 or -di, 
-dr), V. to betoken. 

jata (gen. jotu), f. manger. 

jaur, didv.yes indeed, yes certainly. 

jaxl (-S, -ar), vi\. jaw-tooth, grinder, 
molar (tennrnar ok jaxlarnir). 

jaxla-verkr, m. tooth-ache. 

ja, adv. yea, yes ; ja, ']i. \ yes, yes / 

ja (jai, jdSa, jaSr), v. to say yes, 
assent to, with dat. (hann jaQi J)vi) ; 
ja e-m e-u, to confess a thing to one ; 
j. e-u upp, undan ser, to yield up. 

ja-kvaB^a (-dda, -ddr), v. to say yes 
to, with dat. ; -kvsaSi, n. asse7it, con- 
sent ; gjalda -kvasSi til e-s, to give 

one's assent to ; -ortS, n. = -kvas6i. 

jam, n. (i) iro?t (hagr i. j.); bera j., 

to carry hot iron (as an ordeal) ; (2 ) in 

pi. irons, fetters (setja e-n i j., sitja i 
jarnum) ; iron hinges (Idk par grind i. 
jarnum) ; horse-shoes. 

jdrna (at5j, v. (i) to mount with 

iron (jdrnaSir vagnar); (2) to shoe a 
horse (hestr jdrna6r olium fotum). 
jdrna-far n. iron-plating, on a ship; 
-gangr, m. chafing, gallifig from 
irons (mdttiitill af -gangi) ; -sta6r, 
m. mark or print of irons. 
jarn-borg, f. ^iron-castle' (used of a 
ring of iron-clad ships); -bundinn, 
pp. iron-bound, of a shield ; -burSr, 
m. the ordeal of carrying hot iron ; 
-biitr, m. iron stump ; -dragi, m. 
* iron-df'awer ', magnet ; -festr, f. iron 
band; -fjotuvr, m. iron fetter; -fleinn, 
m. iron rod; -gaddr, m. iron spike 
{goad} ; -gjorS, f. iron girdle ; -glofi, 
m. iron glove ; -gotSr, a. of good iron ; 
-greipr, f. pi. iron gloves. 
jdrng0rSar-ma§r, m. blacksmith. 
jdrn-hanki, m. iron handle ; -holkr, 
m. iro?i tube ; -hvalr, m. ha^fooned 
whale ; -kambr, m. iron cojnb ; -ketill, 
m. iron kettle ; -klo, f. iron claw or 
fang; -klukka, f. iron bell; -klaaddr, 
pp. iron-clad; -krokr, m. iron crook ; 
-kylfa, f. iron club ; -ligr, a. of iron ; 
-loka, f. iron bar; -lurkr, m. iron 
cudgel; -lykkja, f. iron clasp ; -meiss, 
m. iron basket ; -m^l, n. pi. iron 
7nouth-piece (of a bridle) ; -mikill, a. 
of solid iron ; -nokkvi, m. iron boat ; 
-rekendr, f. pi. iroji chains; -rending, 
f. iron brim (of a shield) ; -rendr, pp. 
bordered with iron (targa -rend); -sia, 
f. spark from red-hot iron ; -skor, m, 
iron shoe ; -sla, f. iron bar ; -sleggja, 
f. iron sledge-haifimer ; -smiSr, m. 
blacksmith ; -srolcSi, n. S7mth's work ; 
-spjot, n. iron spear ; -spong, f. iron 
plate ; -stafr, m. iron staff; -stong, 
f. iron bar ; -sula, f . iron column ; 
-teinn, m. iron prong; -vafitSr, pp. 
wound round with iron; -varitSr, pp. 
mounted with iron (=jarni varSr) ; 
-vapn, n. pi. iron weapons '^ -vitJjar, 
f. pi. iron withes, iron wire. 
jata, or jatta (at5, or -tta, -ttr). v. 
{\) to say yes to, with dat. (passu j tar 
or jatir hann) ; (2) to aikjiowledge, 
admit (erkibiskup hafSi ]Dvi jatat, at); 
(3) to consent; mun ek pessu j. fyrir 
mik ok mina heimamenn, I will agree 
to this for myself and my household; 
j. e-u undan ser, j. e-u upp, to yield 




up\ (4) to promise (konungr jdtaSi 
Jjeim griSum ok sasttum); (5) with 
ace. of the thing, to acknowledge (j. 
syndir) ; to grants give ( jdttuSu allir 
J)^r konungdom); with ace. of the 
person ; fyr engan mun jdtum ver 
hann gu6, by no means do we acknow- 
ledge him to be God] j. sik, to confess 
oneself] j. sik undir e-t, to engage one- 
self] (6) refl., jdtast undir e-t, jdtast 
til e-s, = jita sik undir e-t. 

jdtan, jdttan, f. (i) affir7nation ; (2) 
confession (j. synda). 

j atari, m. one who confesses. 

jatning, f. confession (j. heilagrar 
truar, j. synda). 

jat-orcS, n. consent (seinn i -orSum). 

jdtsi, a. indecl. saying yes ; verSa 
e-m e-s j., to promise one a thing. 

jdtta (a§, or -tta, -ttr), v. = j^ta. 

jd-yrtSi, n. conse?it ; leggja sitt -yr6i 
til, to give consent. 

joS, n. baby (j. 61 Edda). 

jotS-ligr, a. thriving (of a baby) ; 
•sott, f. pains of childbirth ; -ungr, 
a. very young. 

j61, n. pi. Yule^ 3. great midwinter 
feast in the heathen time, afterwards 
applied to Christmas. 

jola-aptann, m. Yule-eve^ Christ- 
mas-eve ] -boS, n. Yule banquet ; 
-dagr, m. Yule-day, Christmas-day ; 
-drykkja, f. Yule- drinking] -fasta, 
f. Advent ; -friSr, m. Yule-peace, 
Christmas-peace ; -gjof, f. Yule- gift, 
Christmas box] -hald, n. keeping of 

Yule ] -kveld, n. Yule-eve ; -morg- 
inn, m. Yule 7norning ; -nott, f. Ytcle 
night] -tiSir, f. pi. Christmas service] 
-veizla, f. Yule banquet or entertaiti- 
7nent ; -vist, f. staying over Yule ; 
-61, n. Yule ale. 

Joms-vikingar, m. pi. the Vikings 
of Jom (Wollin in Pomerania). 

Jon, m., a proper mraG., John. 

Jons-messa, f. St. John Baptist's 
day, the 24th of June ; -stiika, f. 
chapel of St. John ; -vaka, f. = 

jor (gen. j6s ; pi. joar, ace. j6a and 
j6i, dat. jom), m. poet, stallion, steed. 

j6-reitS, f. riding on horseback ; 
-reykr, m. cloud of dust (seen afar off 
above a body of horsemen). 

Jorsala-, gen. pi. from 'Jorsalir'; 
-borg, f. Jerusalem ; -fari, m . Jeru- 
salem trai'eller] -fertS, -for, f. journey 
to J. ] -lytSr, m. the people of J. 

Jorsalir, m. pi. Jerusalem. 

Jotar, m. pi. the Jutes. 

Jot-land, n. Jutland. 

jung-fru, f. princess, lady ; -herra, 
m. '' young lord', prince. 

jurt (pi. -ir), f. aromatic herb. 

justa, f. bowl, cup. 

jotSurr, m. = jadarr. 

jofurr (-S, pi. jofrar), m. poet, king, 
prince, chief {a-i Svia jofri). 

joklatSr, a. covered with icicles (yfir 
joklufiu skeggi). 

jokla-gangr, m. ice-drift (in a 
river) ; -vatn, icy water. 

jokul-barinn, pp. storm-beaten, stif- 
fened with ice ; -kaldr, a. ice-cold. 

j6kull(gen.-s, dat.jokli; pi. joklar), 
m. (i) icicle (hann gekk inn i sal, 
glumdu joklar) ; (2) ice (vatnit snyst 
i jokul) ; (3) glacier. 

jokul-vatn, n. ice -water from a 
glacier] -vetr, m. severe winter. 

joU, n. poet, disturbance, strife {f). 

jor^ (gen. jarSar, dat. j6r§u ; pi. 
jart5ir), f. (l) earth, opp. to * himinn ' 
(hvdrt byr gu6 a himni eda jordu ?) ; 
(2) the su7face of the earth, ground 
(fell hann J)^ dau6r til jardar) ; (3) 
mould] (4) la7id, estate. 

jorfi, m. gravel, gravel bank. 

jormun-, a prefix, denoting some- 
thing////^^, vast, superhuma7i ; -gandr, 
m. the great monster, the Midgard 
Serpent ; -grund, f. the earth. 

jostr (gen. jastar), x\-\. yeast. 

jotun-heimar, m. pi. the Giants 
la7id] -moSr, xn.gianfs wrath, fury. 

jotunn (gen. -s, dat. jotni ; pi. jot- 
nar), m. gia7tt ; jotna synir, sons of 




kac^all (gen. -s, dat. kaSli ; pi. kac5- 
larj, m. cable, rope. 

kaf, n. a plunge into water, dive, 
diving ; fasr hann annat k. at o6ru, he 
gets one plunge after another ; taka k., 
to dive under water ; a k., i k., into 
water ^ under water \ hlaiipa a k., to 
plunge into water ; fara i k., to go 
under watery a kafi, i kafi, under 
water, diving-^ of snow, lagu hestarnir 
a kafi 1 sr\]6nnm, the horses stuck deep 
in the snow ; standa a kafi, to sink 
deep (oxin stod a kafi). 

kaf a (at5), v. to dive, swim, imder 
water ; of a ship, to be swamped in a 
heavy sea (siSan kafa6i skipit). 

kafa-fjuk, n. thick fall of snow ; 
-liri$, f. thick snow-storm. 

kaf-foera (-Sa, -tSr), v. to thrtist 
under water, to duck ( = fcera e-n i 
kaf); -for, f. goi?2g under water, 
ducking ; -hla^inn, pp. deep-ladefi ; 
-hlaup, n. deep snow, -hleypr, a. 
sinking deep i?i the snow (var sv^ 
mikill snjor, at allt var -hleypt). 

kafli, m. a piece cut off\ tok at leysa 
isinn i koflum, the ice began to break 
up into floes. 

kafna (a5), v. to be suffocated, choked, 
in water, smoke, etc. (k. i sandfoki, 
i stofureyk). 

kaf nan, f. suffocation. 

kaf-3und, f. swim7fting under water ', 
-syndr, a. good at swimming render 
water ; -{)ykkr, a. very thick (of fog, 
snow-storm, etc.). 

kaga (aS). v. to bend forward and 
peep, p?y (hon kagar h]i. gattinni). 

kaggi, m. keg, cask, a nickname. 

kala (kell, kol, kalinn), v. impers., 
mik kell, I freeze, become f'ost-bitt en 
(kalinn a fotum); e-n kell i hel, ^«^ 
freezes to death. 

'{ai6),y. to become cold ', impers. 
to blow cold; kaldar af boSafallinu, 
a gust of cold wifid came from the 

kalda-hldtr, m. sardonic laughter. 

kald-liga, adv. coldly ; -ligr, a. cold. 

kaldr, a. (i) cold] kalt vedr, cold 

weather-, brenna (e-t) at koldum 
kolum, to burn to cold ashes ; konungi 
g0r3i kalt, the king began to get cold; 

(2) baneful, hostile, cruel (kold eru 
kvenna rad). 

kald-raSr, a. evil-minded, ill- 
affected; -rifja^r, a. ^ cold-ribbed \ 
cold-hearted, cufining\ -yrSi, n. pi. 
* cold words ', sarcas?n. 

kalekr (-s, -ar), m. cup, chalice. 

kalkr (-s, -ar), m. drinking-ctip, 
goblet (k. er I)u skalt drekka af j. 

kail, n. (i) call, cry, shouting (heyra 
k. mikit); (2) appellation, na?ne (J)eir 
nefna hann jarl enn ilia, var J)etta k. 
haft lengi si6an). 

kalla (at$), v. (i) to call, shout, cry 
(kallaQi konungr ok ba6 letta af); (2) 
to call, simimon by a call, send for 
(um kveldit kallaSi konungr Asldk) ; 

(3) to say (sumir menn kalla, at eigi 
se sakleysi i) ; at kalla, so to say, 
nomiftally ; s^ttir at k., no7ninally 
reconciled; (4) k. ser e-t, to claim for 
oneself {konun^Y kallaSi ser allar Ork- 
neyjar) ; (5) to call, name (Mor6r het 
madr, er kallaSr var gigja) ; (6) refl., 
kallast, to say of oneself; konungr 
kallaSist hann reynt hafa at goSum 
dreng, the king said that he hadfou?id 
him a good and brave fellow ; (7) with 
preps., k. at e-m, to call to one ; k. d 
e-n, to call to one (Flosi gekk t)a at 
durum ok kalladi a Njal) ; to call on, 
im/oke ^{ksMcidi hann d gu3 ok hinn 
helga Olaf ) ; k. d e-t, to lay claim to 
(SniEkollr kallaSi a bu nokkur J)ar i 
eyjunum) ; k. eptir, to protest ; k. e-n 
eptir e-m, to call or ?iame after; k. 
til e-s, to call to, t?tvoke (k. til gu3s) ; 
to lay claim to, to claim, demand 
(Snorri kallaSi J)a til brynju sinnar) ; 
k. til e-s vi3 e-n, i hendr e-m, to claim 
a thing from one. 

kallari, m. crier, herald. 

kails, n. (i) taunting, raillery ; g0ra 
e-m k., hafa i kallsi vi3 e-n, to taunt 
one ; (2) importunate claim. 

kallsa (ac5), v. (i) to taunt, mock\ 
(2) to molest, annoy, importune. 




kalls-lauBS, a. unmolested \ -yrSi, 
n. pi. gibes, taunts. 

kamarr (-s, pi. kamrar), m. privy. 

kambari, m. comb-maker. 

kambr (-s, -ar), m. (i) comb\ (2) 
carding-co7nb ; (3) crest ^ comb \ (4) 
ridge (of hills). 

kampr (-s, -ar), m. (i) beard on the 
lips, moustache ; (2) the whiskers (of 
a seal) ; {2>)f^ont wall. Also * kanpr '. 

kangin-yrSi, n. pi. jeering words. 

kanna (gen. konnu), f. can, tankard. 

kanna (aS), v. (i) /^ search, explore 
(J)eirkonnu6u landitfyriraustan ana); 
k. lid, to review, muster troops ; k. 
val, to search the field for slain ; k. e-t 
af, to find out, make out (ferr Brandr 
biskup nordrd VoUu ok kannar {)at af, 
at) ; k. til = k. af (kannaSist svd, til, 
at) ; (2) refl., kannast vid e-t, to re- 
cognize, know again (kannaSist hon 
vio hann ok kynferSi bans) ; to make 
one's acquaintance (f'orolfr hitti t>ar 
marga frsendr sina ^a, er hann hafdi 
eigi d3r vi6 kannazt); to acknowledge 
(konnuSust J)eir vi6, at J)at var sann- 
rnaeli) ; to recognize as one's own (me6 
\>\\ at engi kannast vi6 svein penna) ; 
recipr., to recognize one another (si3an 
konnuSust t)au vi6). 

kanoki, m. canon (of a church). 

kantara-kd,pa, f., -sloppr, m. a 
priest'' s or bishop'' s gown. 

kapal-hestr, m., -hross, n.=kapall. 

kapall (-S, pi. kaplar), m. pack- 
horse, hack (naut ok kaplar). 

kapella, f. chapel (k. konungs). 

kapellu-prestr, m. priest of a chapel. 

kapituli, m. ( I ) chapter ; (2) meeting- 
room in a cloister or convent. 

kapp, n. contest, zeal, eagerness, 
ardour', deila kappi vici e-n, brjota 
kapp (halda til kapps) vi3 e-n, to con- 
tend, contest, with one ; me 6 kappi, 
with ardour ; meirr af kappi en forsja, 
with more obstinay than prudence ; 
berjast af miklu kappi, with great 
ardour; renna i kopp vi(3 e-n, to run 
a race with. 

kappa-, gen. pi. from * kappi ' ; -li(5, 
n. troop of chatnpions ; -tala, f. roll 
of champions (taka e-n i kappatolu) ; 
-val, n. choice of chatnpions. 

kapp-drykkja, f. drinking-match ; 
-droegt, a. n. strongly contested', 
var3 t)eim -droegt i leiknum, // was a 
hard contest ; kva6 {)eim J)etta mundu 
-droegt, it would be a hard task ; 
-fuss, a. = -gjarn ; -girni, f. eager- 
ness, energy ; -gjarn, 2.. full of energy 
and desire to excel. 

kappi, m. hero, champion, man of 
valoicr (k. mikill, kappar konungs). 

kapp-kosta (aS), v. to strive, efi- 
deavour-, -leikr, va, fighting-match ', 
-maali, n. pi. dispute ; -nogr, ?^.plenti- 
ftcl ; -orSr, a. contentious, wrangling ; 
-roSr, m. rowing-match ; -samliga, 
adv. (i) impetuously, with energy, 
(2) abundantly, plentifully ; -samliga 
alinn, very well fed; -samligr, a. (i) 
vehefnent ; (2) rich, liberal (-samlig 
veizla) ; -samr, a. vehement, im- 
petuous ; -semd, -semi, f. energy, 
headstrong character. 

kapps-fullr, a. contentious, eager to 
excel, vehement (hardr ok k.). 

kapp-sigling, f. sailing-ntatch. 

kapps-niac5r, m. man of energy. 

kapp-sund, n. S7uimming-match ; 
-svinnr, a. vehemeiit, passionate ; 
-yr5i, n. pi. overbearing language', 
-oerinn, 2l. fully sufficient, abundant. 

karar-, gen. from ' kor ' ; -kerling, 
-kona, f., -ma^r, m. bedridden old 
woman, man. 

karbunkuli-steinn, m. carbuncle. 

kardindli, m. cardinal. 

karfa-fotr, m. an unsteady leg. 

karfi, m. swift-goifig ship, galley, 

karfi, m. red-fish, red sea-perch. 

karina, f. a fast of forty days (im- 
posed as a penance). 

karl (-S. -ar), m. (i) man, opp. to 
woman (brigfir er karla hugrkonum); 
(2) a man of the common people, a 
carle', (3) old man. 

karla-folk, n. male folk', -fot, n. pi. 
mefi^s attire ; -ssBti, n. seat for men. 

karl-dyrr, f. pi. the men's door', 
-fatt, a. n. wanting in men-folk (J)ar 
var -fatt heima) ; -fjdldi, m. multitude 
of male persons ; -lot, n. pi. men's 
attire ; -gildr, a. as good as a man 
(var hon ok -gild at afli) ; -hof t$i, m. 
a carved man's head, figure-head \ 




-kenndr, ^^. masculine; -klsB^i, n. pi. 
men's clothes ] -kostr, m. a {good) 
match^ of a man ; -kyn, n. the male 
sex ; -leggr, m. male lineage^ agnates ; 
-matSr, m, (i) wa;/, male, opp. to 
^kvennmadr' w<?;;/a//(-ma6r okkona) ; 

(2) mart of valotir (styrkr ok falatr 
ok inn hraustasti -madrj. 

karlmann-liga, adv. in a manly 
way ; -ligr, a. ( i ) manly ^ bold ; (2) 
masculine (-ligt kyn). 

karlmanns-bunaSr, m., -klaBtSi, 
n. pi., man's attire. 

karl-mennska, f. manhood, valour. 

karls-efni, n. * the 7nakings of a 
man\ a promising lad (as a nick- 
name) ; -h6fut5, n. a man's head 
{carved on a pillar). 

karl-sift, adv. on the male side ; 
-svipt, f. relationship by descent on 
the male side ; -svip r, a. male. 

karrmr (-3, -ar), m. breast-work, 
parapet (kastalar ok karmar). 

karnaSr (gen. -ar), m. cotictibinage. 

karp, n. bragging, boasting \ -mal- 
ugr, a. bragging, boastful; -yr6i, 
n. pi. overbearing words. 

karsk-liga, adv. briskly, boldly. 

karskr, a. brisk, bold; hale, hearty. 

kart-nagl, m. diseased nail, 

kartr (-s, -ar), m. cart. 

kasa (aS), v. to heap earth upon, to 
bury (hann var kasadr i urQ). 

kass, m. large box, case, creel. 

kast, n. (1) cast, throw of a net; (2) 
throw of dice ; koma 1 k. vi3 e-n, to 
cofne in collision with one ; kemr til 
varra kasta at, it is our turn to ; (3) 
a kind of cloak. 

kasta (ac5), v. (i) to cast, throw, 
with dat. (Egill kastaSi J)egar nidr 
horninu) ; k. akkerum, to cast anchor; 
k. verplum. teningum, to throw with 
dice ; k. orSum a e-n, to address one ; 
refl., kastast orSum i., to exchange 
words ; k. kalls-yrSum at e-m, to throw 
taunts at one ; k. eign sinni a e-t, to 
seize upon, take possession of; k. a 
sik sott, to feign illness ; {2) to cast oj^ 
(erH. heyrc5if)etta,kasta5i hannskikk- 
junni) ; k. tra, to cast off one's faith; 

(3) impers., e-u kastar, is thrown, 
flung ; toku Jjeir gneista J)a, er kastat 

hafSi or Muspellsheimi, they took the 
sparks that had been cast out from M. ; 
skipinu hafQi kastat, had capsized; 
henni var kastat skinni at beini, the 
skin was, as it tvere, thrown over her 
bones (from leanness) ; (4) with 'um' ; 
k. um hesti, to turn, wheel, a horse 
right round; k. um sinum hug, to 
alter one's (own) disposition ; absol. 
to turn round, wheel about. 

kaatala-menn, m. pi. defoiders of 
a castle ; -stafr, m. castle pillar ; 
-veggr, m. castle wall. 

kastali, m. castle, stronghold. 

katlari, katla-smitJr, m. kettle- 

katt-skinn, n. cafs skin. 

kaup, n. (i) bargain; illt fgott) k., 
bad [good] bargain ; sl^ kaupi \\6 
e-n, to strike a bargain with one ; 
eiga k. vi3 e-n, to bargain, trade with 
one; ver6a at kaupi, to come to a 
bargain ; (2) stipulation, agreement 
({)i tala J)eir um k., ok veroa i. allt 
sattir) ; (3) wages, pay (konungr gaf 
honum mikit k.) ; vera af kaupi, to be 
off one's bargain, to have forfeited it. 

kaupa (kaupi, keypta, keyptr), v. 
{\) to buy (keypti Njall land i Ossa- 
boe) ; absol. to make a bajgain ; k. 
kaupi, to bargain ; {2) to make an 
agreement abo2it (J)eir keyptu J)essu) ; 
(3) with preps., k. e-n a braut, to buy 
one off; k. e-t at e-m, to buy a thing 
of one ; k. saman, to bargain ; k. um 
e-t, to barter, exchange (keypti hann 
um lond vi3 GuQrunu) ; k. vid e-n, to 
make a bargain, come to terms with 
one ; recipr., kaupast vid, to bargain 
with one another. 

kaupa-koitJr, m. pi. terms of a 
bargain ; -land, n. purchased land ; 
-mang, n. barter, bartering; -mark, 
n. purchased [cattle) mark, opp. to 
one inherited. 

kaupangr (-rs and -s), m. market- 
place (i kaupangi sem i heraSi). 

kaLipangrs-lytSr, m. towns-folk. 

kaup-brigtSi, n. breach of contract ; 
-beer, m. = kaupangr ; -drengr, m. 
= -maSr ; -dyrr, a. demanding a high 
price, expensive ; -eyrir, m. article of 
trade, wares, cargo ; -ferS, f, tradiftg 




journey or voyage \ -fox, n. cheating] 
-fri^r, m. security for trade ; -for, f. 
= -fer6, esp. in pi. (hafa skip 1 -forum, 
fara -forum) ; -gegn, a. good at trad- 
ing'i -gjald, n. wages, pay \ -bus, n. 
shop ; -lag, n. tax, price', -laust, a. n. 
(i) without charge, gratuitously ; (2) 
without bargain or profit ; -ligr, a. 
mercantile ; mer ver6r -ligt, I cofne to 
a bargain ; -raatSr, m. trader, mer- 
chant ; -manga (at5j, v. to bargain 
(-manga vi5 e-n). 

kaupmanna-g0rfi, n. merchant's 
attire', -log, n. pi. league of merchants 
(vera i -logum = vera kaupmaSr). 

kaupniann-liga,adv. in a merchant- 
like manner ; -ligr, a. merchant-like. 

kaup-mali, m. bargain^ contract ; 
-rof, n. breach of bargain ; -sattr, a. 
agreed as to a bargain ; -skapr, m. 
stores of merchandise, wares ; -skip, 
n. 7nerchant ship-^ -slaga (at5), v. to 
bargain ; -stat5r, m. inarket town ; 
-stefna, {.fair, market ; -sveinn, m. 
= -drengr ; -tun, n. market town. 

kaupu-nautr, m. customer. 

kaup-varningr, m. merchant wares ; 
-vattr, m., -vitni, n. witness to a 
bargain ; -l)orp, n. = -tun. 

ka (kdi, kat5a, katSr), v. to ha7'ass ; 
refl., kdst i e-u, to 7neddle in a thing. 

kdklast (atS), v. refl. to receive a 
bexting, meet with blows. 

k^l, n. cabbage, kale. 

kalfi, m. the calf of the leg. 

kalfr (-S, -ar), m. calf; fig. small 
island (beside a large one). 

kdlfs-belgr, m. calf's skin. 

kdlf-skinn, n, calf-skin. 

kapa, f. cloak made with a cowl or 
hood (hann var i blarri kapu). 

kdpu-ermr, f. the sleeve of a kipa ; 
-battr, -hottr, m. the hood of a kapa ; 
-skaut, n. the lap of a kdpa. 

kdr-hof (5a(5r, a. curled. 

kdrina, f , see * karina '. 

karr, m. ciirl ift the hair. 

kdt-liga, adv. in a inerry manner; 
-ligr, a. fnerry, cheerful (-lig or6). 

katr, a. tnerty, cheerful. 

ka-vi8i, f. meddlesomeness ; -visligr, 
a., -viss, a. quarrelsojue, meddlesome. 

kefja (kef, kafSa, kaftSr), v. to 

dip, put under water', impers. to b£ 
swamped, sink, of a ship (skipit kafSi 
undir ]>eim) ; refl., kefjast, to dip one- 
self, duck, dive. 

kefla (-da, -dr), v. to gag (a lamb). 

kefli, n. cylinder (of wood), stick. 

kefling, f. gagging (of lambs). 

kefli-volr, m. cane, stick, = kefli. 

keikja (-ta, -tr), v. to betid back- 
wards (E, keikti hann aptr d bak). 

keikr, a. bent backwards (bjugr i 
lendum en keikr 1 halsi). 

keila, f. a sea-fish allied to the cod', 
torsk or tusk. 

keipr (-s, -ar), m. rowlock, 

keipull, m. a kind of boat, coble, 

keisa (-ta, -tr), v. to beiid. 

keisara-domr, m., -doemi, n. em" 
pire ; -boll, f. i?nperial castle ; -ligr, 
2L.imperial', -riki,n.= -doemi; -stoll, 
m. imperial throne. 

keisari, m. emperor, 

kektunar-maSr, = klektunar-madr. 

kelda, f. (i) well, spring; (2) bog^ 
quagmire (la hestr hans i keldu). 

keif a (-di, -t), v. to calve. 

kelpa, f. trap (for otters). 

kelta, f. = kjalta. 

kemba (-da, -dr), v. (i) to comb (k. 
hdr sitt) ; (2) to card (k. uU). 

kempa, f. champioti, bold warrior 
(bardagamaSr mikill ok kempa). 

kengr, m. (i) a horseshoe-formed 
crook; {2) bend, bight; kottrinn beygdi 
kenginn, arched its back. 

kenna (-da, -dr), v. (i) to know, 
recognize (Flosi kenndi Kara, er hann 
kom 1 stofuna) ; (2) to know as one's 
own, claijn (k. ser land) ; (3) to assign 
or attribute to one {'^i. var ok dr um 
oil lond, kenndu Sviar ftat Frey) ; k. 
e-m barn, to father a child upoft one ; 
(4) k. e-m e-t, to lay to otie's charge, 
impute {e{ hann vser'i sannrverks Jiessa, 
er honum var kennt) ; k. e-m um e-t, 
to charge one with a thing (porge'iri 
vildi ekki, at broeSrum hans mastti um 
k.) ; (5 ) to taste tood or drink (k. e-t or 
e-s) ; (6) to J eel, perceive, with ace. 
and gen. (ek kennda pin eigi, er J)u 
hvildirdbrjosti m^r) ; k. sastan Wm, to 
perceive a sweet smell ; k. hita (kulda) 
af e-u, to feel heat {cold) from ; k. 




aflsmunar, lidsmunar, to feel the odds ; I 
hon kenndi i meira lagi, she felt con- 
siderable pain ; absol., J)d er ]3eir 
komu upp 1 heiSina, kenndi at bra lit, 
the colour was felt to change, it bega7i 
to darken ; mer kennir heiptarvid e-n, 
I feel hatred against one\ k. ni3r, to 
touch the bottom (en er skipin kenndu 
ni6r, \>^ gekk jarl a land) ; (7) to show, 
bear witness ^(virSist mer dkall J)etta 
meirr kenna ranglaetis en rettvisi) ; 
(8) to call, na7ne\ k. e-t vi6 e-n, to 
call after one (Helgi truc3i d Krist, ok 
kenndi Jdvi vid hann bustaS sinn); (9) 
in poetry, to call by a periphrastic 
name (hvernig skal k. sol, vind); (10) 
k. e-m e-t, to teach one a thing (k. e-m 
r^tta tru ok goda si6u) ; ek hefi kennt 
J)er irsku at msela, / have taught thee 
to speak Irish ; [\\) to make one do a 
thing^y. e-m bita) ; (12) refl.,kennast, 
to seem, appear (Ulfr kennist mer vitr 
madr) ; recipr., sv^ var myrkt, at J)eir 
kenndust eigi, that t-hey did not know 
one another-, goldit var honum Jjetta 
svd, at hann mun lengi kennast, he 
was repaid for this in a way that he 
will long re7nember; kennast vi3, 
to recogfiize (kenndist hann af J)vi 
I)egar vi6 mennina) ; to confess, ac- 
knowledge (at J)eir mastti vici kennast 
sinn litilleik). 

kennandi (pi. -endr), m. (l) re- 
cognizer; (2) teacher, preacher, 

kennan-ligr, a. perceptible. 

kennari, m. teacher, master. 

kenni, n. 7?tark (cf. ^einkenni'). 

kenni-facSir, m. = l3srifa5ir ; -macSr, 
m. teacher, cleric, priest. 

kennimann-ligr, a. having the air 
of a priest, clerical. 

kennimanns-skapr, m. priesthood. 

kenni-mark, n. 7nark (= kenni). 

kenning (pi. -ar), f. (i) teaching, 
doctri7ie, lessoti, esp. of preaching ; 
kenna kenningar, to preach ; (2) mark 
of recognition ; (3) ^t: poetical peri- 
phrasis or descriptive na77te. 

kenningar-nafn, n. surna7ne\ -ortS, words of admonition \ -sonr, m. 
alleged son. 

kenni-speki, i. power of recognition. 

kennsl, n. pi. (i) recognition ; bera 

k. i. e-n, to know, recognize one ; (2) 
a chajge made on evidence ; hafa k. i, 
e-m, bera k. i. hendr e-m, to charge 
07ie with a thing. 

kennsla, f. ( i ) teaching, instruction ; 
(2) = kennsl (i). 

kenpa, f. cha7)tpion (= kempa). 

keppa (-ta, -t), v. to contend, strive 
hard', k. um e-t, to contend for or 
about a thing', k. vi3 e-n, to contend 
with one ; refl., keppast, to exert one- 
self; k. vi5 e-n, to contend with or 
against one ; k. til e-s or um e-t, to 
strive after, contend for a thing, 

keppi-liga, adv. i77tpetuously, 

keppr, m. cudgel, club. 

ker, n. tub, vessel, goblet, 

kerald, n. tub. 

ker-batS, n. = ker-Iaug. 

kerfi, n. bunch, bu7idle (morg spj6t, 
er bundin voru 1 k.). 

ker-laug, f. bathing in a tub. 

kerling (pi. -ar), f. (i) wo7nan, wife'^ 
(2) old wo})ia7t. 

kerlinga-villa, f. old wojnan^s tale, 
no7ise7ise (Jjat er mi kolluS -villa). 

kerra, f. car, chariot (k. solarinnar). 

kerski, f. cheerfulness, fun ( = keski). 

kerski-mdl, n. jest ; -mall, a. face- 
tious ; -orS, n. pi. jokes ; -ort5r, a. = 
-mdll ; -yrtSi, n. pi. = -or3. 

kerta-hjd.lnir, m. chandelier', -klofi, 
m. snuffers ; -stika, f. candlestick. 

kerti, n. wax ca7idle, taper. 

kerti-rak, n. candle-wick ; -stika, 
f. = kertastika ; -sveinn, m. link-boy 
(attendant on a great man). 

kesja, f. a kind oi halberd. 

kesju-lag, n. a thrust with a halberd, 

keski, f. = kerski ; -fimr, a. witty. 

ketil-hadda, f. kettle-handle', -hrim, 
n. kettle-gri77ie, soot. 

ketill (dat. katli, pi. katlar), m. 
kettle, pot, cauldro7i (i eldahiisinu var 
eldr mikill ok katlar yfir). 

ketil-tak, n. taki7ig a hot stone out 
of a boiling kettle (as an ordeal). 

ketlingr (-s, -ar), m. kitten. 

ketta, f . she-cat ; giantess. 

keypi-liga, adv. after the 7nanner 
of a bargain. 

kesrr, n. choice, = k0r. 

keyra (-tSa, -tSr;, v. (i) to whip, 




lash^ prick on (hann keyrSi J)d best 
sinn) ; k. best sporum, to put spurs to 
a horse ; (2) to ride (keyrir siSan sem 
barSast til sinna manna) ; (3) to fling 
(S. bregSr bonum i. loft ok keyrir 
hann lit i. Rangd) ; k. e-n utbyrSis, 
to fling overboard ; (4) /<? drive, thrust 
(k. nagia, k. sverS i bofuS e-m) ; 
Jorunn tok sokkana ok keyrSi um 
h6fu6 benni, J. struck her about the 
head with the stockings ; (5) impers., 
e-n keyrir, one is driven, tossed, by 
tbe wind, waves (fundu J)eir eigi fyrr 
en ^i. keyrSi i. land upp ) ; e-t keyrir 
or h6fi, it exceeds all measure, 

kejrri, n. luhip. 

kesrris-hcgg, n. lash. 

keyta, i.foul water. 

kits (gen. pi. kiSa or kitSja), n. kid. 

kits a-roj 61k, f. kicPs ?nilk. 

ki^lingr (-s, -ar), m. young kid. 

kit5-skinn, n. kid-skin. 

kikna (at5), v. to bend backwards^ to 
sink at the knees (kikna i kndsbotum). 

kilpr, m. handle (of a vessel). 

kilting, f. skirt, lap (bann hafSi 
Inga konung i kilting sdr). 

kimbla (at5), v. to truss up. 

kind (pi. kindir and kindr), f. (i) 
kind, race ; fyrda (gumna, seggja, 
skatna, yta) k., the sons of men, man- 
kind\ (2) creature, being', lifdi engi 
kvik k. eptir, no living creature lived 
after; sterkari en nokkur k. onnur, 
stronger than any other creature ; 
belgar kindir, holy beings. 

kinga, f. brooch (k. var d bringu). 

kinn (pi. kinnr), f. cheek. 

kinnar-bein, n. = kinnbein ; -kjdlki, 
m. the upper jaw-bone. 

kinn-bein, n. cheek-bone; -bjorg, f. 
cheek-piece of a helmet ; -filla, f. 
* cheek-flesh ' ; -hestr, m. box on the 
ear ; -hoggva (see hoggva), v. to hew 
or hack the cheek ; -lecSr, n. leather 
cheek-piece of a bridle ; -roSi, m. 
blush of shame; -skjottr, a. with pie- 
bald cheeks (of a horse) ; -skogr, m. 
beard; -sksBrr, a. white-cheeked. 

kinnungr (-s, -ar ), m. bow of a ship. 

kinn-vangi, m. cheek. 

kippa (-ta, -t), v. to picll, snatch, 
draw quickly (Egill kipti at ser sver3- 

inu) ; hann kippir monnum at ser, ht 
gets men together ; k. ofan seglinu, to 
pull the sail down ; impers., e-m 
kippir i kyn (um e-t), one resembles his 
kinsmen {in something) ; refl., kippast 
um e-t, to struggle with one another 
about a thing; k. vi5, to make a 
sudden ^notion (kippist bann sv^ hart 
vi6, at jor6 oil skelfr). 

kippa, f. bufidle, string {of). 

kippr, m. pull, jerk, shock. 

kirkja (gen. pi. kirkna), f. church. 

kirkju-bann, n. ban of the church ; 
-bol, n. church estate ; -bunaSr, m. 
church hangings ; -bcBr, m. = -bol ; 
-dagr, m. church-day, anniversary ; 
-drottinn, m. church patron ; -eign, 
f., -f§, n. church property; -fritSr, m. 
church-peace, sanctuary ; -ganga, f. 
church-going; -gartSr, m. church- 
yard; -gengt, a.n., eiga -gengt, to be 
allowed to go to church ; -gri6, n. pi. 
= -fri6r ; -graBfr, a. who can be buried 
at a church; -g0r8, f. church-build- 
i7ig ; -helgr, f. church service ; -land, 
n. church-land, glebe ; -log, n. pi. ec- 
clesiastical law; -mdldagi, m. church 
deed; -messa, f. = -dagr ; -rdn, n. 
sacrilege ; -r6ttr, m. church-right ; 
-skot. n. wing of a church ; -skraut, 
-skrutS, n. church ornament ; -sokn, 
f. (i) church-worship, attendance at 
service ; (2) paj-ish ; -st6tt, f. church 
pavei7ient; -stoll, m. church pew ; 
-tiund, f. church tithe ; -tjold, 
church hangings ; -vi$r, m. church 
timber ; -vist, f. attendance at church ; 
-vigsla, f. consecration of a church ; 
-v6r(5r, m. churchwarden, 

kirna, f. churn. 

kirnu-askr, m. churn-pail. 

kista (gen. pi. kistna), f. (i) chest; 
(2) coflin (= lik-kista). 

kistill (-S, pi. kistlar), m. little 
chest, small box. 

kistu-hringr, m. ring in a chest; 
-lykill, m. key of a chest \ -lok, n. 
cover of a chest. 

kitla (a5), v. to tickle. 

kifa (at5), v. to quarrel. 

kifinn, a. quarrelsome. 

kill, m. narrow inlet, canal, 

kjallari, m. cellar. 




kjalta (gen. kjdltu), f. lap. 

kjal-vegr, m. a way leading across 
a ridge of fnou7itains (local name). 

kjappi, m. pet name of a he-goat, 

kjapta (at$), v. to chatter, gabble, 

kjaptr (-3, -ar), m. = kjoptr. 

kjark-leysi, n. lack of vigour. 

kjarkr, m. vigour^ pith, energy. 

kjarni, m. kernel^ esp. of berries. 

kjarr (pi. kj6rr),n. copsewood, briish- 
ivood, thicket. 

kjarr-myrr, f. marsh- ground with 
brushwood; -skogr, m. copsewood. 

kja (tjai, kjac5a, kjacS), v. ; hverr 
l)eirra kjdr netinu at 63rum, they put 
their heads together. 

kjalki, m. (l) jaw-bone \ (2) hand- 
sledge (draga kjdlka). 

kjoll (-8, -arj, m. poet. ship. 

kjosa (kys ; kaus, k0ri and keyri ; 
kusum and kurum ; kosinn,k0rmn), 
V. (i) to choose, select (valkyrjur ri5a 
jafnan at k. val); (2) to desire, wish 
({)d kys ek laust kaup vdrt) ; k. heldr, 
to choose rather, prefer ; (3) /<? elect 
(k. biskup) ; (4) with preps., k. c-n af 
fleirum, to select, choose from a num- 
ber; k. af, to choose (kuru J)eir J)d af 
at ganga til handa konungi) ; margir 
kjosa ekki or6 a sik, matiy are not so 
well spoketi of as they may wish to be ; 
k. e-n til e-s, to select one for a t^ing 
(k. e-n til fylgdar viQ sik, til biskups) ; 
k. um e-t, to choose between (kjos J)u 
nu um tva kostij. 

kjiiklingr (-a, -ar), m. chicken, chick. 

kjolr (gen. kjalar, dat. kill ; pi. 
kilir,acc. kjolu), m. (i) >i'«?^/(brotna6i 
kjolrinn undir skipinu) ; sigla lausum 
kill, to sail with an empty ship ; koma 
e-m d kjol, to get one up on the keel 
(when the boat is capsized) ; niSr 1 
V\\\,down in the hold; (2) keel-shaped 
range of mountains (austr um Kjol) ; 
(3) back of a book. 

kjol-syja, f. one of the two boards 
nearest to the keel. 

]<jol-vegr, m. = kjal-vegr. 

kjoptr, m. (i) jaw (er hinn efri k. 
vi6 himni, en hinn nedri vid jordu) ; 
{^) gaping jaws. 

kjor, n. choice, decision; ganga (falla) 
K)ii.y to go as one wishes. 


kj6r-gripr, m. a choice or costly 
thing; -ligr, z.. fit to be chosen. 

kjorr, m. thicket = kjarr (J)eir skildu 
f kjorr einum). 

kj 6r-vdpn, n.a choice weapon ; -vit5r, 
m. choice timber; -visligr, a. accept- 
able, — kjorligr. 

kjot (dat. kjoti and kj6tvi),n. meat, 
fiesh ; in pi. stores of meat. 

kj6t-dt, n., -ata. f. meat-eating; 
-biti, m. piece of meat ; -ligr, a. (i) 
pertain ing to fiesh ; {2) cam al,fieshly ; 
(3) related by blood; kjotligt barn, o?ie^s 
own child; kjotligr broSir, brother 
germane ; -leer, n. joint of meat ; 
-stykki, n. piece of meat ; -vaxinn, 
^p.fieshy; -setr, a. eatable (of meat). 

klafa-kerling, f., -stafr, m. a kind 
of two-pronged stick. 

klafi, m. a kind oi fork (put on a 
cow's neck in the stall). 

klak (pi. kick), n. chirping of birds. 

klaka (a$), v. to twitter, chatter (of 
birds) ; refl., klakast viQ um e-t, to 
have a dispute about. 

klaka-hestr, m., -hross, n. a horse 
that is left unhoused in winter; -hogg, 
n. a tool for breaking up frozeti soil, 
= t)eIhogg ; -torf, n. frozen tu?f. 

klaki, m. hard-frozen ground. 

klakk-laust, adv. unhurt, un- 
scathed (komast -laust af). 

klakkr (-3, -ar), m. heavy, peaked 
clouds ; cf. uvidris-klakkr. 

klakk-sdrr, a. touchy, feeling sore; 
e-m ver6r -sart, one is hurt, in,ured. 

klambrar-, gen. from ' klombr ' ; 
-veggr, m. a kind of wedge. 

kland, n. molestation, 

klanda (a5), v. to molest. 

klanda-lauss, 2^.. free fro7n molesta- 
tion ; klandan, f., klandr, n. = kland. 

klapp, n. pat, patti7ig. 

klappa (a5). v. (i) to pat, st?'oke 
gently (jarlinn klappafii hendi sinni d 
bak honum) ; k. um e-t, to pat : (2) to 
knock, rap (k. a dyrum, d hurSj ; (3) 
to shape by cuififjg blows, hew, chisel 
(voru klappafiirdsteinvegginn krossar 
^rir); {^)to hamjner ; mun ek nu k. um 
aptr, I will make it good ( right) again. 

klauf (pi. -ir), f. (i) the cleft (be- 
tween the toes); (2) cloven foot 




(goltrinn svamm J)ar til af gengu klauf- 
irnar) ; (3) beast ^ head of cattle. 

klaufa-gangr, m. tramp of cattle, 

klausa, f. clause, passage. 

klaustr, n. cloister^ cofivent, 

klaustra-folk, n. convent folk ; -lif- 
nat5r, m. ccmvent life ; -menn, m. pi. 
convent people. 

klaustr-ganga, f. entering a con- 
veftt ; -gartSr, m. convent wall. 

kid (klsB ; klo, klogum ; kleginn), 
V. to claw, scratch, rub (hann ba6 mik 
kM fot sinn). 

kldSi, m. itch (l)egar brd kliQa 
miklum d hvarmana). 

kla^-sjukr, a. scabby. 

kldfr (-S, -ar), m. a kind of box 
carried on horseback. 

klam, n. obscene, filthy language. 

kldm-hogg, n. an opprobrious blow ; 
-yrSi, n.foul language. 

klap-eygr, a. goggle-eyed, staring. 

kldrr (-s, -ar), m. hack, cart-horse. 

kl6 (gen. kljd ; pi. k]jdr), m. one of 
the stones to keep the warp straight 
in the old upright loom. 

klefi, m. closet (cf. svefnklefi). 

kleggi (gen. -ja), m. cleg, horse-fly, 

kleggi (gen. -ja), m. cock of hay. 

kleif (pi. -ar), f. cliff, rocky ascent. 

kleima (-da, -dr), v. to daub, dabble. 

kleiss, a. lisping (k.. 1 mdli). 

klekja (klek, klakta, klaktr and 
klakinn), v. to hatch (= k. ut). 

klektunar-matSr , m. chicken-hearted 
man (hann er engi -ma6r). 

klenging f pi. -ar), i.vexatious action. 

klengi-sok, f. a vexatiotis suit. 

klengjast (d), v. to interfere or in- 
trude oneself vexatiously. 

kleppr, m. plummet, lump. 

klerka-folk, n., -ly$r, m. the clergy ; 
-siSir, m. pi. clerical custotns ; -songr, 
m. church music. 

klerk-domr, m. learning', -liga, 
adv. like a clerk, learnedly ; -ligr, 
a. clerkly, scholar-like. 

klerkr (-s, -ar), m. (l) cleric, clerk, 
scholar', (2) clergyman, esp. of the 
minor orders. 

klettr (-8, -ar), m. rock, crag. 

kliSr, m. din, murjnur. 

klif, n. cliff, scatir^ — kleif. 

klifa (a5), v. to repeat, harp on the 
sa,7ne thing (also, k. i. e-u) ; refl., klifast 
vi5 e-n, to wrangle with one. 

klif-gata, f. way along a cliff. 

klifra (a^), klifrast, v. to clijnb. 

klingja (-da, -t), v. /^ ring, jingle. 

klippa (-ta, -tr), v. to clip, cut ; k. 
sauSi, to shear sheep. 

klifa (klif; kleif, klifum ; klifinn), 
V. to climb (konungr kleif upp i einn 
bakka ; k. bratta brekku). 

kligja (-Sa), v. to feel nausea (h6n 
kligir mjok). 

kligja, f. 7iausea. 

klina (-da, -dr), v. to smear', k. 
brau3, to butter bread. 

kliningr, m. buttered bread. 

kljd (kljai, kljaSa, kljaSr), v. to 
fix the weights (cf. * kid ') to a loom ; 
vera i. enda klja6r, to have done ; er 
ek a enda kljac5r at J)ola J)at lengr, / 
can bear it no longer. 

kljar, m. = kle. 

kljufa (klyf ; klauf, klufum ; klof- 
inn), V. to cleave, split (hann hjo 
pe^ar i skjold Hruts ok klauf allan 
ni5r) ; skammt upp klofinn, having 
a short fork, short-legged. 

klof, n. the space between the legs, 
the fork. 

klofa-rum, n. ship's cabin near the 
mast ; -stef, n. ' cleft burden ', a form 
of refrain in a ' drapa '. 

klofi, m. (i) cleft, rift (in a hill); 
cleft stick ; verSa i klofanum, to be 
caught in a trap ; (2) door-groove ; 
luka upp hurSu, or luka aptr hurd, a 
miSjan klofa, to open, or shut, the door 
halfway; hur6 hnigin a miSjan klofa, 
half shtit ; reka aptr hurSina [or luka 
hurSinni) i klofa, to shut the door', 

(3) the forks to support tents on board 
a ship (hoggva tjoldin or klofum) ; 

(4) snuffers. 

klofna (at$), v. to be cloven^ to split. 

klokka, f. = klukka. 

klo (pi. klcer, dat. klom), f. (i) 
claw, talon ; (2) clew (of a sail). 

kloa-gangr, m. scratching {fighting) 
with claws. 

kloast, V. refl. to fight with claws. 

kl6-dyr, n. a beast with claws, beast 
of prey ; -fugl, m. bird of prey. 




klokindi, n. pi. cunning^ cleverness. 

klok-leiki, m.=kl6kindi ; -liga, adv. 
ctinjtingly ; -ligr, a. amning, crafty. 

klokr, a. arch^ ciinning, clever. 

klok-samligr, a. = -ligr ; -skapr, m. 
= kl6kindi. 

klor, n. scratching] klora (a^), v. 
to scratch (like a cat). 

klot, n. knob of a sword hilt. 

klubba, f. = klumba. 

klukka (gen. pi. klukkna), f, bell\ 
kvad vid klukkan, the bell rang. 

klukkari, m. bell-ringer. 

klukkna-hljotS, n. peal of bells \ 
-hus, n. bell-chamber, belfry. 

klukku-hljoS, n. = kiukknahljoS ; 
-strengr, m. bell-string. 

kluaiba, f. club, — klubba, kylfa. 

klungr (-rs, -rar), m. bramble. 

klungrottr, o.. grown with b7'amble. 

klutr (-S, -ar), m. kerchief. 

klyf (pi. -jar), f. pack, truss (on a 
pack-horse) ; -beri, m. pack- saddle. 


klyfja (aS), v. to load with packs (k. 
best, asna af e-u). 

klyfja (klyf, kluf^a, klufiSr), v. 
to split, cleave. 

klyfja-band, n. pack-girth ; -bur(5r, 
m. carrying packs on horseback ; 
-hestr, m., -bross, n. pack-horse. 

klypa (-ta, -tr), v. to pinch, nip. 

klyping, f. pinching, nipping. 

klsetSa (-dda, -ddr), v. to clothe ; k. 
sik, to dress otieself-, refl., klae3ast, to 
dress oneself put on one's clothes, in 
the morning (si3an st66u I)eir upp ok 

kl8B(5a-, gen. pi. from ' klseSi ' ; 
-bunatJr, -buningr, m. apparel; 
-kaup, n. exchange of clothes ; -akipti, 
n. pi. change of clothes ; -skurtSr, m., 
-snitS, n. cut, fashion of clothes; -ylr, 
m. wartnth derived frofn clothes ; 
-6rk, f. clothes-chest. 

klae5-fdr, a. thinly clad; -hoefr, a. 
fit for wear. 

klaetSi, n. (i) cloth, stuff (ensk k. 
me3 morgum litum) ; (2) gartnent 

(maSr 1 rauQu k.) ; (3) esp. in pi., 
clothes, apparel, dress (hvar fyrir berr 

l)u rau5 klaeSi ?) ; fara i k., to put on 

clothes ; fara af or 6r klaeSum, to take 

off one's clothes ; bera k. (kasta klacfl- 
um ) d. vdpn, to throw clothes over the 
weapons (to stop a fi'^ht). 

klaetS-lauss, a. void of clothes, naked; 
-leysi, n. nakedness; -m.argr, a. well 
provided with clothes. 

klaetSnatSr (gen. -ar), m. clothingy 
app.irel (k. |>6ru ok gripir). 

klaeS-sekkr, m. clothes-bag. 

klaeja (aS), v. to itch ; nu klaeja oss 
lofarnir, now otir palms itch ; impers., 
m^r klasjar, / itch. 

kl8Bki, n. disgrace, cowardice. 

klaeki-ligr, a. dastardly, cowardly. 

kla9kis-efn.i, n. meaii proceeding \ 
-hogg, n. dastardly blow. 

klaeki-skapr, m. baseness, meanness. 

klaskis-laust, adv. blamelessly ; 
-mat5r, m. dastard; -nafn, n. name 
for cowardice ; -or 5, n. = -nafn ; 
-verk, n. base work. 

klsekja (-ta, -tr), v. to put to shame. 

kl8Bkja-fullr, a. disgraceful, mean. 

klesma (-da, -dr), v. to put to sha7ne. 

klok, n. pi., see ' klak '. 

klpkkna (a(5), v. to become softy 
softefi (J)at voknar ok kl0kknar). 

kl0kkr (ace. -van), a. pliable, softy 
yielding; easily affected. 

klpkkva (kl0kk ; klokk, klukku ; 
— ), V. to be moved to tears ; to sob, 

kl0kkva (-ta, tr), v. to soften. 

klpkkving, f. emotion. 

klombr (gen. klambrar), f. smithes 
vice, fig. a tight place. 

klopp (gen. klappar, pi. klappir), 
f. stepping-stone. 

knakkr (-s, -ar), m. a kind of stool. 

knapi, m. valet, varlet. 

knappatSr, ^^. furnished with studs 
or buttons (k, kyrtill). 

knapp-jdrn, n. iron staff with a knob 
at one end. 

knappr (-s, -ar), m. (i) knob (staf \ 
hendi ok knapp a) ; ri3a knapp d, to 
furnish a thing with a knob; (2) stud, 
button (me6 knappi ok nezlu). 

knarrar-bdtr, m. ship's boat (see 
*knorr'); -skip, n. = kn6rr ; -smiSr, 
m. shipwright. 

knatt-drepa, f., -gildra, f. = -tre ; 
-hogg, n. a blow with a ball; -leikr,. 
la. playing at ball; -tr6, n. bat. 




knd (pi. knegum ; kndtta), a defec- 
tive verb, / can {could) ; kndkat ek 
segja, / cannot say (poet.). 

krid-leikr, m. prowess^ hardihood ; 
-liga, adv. hardily, do7{ghtily (t)eir 
scEkja -liga ferSina) ; -ligr, a. = kndr. 

knar (knd, knatt), a. hardy, vigor- 
ous ; having strength and energy. 

kne (gen. pi. knja, dat. knjam or 
knjom), m. (I) knee ; sitja i. kn^ e-m, 
to sit on a person's knee\ ganga (koma, 
fara, hvarfa) fyrir k. e-m, to approach 
one as a suppliant ; koma e-m i. k., 
to bring one to his knees, ove^'come ; 
Idta k. fylgja kvidi, to plant the kfiee 
on the belly, sitja fyrir knjom e-rri, 
to attend a wojnan in childbirth ; (2) 
knee-titnber in a ship. 

kn6-be5r, m. knee cushion ; falla d 
-bed, to kneel; -beygjast (5), v. refl. 
to bow the knees ; -bjorg, f. knee- 
piece ; -fall, n. kneeling. 

knefa (atS), v. to deteri7iine (er Jjar 
nu knefat um annat ra6). 

kn6-falla (see falla), v. to fall on 
the knees ; to kneel. 

kneiking (pi. -ar), f. close embrace, 
hug (kossar ok kneikingar). 

kneikja (-ta, -tr), v. to bend back- 
wards with force (k. e-n aptr a bak). 

kne-lic5r, m. knee-joint. 

kneppa (-ta, -trj, v. (i) to press, 
hug (k. e-n at ser) ; {2) to stud, button. 

kn6-riuinr, m. lineage, kinship', de- 
gree in descent. 

kn6s-b6t, f. the hollow of the knee. 

kn6-setja (see setja), v. to place 
upon one's knees, a kind of adoption 
(hann -setti J)ann svem ok fostraSi); 
-setningr, m. foster-son. 

kn63-f6tr, m. hain, hough (= -bot). 

kne-sig, n. sinkifig on one's knees ; 
-skel, f. knee-cap, k;iee-pan ; -skot, n. 
huiniliatio7i ; koma -skoti a e-n, to 
bring one to his knees. 

kneyfa (-cSa, -t5r), v. to quaff (Egill 
kneyfdi af horninu i einum drykk). 

knia (aS), v. to consider, debate (er 
J)eir kniadu J)etta mal milli sin). 

knia, v. poet., only in the pret. 
*kai6i', to knock, strike', knifium un- 
n;r, we rowed. 

knifr (-s, -ar), m. knife, dirk. 

knifs-bla?J, n. knife's blade ; -hepti, 
n. knife's hajidle', -oddr, m. knife's 
point ; -skepti, n. = -hepti. 

kno?Ja (a$), v. to knead (k. saman 
mjol ok smjor). 

knoka (aS), v. to knock, thujnp. 

knosa (a§), v. to bruise, beat. 

knui,m. /^«;/^/^/(?(hvitnu6u knuarnir). 

knuska (a(5), v. to knock, ill-treat. 

knuskan, f. knocking, ill-treatment. 

knuta, f. knuckle-bone, joint^bone. 

knutottr, a. knotted. 

knutr (-S, -ar), m. (i) knot', leysa 
kmit, to undo a knot ; ri3a knut, to 
tie a knot ; knyta knut, to knit a 
knot; (2) hui7ip, protuberance. 

knykill (pi. knyklar), m. small 
knot, protuberance. 

knylla (-ta, -tr), v. to beat, strike 
(l)eir knylltu hann mec5 keyrinu). 

knypri, n. cowering ; vefja sik 1 k., 
to crouch together. 

knytja (a5), v. to k?iit or tie together, 

knyfill (pi. knyflar), m. short horn. 

knyflottr, a. short-ho7-ned. 

knyja (kny, kny5a or knu^^a, 
knuinn), v. (i) to knock ; hann knuSi 
hurSina, he knocked at the door ; (2) 
to press, drive ontuard (})eir knu3u 
fast arar mec3 sto um bakfollum) ; to 
push, urge on ihann gat varla fylgt 
henni, svd kniidi hon fast reiSina) ; 
(3) refl. to struggle on, p7-ess on ; J)vi 
harSara er f>6rr knviQist at fanginu, 
pvi fastara st65 h6n, the 7no7-e Thor 
exerted hiitiself, the frmer she stood. 

knyta (-tta, -ttr), v. to k7iit, fasten 
by a knot, bind, tie (hon knytir saman 
halana -k nautunum) ; with dat. (skul- 
um ver k. lindregli um fremra stafn) ; 
impers., knytti hrygginn (ace), the 
back kfiotted zip, became crooked. 

knyti, n. bag, purse. 

knytil-skaviti, m. a cloth or kerchief 
knotted up (and used as a purse). 

knyti-skauti, m. = knytilskauti. 

knyttr, pp. knotted, crippled. 

knorr (gen. knarrar, dat. knerri ; 
pi. kneriir, ace. knorru), m. ship, 
esp. 7nerchant-ship, opp. to 'langskip'. 

knottr (gen. knattar, dat. knetti ; 
pi, kne tir, ace. knottu), m. ball; 
her5a knua at knetti, to play at ball. 




koddi, m. filloiv. 
kofarn, n., -rakki, m. lap-dog. 
kofi, m. convent cell ; //«/, shed, 
kofr, n. coffer (skrin ok k.). 
kofri, m. hood or bonnet of fur. 
kofr-ind.lugr, a. testy, snappish ; 
-menni, n. a snappish^ testy person 
(-menni f skapi). 
kogla (aS), V. to goggle, look askance. 
kol, n. pi. coals, charcoal (svi3a k.). 
kola, f. a small, open lamp. 
kola-, gen. pi. from 'kol*; -karl, 
-maSr, m. charcoal-maker \ -meiss, 
m. box for carry i?ig coals. 
kol-bitr, m. coal-eater (an idle per- 
son sitting always at the fireside) ; 
-blar, a. coal-black ; -brenna, f. char- 
coal-making ; -grof, f. charcoal pit ; 
-g0r$, f. = -brenna. 
koUa, f. (i) hind, cow ; (2) womafi 
(only in compds.). 
kol-laupr, m. coal-box. 
koll-heitS, n. bright sky overhead: 
-hetta, f., -hottr, m. a kind of round 
cap (J)eir hofdu grdr -hettur). 
kollottr, a. (i) without horns, polled 
(aer kollott) ; (2) with shaven crown, 
hairless (k. ok klasSlauss) ; having the 
hair cut short. 
kollr (-S, -ar), m. (i) top, summit 
(a kolli fjallsins) ; (2) head, pate (J)eim 
var sprottit hdr or kolli) ; (3) a shaven 
crown (hann rakar af J)eim harit ok 
g0r6i J)eim koll) ; (4) hrinda e-u um 
koU, to overthrow. 
koll-sveinn, m. boy with aflat cap ; 
-varpa (a(5), v. to ove) throw ; -verpa 
(see verpa), v. = -varpa. 
kol-merktr, pp. jet-black (klasSi 
-merkt) ; -reykr, m. smoke from burn- 
ing charcoal ; -svartr, a. coal-black ; 
-vi^r, m. wood for charcoal. 
koma (kem ; kom or kvam, kom- 
um or kvamum ; kominn), v. (i) 
to come (litlu siSarr koinu Finnar aptr 
heim) ; \i) to co?ne, arrive (bref komu 
fra Skula jarli) ; kom sva, at {it ca?ne 
to pass, that) Bardi var heitit mey- 
junni ; (3) with dat. of the object, to 
make to come, to take, bring, carry, 
&c. ; hann skyldi k. I^or i GeirroSar- 
gar6a, he should make Th. come to 
G,\ hann kom tjorhaddi heilum yfir 

dna, he brought Th. safe across the 
river \ k. e-m i hel, to put one to 
death ; k. e-m til falls, to make one 
fall ; k. e-m i sastt vi6 e-n, to reconcile 
one with another-, k. ser vel hja e-m, 
to bring oneself into favour with, be 
agreeable to (peir komu ser vel vid 
alia) ; k. e-u til lei6ar (til vegar), to 
effect, bring about ; k. orSum vi5 e-n, 
to speak with a person (hann g0r6i 
sik sva rei6an, at ekki matti orSum 
vi6 hann k.) ; (4) with preps., k. e-u 
af sdr, to get rid of (allt mun ek til 
vinna at k. af mer ySvarri reiSi); k. 
e-u af, to abolish (J)vi hal3i eigi orSit 
af komit mec3 ollu) ; k. at e-m, to cofne 
upon one (komu t)essir at honum fyrir 
Sjolandi me3 tveim skipum) ; k. at 
hendi, to happen (mikill vandi er 
kominn at hendi) ; impers., Gunnarr 
jataSi {)vi, en l)a er at kom, vildi hanri 
eigi, G. agreed to it, but when it came 
to the point he would not ; k. at e-u, 
to coffie at, regaifi, recover (k. at 
hamri) ; k. ser at e-u, to bring oneself 
to (f>. kom ser ekki at J)vi) ; k. a e-t, 
to come on, hit (hoggit kom i. lasrit) ; 
k. e-u a, to bring about, effect imattu 
jDeir 0ngQm flutningum a k. ) ; k. kristni 
(dat.) a England, to christianize E. ; 
k. fram, to come forth, appear, eme7ge 
(sigldi E. su6rme6 landi ok kom fram 
i Danmork) ; to be produced, brought 
forward (mi eru 611 frumgogn fram 
komin) ; to come about, take place, 
happen (nu mun {)at fram k. sem ek 
sag(3a) ; k. e-u fram, to brifig abouty 
effect (k. fram hefndum) ; k. fyrir e-t, 
to be an equivalent for (fyrir vig 
Hjartar skyldi k. vig Kols) ; ailt mur» 
k. fyrir eitt, // will all come to the 
same ; k. fyrir ekki. to come to naught, 
be of no avail; e-m l^ykkir fyrir van 
komit, at, one thinks it past all hope, 
that; k. e-u fyrir, to destroy (hann 
kom hverjum hesti fyrir) ; k. i e-t, to 
come into, enter; md.1 koma 1 dom, 
suits are brought up for judgejnent ; 
k. ni3r, to come down ; hann reyndi 
eptir, hvar G. vieri ni5r kominn, what 
had becojne of G. ; kom J)ar ni6r tal 
hennar, at hon sagSi honum, hversu, 
the end of her talk was, that she told 




him Ji07v— ; k. hart ni3r, to pay dearly 
for it (ek hafSa ilia til gort, enda kom 
ek hart niSi) ; k. saman, to come to- 
gether^ gather (er saman kom liSit) ; 
to agree ; J)at kom saman {or ^samt) 
me6 {3eim, they agreed on it\ impers., 
kom peim vel saman (asamt), they 
agreed well:, k. e-u saman, to bring 
about, effect ; k. saman s^ettum me3 
e-m, to reco7icile them ; k. til e-s, to 
come to a person or place ( jarlinn kom 
me8 allan her sinn til Dyflinnar) ; k. 
til rikis, to co7ne to, or succeed to, the 
throne ; k. til e-s, to cause : t)at kemr 
til J)ess, at, the reason is, that ; to 
help, avail', koma til litils, to come to 
little, be of small avail (= k. fyrir 
iitit ) ; to concern : {^etta mdl kemr 
ekki til pin, this g^uarrel is no business 
of thine ; pat er til min kemr, so far 
as I am concerned ; to tnean, signify 
(t*. kvezk skilja, hvar or3 hans komu 
til) \ to be of value : sver3 J)at, er til 
kom mork gulls, that was worth a 
'■mark^ of gold', mikit {)ykkir til e-s 
k., one is iniich thought of is thought 
to be of great i;nporta?ice ; k. til, to be 
born ; k. e-m undan, to help one to es- 
cape ; k. undir e-n, to come unto one ; 
ef undir oss skal k. kjorit, if we are 
to choose ; k. e-m undir, to get one 
down, overcome otie ; k. upp, to co7ne 
up ; tungl kemr upp, the 7HOon rises ; 
eldr kom upp,yf?r broke out', kom J)a 
upp gratr fyrir henni, she burst into 
tears ; to turn up (hann kastar tening- 
unum ok komu upp tvau sex) ; kom 
|)at upp af tali j^eirra, at, the e7id of 
their talk was, that ; to C07ne out, 
beco77ie known (kom J)at 'pi. upp, at 
hann haf3i beSit hennar) ; k. e-u upp, 
to open (kerling tekr horpuna ok vildi 
upp k.) ; hann mdtti lengi eigi ordi 
upp k., // was long before lie could 
utter a wofd ; k. vi6 e-t, to touch 
(komit var vi3 hurQina) ; J)eir komu 
vi6 sker, they struck on a reef; hann 
kemr vi6 margar sogur, he appears in 
ma7iy sagas ; to be added to (koma 
J)^r naetr vi3 hinar fyrri) ; k. vi3, to 
fit, be convenie7it, suit ; k. e-u vi5, to 
e77tpioy, 77iake use of (ek mdtta eigi 
boganum vi6 k.) ; hann kom J>vi vi3 

{he brotcght about), at ergi skyldi fara 
me3 vjipn ; ur6u peir at flyja sem J)vf 
komu vi3, all fled that could', k. s^r 
vi3, to bring about, effect, be able to 
do (ek mun veita jD^r slikt li3 sem ek 
ma mer vi3 k.) ; to behave (hversu 
hann kom s^r vi3 i f)essum malum) ; 
k. yfir, to pass over (hvert kveld, er 
yfir kom) ; (5) refl., komast, to co7ne 
to the end, get through, reach (hann 
komst vi6 sva buit i riki sitt); k. af, 
to escape, save one's life (tveir drukk- 
nu6u, en hinir komust af) ; k. at e-u, 
to get at a thi7ig, procure ; eigi skaitu 
ilia at k., thou shall 7iot get it un- 
fairly ; k. d foetr, to get on one's legs ; 
k. undan, to escape (allt I)at h6, er 
undan komst); k. ut, to get out\ k. 
vi6, to be able (brenn allt ok basl sem 
p\x matt vi6 k.) ; to be touched (hann 
komst mjok vi3 ok felldi tdr) ; k. vi5 
vedri, to get abroad {hann let pat ekki 
vi6 ve6ri k.) ; k. yfir e-t, to overco7ne, 
get hold of (er hann komst yfir feit). 

koma, f. arrival, — kvama. 

kominn, pp. co77ie ; k. af e-m, de- 
sce7idedfro77i ; k. af ser, in a declining 
state, 071 the decline (kristnin var mjok 
sva af ser komin) ; k. at andMti, 
dau8a, breathi7ig one's last; voru J)eir 
mjok at komnir, they were 77iuch ex- 
hausted; vel (ilia) k., in good {bad) 
estate; hann var vel til nams k., he 
was in a good place for learning; 
m^r t)ykkir son minn hvergi betr k., 
i7iethinks 77iy son is 7io%vhere better 
off, in better ha7ids ; k. i. sik vel, in 
a good state, acco7nplished (k. i. sik 
manna bezt) ; vera d legg k., to be 
grown up ; vera sv^ aldrs k., to be of 
such a7i age ; hann sagQi henni, hvar 
pi. var komit, he told her how 771a tiers 
stood; vera k. til e-s, to be entitled to 
(t)eir, er til einskis eru komnir); rett 
k. til konungdoms, right heir to the 


kompana-skapr, m. co77ipanionship, 
kompann, m. = kumpinn. 
kompdss, m. ring, circle, compass, 
kora.u-inat5r, m. new co77ier, guest. 
kona (gen. pi. kvenna), f. (i) wo7nan 

(var hon kvenna friSust) ; (2) wife (ek 

em k. Ni^ls). 




konar» gen. sing, from an obsolete 
* konr ', kind ; alls k., of all kinds ; 
hvers k., of every kind ; margs k., of 
many kinds ; ymiss k , of sundry 
kinds ; sams k., of the same kind. 

konr (pi. -ir), m. poet, (i) son, 
descendant, kinsman ; (2) matt. 

konu-bu, n. woman's estate ; -efni, 
n. one^s future wife, bride ; -f6, n. 
marriage portion ; -bar, n. wotnan's 
hair ; -klaetSi, n. pi. wotnati's attire ; 
-lauss, a. wifeless, widowed (verQa 
-lauss) ; -mdl, n. love affair (verSa 
sekr um -mal), = kvennam^l ; -nd-m, 
n. abduction of a woman. 

konunga (a5), v. to address as a 
king, to call by the name of king. 

konunga-kyn, n. royal kin, royalty ; 
-skipti, n. change of kings, succession ; 
-stefna, f. ?neeting of kings ; -seett, f. 
peace between kings ; -tal, n. series of 
kings ; -fiBtt, f. = -kyn. 

konung-borinn, pp., -borligr, a. 
of royal birth ; -djarfr, a. speaking 
boldly to kings ; -domr, m. kingdotn ; 
-lauss, a. kingless, without a king ; 
-ligr, a. kingly, royal', -matJr, m. 
royal person, king. 

konungr (-s, -ar), m. king. 

konung-riki, n. kingdom. 

konungs-atsetr, n. king^s residence ; 
-br6f, n. ki?ig^s writ, warrant ; -bu, 
n. royal estate ; -efni, n. future king ; 
-eigur, f. pi. royal property ; -eyrendi, 
n. royal errand ; -fundr, m. audience 
given by a king', -garSr, m. king's 
palace ; -hofn, f. kifig's haven ; 
-kvec5ja, f. address to a king', -leyii, 
n. ki?!g's leave', -lykill, m. the king's 
key = axe (which opens all doors and 
chests) ; munu peir bera -lykil at 
husina, they will break in by force ; 
-la9gi, n. king's berth ; -nafn, n. king's 
title', -naMtv^m. kittg' s gift', -niSingr, 
m. traitor to the king; -riki, n. king- 
dom ; -setr, n. royal residence ; 
-skriiSi, m. king''s apparel; -steSi, 
m. the king's stithy, the tnint ; -sveit, 
f. king's retinue ; -sysla, f. roya,l 
office, district ; -saeti, n. king's seat, 
residence ; -tekja, f. election of a king ; 
-tign, f. royal dignity ; -vigsla, f. 

konung-aaBll, a. blessed with good 
kings (hofum v^r verit -Scclir). 
kopar-kanna, f. copper can ; -kross, 

m. copper cross. 

koparr, m. copper. 

kopar-stika, f. copper candlestick. 

koppr (-8, -ar), m. cup, small vessel. 

kordunu-hosur, f . pi. hose of cordo' 
van leather. 

korn, n. cor?t, grain (j^ar var hallasri 
a korni) ; oats (gefa hestum k.) ; in 
pi. stores of grain (hann flutti med 
ser mikil korn). 

korn-amstr, n. corn-stack ; -ar, n. 
crop ; -arit brast, the crop failed. 

Korn-bretar, m. pi. the Britons of 
Cor?iwall (Kornbreta-land). 

korn-frjo, n. seed-corn ; -hjalmr, m. 
corn-stack ; -blatSa, f. barn ; -kaup, 
n. purchase of corn ; -kippa, f. basket 
for seed-corn ; -sala, f. sale of corn ; 
-skreppa, f. corn-bag. 

kornskurtSar-maSr, m. shearer^ 
reaper ; -manatSr, m. shearing month. 

korn-skurt5r, m. shearing, reaping ; 
-vist, f. stores of corn. 

korpr, m. raven, = hrafn. 

koa-eyrir, m. choice things. 

kosning, f., kosningr, m. election. 

koss (pi. kossar), m. kiss. 

koss-mildr, a. fond of kissing, 

kosta (at5), v. (i) to try, with gen. ; 
k. afls, magns, to try {put forth) otie's 
strength ; k. mans, to fall in love ; 
B. iDurfti alls at k., B. had to exert all 
his strength ; k. kapps, to strive hard ; 

(2) to exert oneself, strive, with infin. 
(i pvi, er hann kostar upp at risa) ; 
kostit svi. keppa, at Gu5run klokkvi, 
do your best to draw tears from G.; 

(3) to injure, hurt (baeSi var kostat 
hold bans ok bein) ; inipers., J)at fall 
var sva mikit, at kostac5i laerlegg bans, 
that his thie,h-bone was hurt', (4) k. 
e-n mikit, litit, to cost one nmch, little ; 
impers., kostar e-n e-t, it costs 07te so 
and so tnuch, with the price in gen. 
(kostar pik pat nokkurs), or ace. (einn 
riddara kostar atta merkr gulls sinn 
bunad) ; (5) /<? defray the expenses of 
(J)at bo6 kostadi IJnnr) ; t)u hefir 
kostat OSS, thoi4 hast etitertained us. 

kosta-, gen. pi. from * kostr ' j -bo^. 




n. favourable choice ; -lauss, a. = 
- vanr ; -mikill, ?i.good, fine, valuable ; 
-munr, m. difference in quality (eigi 
cr -munr meQ ykkr). 

kostan, f. ( i ) pains, effort (lagSi k. 
ok stund d at fremja kristni) ; (2) 
temptation (k. fjdndans). 

kosta-vandr, a. fastidious ; -vanr, 
a. cheerless. 

kost-goSr, a. of good quality ; -gripr, 
m. costly thing, choice thing; -gssfa 
(-Sa, -Sr), V. (i) to push on with a 
thing; -gaefa eptirforina, to press the 
pursuit hard ; (2) with in tin., to strive, 
take pains (f>. kostgasfSi svd mjok 
at hjalpa foruneyti sinu) ; -gaefS, f., 
-gaefi, n. and f. painstaking, care ; 
me6 ollu -gaefi, with all diligence ; 
-gaefliga, adv. with pains, diligently ; 
-gsefligr, a., -gssfr, a. painstaking, 

kostigr, a. of good quality, choice. 

kost-illr, a. of mean quality, poor ; 
-lauss, a. of no use, bad ; -ligr, a. 
desirable, advantageous ; -mot^r, a. 
heavy with food. 

kostnaSar-mikill, -samr, a. very 
costly, expensive. 

kostna?5r (gen. -ar), m. (i) cost, 
expense ; (2) maintenance, living. 

kostr (-ar, pi. -ir, ace. -i or -u), m. 
(i) choice., alternative (hann sd, engan 
sinn kost annan) ; mun ek engan kost 
d gora, / will give no choice in the 
matter ; (2) choice, terms (hvern kost 
vili f>^r nu g0ra Ingjaldi) ; hugsat hefi 
ek kostinn, / have thought over the 
ter?ns; (3) choice, chance, opporttmity ; 
k. er e-s, there is a chaiice (J)at er 
hverjum manni boSit at leita ser lifs, 
medan k. er) ; eiga e-s kost, to have 
a choice <?/'(eiga slikra manna kost) ; 
eiga alls kosti vi3 e-n, to have one 
altogether in one's power ; (4) match 
(SigriSr het dottir bans ok J)6tti beztr 
k. d Halogalandi) ; bann spyrr, hverr 
eigi a6 rdc3a fyrir kosii hennar, who 
was to give her away ; (5) state, 
condition ; sjd fyrir siiium kosti, to 
take care of oneself ; sifian let Simon 
var5veita kost bennar, look after her 
affairs ; (61 cost, expefise, = kostnaSr 
{{)at skip hofSu boejarmenn latit gora 

af sinum kosti) ; (7) means, victuals, 
provisions (baud hann Oddi alia kosti 
me6 s^r) ; {%) food (J)at var si6r at 
foera konum J)eim kost, er a saeng 
hvildu) ; {9) board (J)a baud Ketill fe 
fyrir kost hennar); (10) stores, goods 
(tvau skip hlaSin vasnum kosti) ; (11) 
good quality, good things ; segja kost 
ok lost d e-u, to tell both the good and 
the bad of a thing; fasr pu fatt af mer 
friSra kosta, thoti shall get little good 
from me; (12) virttte, opp. to Mostr' ; 
(13) adverb, usages, J^at er til kostar, 
ef, // is well done, if; at \>&\m kosti, 
on that conditio?t ; at oSrum kosti, 
else, otherwise ; at sidasta, efsta kosti, 
in the last instance, last emergency ; 
alls kostar, quite, in every respect; 
eigi eins kostar, not very, fjot pecu- 
liarly ; annars kostar, as fot the rest ; 
nokkurs kostar, in any wise ; I)ess 
kostar, in this case, thus. 

kostu-ligr, a. costly, excellent (hann 
belt eina -liga veizlu). 

kost- van dr, 2i. fastidious. 

kot, n. cottage, small farm, hut. 

kot-bondi, m. cotter ; -boer, m. = 
kot ; -karl, m. cotter, cottager. 

kotkarls-son, m. chiirPs son. 

kot-lifi, n. hicmble life ; -mannliga, 
adv. meanly, in a beggarly way. 

kotungr (-s, -ar), m. = kotkarl. 

kof, n. thick vapour, steajn. 

kof-vi^ri, m. thick fall of snow. 

kolfr (-S, -ar), m. { i ) clapper, tongue 
of a bell ; (2) a kind of bolt ; svd skjott 
(snart) sem kolfi skjoti (skyti), swift 
as an a7'row. 

kolf-skot, n. bolt-shot. 

kolga, f. poet, wave, billow. 

kolna (aS), v. to become cold (ve3rit 
kolnar) ; inv-)ers.,e-m \.6\v\2iX,07iegets 
cold (oss kolnar d knjdnum). 

kolnan, f. cooling down, getting 
colder (|)d er solargangr 1 k.). 

kong-, see ' konung-'. 

kongr (-S, -ar), m. = konungr. 

kopa (-ta, -t), V. to stare, gape. 

kor-bok, f. choir-book, hymn-book; 
-dyrr, f. pi. choir-door; -kdpa, f. 
cho r-cope. 

korona, f. crown, = kriina. 

korona (at$), v. to crown, = kruna. 




kor-prestr, m. choir-priest. 

korr (gen. kors), m. choir, chancel. 

k6rs-br6(5ir, m. canofi, = kanukr. 

k6r-smi5, f. building of a choir ; 
-J)ili, n. panel of the choir. 

krabba-mark, -merki, n. the zodia- 
cal sig?i Ca?tcer. 

krabbi, m. a crab (k. gengr ofugr 

krafa, f. claim, demand. 

krafla (aS), v. to fnake {slight) paw- 
ing movements with the hands. 

krafsa (atS), v. to paw, scrape, or 
scratch with the feet (uxinn krafsaQi 
sem hross). 

kraka (atS), v. (i) to furnish with 
pales ; (2) to grip the botto7n (t6ku J)d 
akkerin at k.) ; (3) k. e-t upp, to fetch 
upfrofn the bottom (krokuQu J)eir hann 
upp ok fluttu til lands). 

kraki, m. (l) pale, stake', (2) thin 
pole ; (3) a kind of drag or boat-hook. 

krak-ligr, a. slender, thin and weak. 

krammr, a. half thawed (k. snjor). 

kranga (a$), v. to creep along. 

krangr, a. weak, frail. 

krank-domr, m., -doemi, n. ailing, 
illness ; -leikr, m. = -domr. 

krankr, a. (i) illy sick; mer er 
krankt, I am ill ; (2) sore, distressing. 

krap, n. half thawed snow, slush. 

krapa-drifa, f. shower of sleet ; 
-f6r, f. drift of thawed ice (in a river). 

krapi, m. = krap. 

krappa-rum, n. ^strait-room^ (a 
place before a ship's Mypting'). 

krappr, a. (i ) strait, narrow (kropp 
lei6) ; koma i krappan sta3, to get 
into straits ; (2) sharp, crafty (kropp 
var GuSrun). 

krapta-, gen. pi. from * kraptr ' ; 
-Idn, n. gift of strength {power) ; 
-lifnatSr, m., -lif, n. virtuous life ; 
-litill, a. weak, wanting strength ; 
-matSr, m. strong {virtuous) inan ; 
-mikill, a. strong. 

krapt-auSigr, a. (i) very power ftl ; 

(2) highly virtuoics. 

kraptr (-s, -ar), m. (i) might, 
strength, power ; me3 ollum krapti, 
with might and main ; (2) virtue ; 

(3) superhuman being, angel. 
krd, f. nook, corner. 

krdka, f. crow (galandi k.). 

krakr, m. crotu or raven. 

kraku-skel, f. mussel; -stigr, m. 
^ crow-pat h\ crooked w^y, zigzag', 
-ungi, m. young crow, 

kras, f. dainty (dyrSligar krdsir). 

kredda, f. creed (Lat. credo) 

krefja (kref, kraftSa, kraftJr and 
krafinn), v. to crave, dema?2<i\ claim 
(k. e-n e-s) ; k. e-n mdls, ox6\, 10 ask 
speech of one (engi J)or6i at k. hann 
or6a) ; hann kraldi dura, he asked to 
be let in, knocked at the door; refl., 
krefjast, to claim, with gen. (krafdist 
HdvarSr torfunnar). 

kregt5, f. pining away, a nickname. 

kreista (-sta, -str), v. to squeeze, 
press ; fig. to force, compel. 

kreisting, f. squeezing, pressing. 

krellr, m. pith, spirit, hardihood 
(engi krellr er i y3r). 

kremja (krem, kramda, kramiSr, 
kraiadr, or kraminn), v. to squeeze 
(hann kramdi hold af beinum) ; refl., 
kremjast, to be pi?iched, pine (from a 
wasting sickness). 

krenkja (-ta, -tr), v. to make sick, 

kreppa (-ta, -tr), v. to squeeze, 
press ; k. at e-m, to press hard on one 
(krepptu J)eir svd hart at f^orgrimi, at 
hann) ; iinpers., e-n kreppir, one be- 
comes crippled ; krepptr, crippled (hon 
var kreppt oil, svd at badir foetr Idgu 
bjugir v;c5 knen). 

kreppa, krepping, f. strait, scrape 
(koma 1 kreppuj. 

kreppingr, m. handful (hafa krepp- 
ing fuUan). 

kretta (pret. kratt), v. to murmur, 
complain (engi {)or6i um at kretta). 

krikta (-kta, -kt), v. = kretta (J)eir 
{)oldu ilia, ok kriktu um). 

kring, adv. round-, ganga f bring 
ok i kring, all arou7id, round and 
round', i kring um, around, with ace. 
(pii skalt roa 1 kring um skutuna). 

kringja (-da, -dr), \.(\) to encircle, 
surround (Birkibeinar kringdu baeinn 
J)egar) ; usually with prep. * um ' (t)eir 
kringdu um kirkjuna) ; (2) to go round 
(kringiS um borgina). 

kringla, f. disk, circle, orb. 

kringlottr, a. round, circular. 




kringlu-skurc5r, m. tonsure ; -sott, 
f. the staggers (in sheep). 

kringr, a. easy ; svd var honum k. 
skdldskapr sem oSrum monnum mal 
sitt, verse-making was as easy to him 
as speaking to other men. 

krisma (atS), v. to anoint. 

krisma, n., krismi, m. chris^n. 

krismu-ker, n. christnatory. 

B[rist-f§, n. ^Christ-fee' (property 
given for the support of the poor). 

kristi-liga, adv. in a Christian-like 
way ; -ligr, a. Christian{like). 

kristin-domr, m. Christendom, 
Christianity {qXso ' kristinn domr'). 

kristinn, a. Christian ; kristin log, 
ecclesiastical law. 

Krist-mac5r, m. champion of Christ. 

kristna (at5), v. (i) to christianize \ 
(2) to christen, baptize. 

kristni, f. Christianity, Christendom. 

kristni-botS, n., -\>o^QXi,i. preaching 
the Gospel; -]i&\6.,r\. keeping Christian- 
ity ; -log, n. pi. = kristin log; -spell, 
n. breach, profanation of Christianity. 

Kristr (gen. Krists), m. Christ. 

krikar, m. pi. groin. 

krjupa (kryp ; kraup, krupum ; 
kropinn), y.{i) to creep, crouch (voru 
dyrnar sv^ l^gar, at naer var6 at k. 
inn) ; (2) to fall postrate, kneel (J)d 
er v^r krjupum til hans me5 iSran). 

krof, n. cut-up carcase of a slaugh- 
tered animal (cf. sauSarkrof). 

kropna (a^), v. (i) to be crippled', 
(2) to be clenched, stiffened (var hdndin 
kropnud at brefinu ). 

kropning, f. kneeling, 

kroppa (ac5), v. to crop, pick. 

kroppin-bakr, m. hujnp-back. 

kroppr (-S, -ar), m. the body, trunk 
(kroppr arnarins). 

kross (pi. -ar),m. (i) cross, crucifix-, 
(2) sign of the cross ; i k. , cross-wise, 
in the fortn of a cross (leggja hendr 
i k ; r^tta sik 1 k.). 

krossa (aS), v. to mark with a cross ; 
refl., krossast, to take the cross (as a 

krossa-laust, adv. without making 
the sign of the cross. 

krossan, f. taking the cross. 

kross-festa (-sta, -str), v. to fasten 

to the cross, crucify, -festing, f. 
crucifixion ; -bus, n. house containing 
a cross; -mat5r, m. warrior of the 
cross; -mark, n. sign of the cross \ 
-messa, f. Cross-mass, twice a year, 
in the spring (-messa um vdrit), the 
3rd of May, Invention of the Cross, 
and in autumn, the 14th of Sept., 
Elevation of the Cross ; -tiSir, f. pi. 
Hours of the Cross. 

kroka-spjot, n. barbed spear. 

krok-faldr, m, a form of wo?nen's 
head-dress ; -fjotSr, f. barbed head of 
a spear ; -lykill, m. hook-shaped key, 

krokottr, a. (i) crooked, winding; 
krokott a, winding river \ (2) cun- 
ning, crafty. 

krok-pallr, m. corner seat. 

krokr (-s, -ar), m. {\)hook (nef hans 
var mikit ok krokr d) ; (2) barb, on a 
spear or arrow-head (cf. krokaspjot, 
krokor) ; (3) peg (jDeir toku reip ofan 
or krokum) ; (4) afire-hook; (5) curve, 
bend, winding; rista krok, not to go 
straight ; g0ra sdr kroka, to make a 
detour; (6) corner (nu gangit J)er ( 
krokinn hja husinu). 

krok-stafr, m. crooked stick, 

krok- or, f. barbed arrow. 

krumma, f. clownish hand, paw. 

krummi, m. a pet name of a raven. 

kruna, f. (i) crown; (2) shaven 
crown, tonsure. 

kruna (a5), v. to crown. 

krydd, n. spice. 

kryi^a (kryf, kruf §a, kruftJr and 
krufiiin), v. to open up, disembowel 
(J)a krufQi hann hana sinn). 

krymma, f. = krumma. 

krjrppa, f. hujnp, hunch. 

kryppill, krypplingr, m. cripple. 

krysja (krus^a), v. to crouch, linger, 

krytja (krutta, krutt), v. to mur- 
mur, gru7nble (k. um e-t). 

krytr, m. noise, murmur, 

kraeki-ber, n. crowbe7-ry. 

krsBsast (t), v. to fire siwiptuously, 

kroekill, m. = krokstafr. 

kroekja (-ta, -tr), v.{\)to hook, with 
dat. (hann krcekti handarstufinum i 
kistuhringana) ; kroekt er saman bein- 
um 1 tier, thy bones are hooked together, 
i. e. badly knit ; (2) to grasp (drag) 


[251 ; 


with a hook, with ace. ({>. krcekti 
mann Sturlu at ser me5 0xinni) ; (3) 
to go in circuits, in windings (fjorSrinn 
kroekti ymsa vegu inn i landit) ; (4) 
vera inni krcEktr, to be shut in. 

krof (gen. krafar, pi. krafir), f. 
claim, demafid. 

krom (gen. kramar; pi. kramar), 
f. lofig or wasting illness. 

krdptugr, a. strong, vigorous. 

krdpturligan, adv. with might and 
main (roa k., viz. r63r). 

kufl, m. cowl, cowled cloak ; -hottr, 
m. cowl ; -matSr, m. cowl-?nan. 

kuflungr (-s, -ar), m. cowl-7nan. 

kuggr (-S, -ar), m. large {foreign) 
merchant-ship, ' cog\ 

kukl, n. juggling, sorcery. 

kuklara-skapr, m. = kukl. 

kuklari, va. juggler, wizard. 

kill, n. bi'eeze (tagrt k.). 

kulda-samr, a. cold, chilly ; -vatn, 
n. cold water ; -vetSr, n. cold weather. 

kuldi, m. (i) cold\ pi. kuldar, coti- 
tinued cold weather (vdru frost mikil 
ok kuldar) ; (2) fig. coldness, frigidity 
(kenna kulda af e-m). 

kult, n. quilt, counterpane, 

kul-viss, a. sensitive to cold. 

kumbl, kural, n. (i) mark, sign, 
badge ; (2 1 sepulcJiral mofiume?it, 
cairn (J^au liggja bse6i i kumli). 

kumbla, kumla (aS), v. to bruise, 
wound (sarr ok kumlaSr). 

kumbl a-smitSr, m. ^ wound-maker\ 
warrior, hero (poet.). 

kumbl-bui, m. cairn-dweller. 

kumbl-dys, f. little cairn. 

kumpdnn (-s, -ar), m. (i) fellow, 
companion ; (2) the male organ. 

kumpass, m. = komp^ss. 

kunna (kann, kunna, kunnat), v. 
(\) lo know, understand (J)u kannt 
margt t)at er eigi kunnu aSrir menn) ; 
(2) to know (by memory) ; lj63 ek J)au 
kann, er kannat J)j63ans kona, I know 
songs, such as no king's daughter 

knows \ (^) to know a person; unni 

honum hverr maSr, er hann (ace.) 

kunni, every man that knew him loved 

him ; (4) spec, phrases ; k. hof at um 

e-t, k. hof sitt, to know the proper 

mean, to behave with moderation ; 

uxarnir kunnu t)6 heim, the oxen found 
their way home ; k. enga mannraun, 
to have no experience of Jfien ; k. e-m 
J)okk, aufusu, to be thankful, obligea 
to one ; (5) k. sik, to knu^v oneself [si. 
er svinnr, er sik kann) ; to behave 
well (G. kveSst mundu meiSa hann, 
ef hann kynni sik eigi) ; (6)k. sdr e-t, 
to understand, have clear knowledge 
of (something as concerning oneself or 
touching one's own interest) ; k. ser 
margt, to be skilled in many things ; 
k. fyrir ser = k. ser ; also ellipt. to 
know how to conduct oneself; (7) 
with dat. to know ; ek kann skapi 
Gunnhildar, / know Gunhild's temper ; 
(8) k. e-n e-s or um e-t, to blaine a 
person for a thing (eigi hugSa ek, at 
hann mastti mik {)essa k.j ; eigi er 
hann um {)at at k., he is not to be 
blajned for it ; (9) to be pleased or not 
with a thing; Eyjiilfr Mzt l^vi nafni 
mundu vel k., E. said he should be 
well pleased with that ?ia7ne ; {10) to 
be able, with infin. ; J)u skalt eigi k. 
iri. tiSindum at segja, thou shalt not 
escape to tell the tale ; {\\) to chance, 
happen ; hvar sem J)ik kann at at 
bera, wheresoever thou may happen to 

kunnandi, pr. p. knowing {vi\?ir^s, k.). 

kunnandi, f. knowledge, accompXish- 
me7its (nokkurs konar list eSa k.). 

kunnasta, f., kunndtta, f. know- 
ledge ; magical lore. 

kunndttu-leysi, n. ignorance ; -lit- 
ill, a, ignorafit. 

kunn-g0ra (see g0ra), v. to jnake 
known (=g0ra kunnigt). 

kunnigr, a. ( l ) known ; g0ra kunnigt, 
to make k?iown ; mer er kunnigt um 
e-t, / know, have knowledge of; (2) 
versed in magic art, = fjolkunnigr ; 
(3) akin to {i.s-, dlf-, god-kunnigr). 

kunningi (pi, -jar), m. acgtmintance 
(vinir ok kunningjar). 

kunn-kona, f. jemale acquaintance ; 
-leiki, m., -leikr, m. (i) knowledge, 
intelligence ; g0ra e-m e-t f -leika, to 
inform a person of ; e-m er -leiki i. 
e-u, e-t er e-m i kunnleika, one knows, 
is acqtiainted with; (2) intimacy, 
familiarity (-leikar eru me6 {)eim, i 




milli I)eirra) ; -liga, adv. familiarly, j 
intimately (kveQjast -liga) ; -matJr, 
m. = kunningi. 

kunnr, a. (i) known {^€x munu 
kunnar leidir) ; k. at e-u, known for 
something (J)u ert k. at drengskap) ; 
{2) familiar \ J)eir voru mjok kunnir 
'kh'C, intimate friends. 

kurfl, n. cuttings of wood. 

kurfla (ac5), v. to chop (wood). 

kurfr (-8, -ar), m. chip, ctU-off piece. 

kurr, m. (i) murmur, gru>nbiing 
(of a number of persons) ; (2) ric- 
w^wr (spurSist pessi k. i Vindland). 

kurra (atS), v. to murmur, grumble 
(kurruQu bcendr mjok). 

kurr-hugi, m. low spirits ; vera i 
-huga, to be anxious, coticerned. 

kurteisi, f. courtesy, good manners, 
chivalry (hann let kenna honum alls 
konar k.). 

kurteis-liga, adv. (l) courteously, 
gracefully (heilsa -liga) ; (2) with 
dignity, nobly (bar hann svd -liga sinn 
harm) ; -ligr, a. courteous, graceful. 

kurteiss, a. courteous, well-bred 
(vasn kona ok kurteis) ; hann var litill 
vexti, en J)6 k., he was small of stature, 
but yet elega?it. 

kufottr, a. convex (kufott hvel). 

kufungr (-s, -ar), m. sea snail. 

kuga (at5), V. to cow, force, tyrannize 
over (ek man ekki k. hann til nokk- 
urra hluta) ; k. e-t af e-m, to press 
out of one ; Mta kiigast, to let 07teself 
be cowed into submission. 

kugan, f. oppression, use of force 
(haft^u k. vi3 ^i. uppi vi3 fjollin). 

ku-gildi, n. cow's value, = kyrlag ; 
-gildr, a. of a cow's value. 

kula, f. knob, boss, ball. 

kulu-bakr, m. hu7npback. 

kur-hugi, m. = kurr-hugi. 

kvat$a, f. request, claim, demand. 

kvaSning, f. (i) greeting, saluta- 
tion ; (2) request, demand. 

kvaka (at5), v. to twitter, chirp. 

kvak-samr, a. whining, querulous. 

kvala-, gen. pi. from 'kvol'; -lauss, 
a. without torments ; -m.atSr, m. = 
kvalari ; -stacSr, iw. place of torment. 

kvalari, m. tormentor. 

kval-raetSi, n. torture, torments. 

kval-samligr, a. tormenting. 

kvanta (atS), v. to molest, injure, 

kvantr, m. loss, damage. 

kvar($i, m. yard-wand. 

kvarta (at5), v. to complain ; k. um 
e-t, to complain of a thing. 

kvartsamr, a. given to complaifiing. 

kvdma, f. arrival, = koma. 

kvdn, f. wife (HeSins k.). 

kvanar-efhi, n. one's future wife ; 
-mundr, m. a sum paid by a man for 
his wife. 

kvan-boenir, f. pi. wooing-, -fang, 
n. taking a wife ; marriage ; jnatch 
(gott -fang), wife. 

kvanga (acS), v. to make a man 
marry ; kvdngaSr, married ; refl., 
kvdngast, to marry, take a wife. 

kvangan, f. the taking of a wife. 

kvan-lauss, a. wifeless, unmarried, 
widowed', -riki, n. the domineering 
of a wife ; hafa -riki, to be hen-pecked. 

kvdra (atS), v. to rattle. 

kvatra, f. a kind of backgammon. 

kvec5a (kvet5 ; kva(5, kvatJum ; 
kvetSinn), v. (i) to say, utter; hann 
kvacJ eigi or6, he did not utter a word', 
k. gle6i-or6, to say a cheerful word ; 
with infin., hann kva3 pat satt vera, 
he said it was true ; k. at orSi, to 
express oneself, say, speak', (2) to 
{compose and) say aloud (hann kvad 
visu) ; to recite, repeat (S. bad hann 
J)d k. kvceSit t)at, er hann hafSi 
ort) ; (3) with preps., k. at, to say, 
state', gramm. to pronounce, sound', 
k. e-t at e-m, to inflict on ; mikill 
harmr er at oss kvedinn, great grief 
has been sent on tis; k. a, to fix, deter- 
mi7ie (k. d stefnudag) ; impers. to 
state ; kvedr l)ar skyrt d petta, it is 
there expressly stated; to cancel, object 
to (k. a gogn, to cancel the evidence) ; 
to make up one's mind, resolve ; k. e-t 
upp, to lecite, declare (t^at skulu log 
vera, sem hann kveSr upp) ; k. vi6, 
to reply, answer (^wXa hann veit, hvat 
hann skal vid k., el) ; to utter a cry, 
&c. (hundrinn kva6 vi5 hatt) ; to 
soufid (J)vi naest kvaS lu6r vi(5) ; (4) 
refl., kveSast, to say of oneself; peir 
er biskupar kv^Qust vera, who said 
they we?e bishops ; hann kveSst eigi 




riSa mundu, he said he would not ride ; 
impers., mer kveOsk = ek kved m^r ; 
Kdra kvadsk ( = Kdri kvaS ser) onnur 
fer6 betri J)ykkja, K. said he thought 
another course preferable ; kveQast at, 
to exchange verses or songs, 

kvetSandi, f. (i) recitation^ chanting 
or singing (fogr var su k. at heyra) ; 
(2) rhythin^ flow of a verse (J)6 fegra 
{ja^r mjok i k.). 

kveSja (kvet5, kvaddi, kvaddr), v. 

(1) to call Oft, summon ({>6rvaldr 
kvaddi hiiskarla sfna) ; k. e-n e-s, to 
request {demand) of one; k. matar, 
svefns, to call for food, sleep; k. ser 
hljoSs, to call for a hearing; k. lyings, 
to convoke a meeting ; k. e-n e-s, to 
call on^ su7n7non, one to do something 
(voru vdr kvaddir at bera vitni J3at) ; 

(2) to welcome^ greet (peir kvoddu 
konung) ; of one departing, to bid 
farewell, take leave <7/"(hann gengrnu 

i brott ok kvedr engan mann); refl., 
kveSjast, to greet one another (l)eir 
kvoddust vel) ; (3) with preps., k. e-n 
at e-u, to call on a perso?i to ro a 
thing, call his attention to (pik kveS 
ek at t)essu) ; k. e-n hi. e-u, to exclude 
from, deprive of (ek hefi opt menn 
fra ccfi kvadda, er eigi vildu hlyc3a 
mmum bo5um) ; k. e-n til e-s, to call 
071 07ie for a thing [\i. menn til ferSar) ; 
k. e-n upp, to call on one to rise (si5an 
vaknaSi Haraldr ok kvaddi upp menn 
sina) ; to siuninon to ar77is ; siSan 
safnafli hann liSi ok kveSr upp al- 
menning, after that he gathered 77te7i 
and roused the whole country ; k. e-n 
lit, to call 07ie out oj the house (hann 
kvaddi ut Hoskuld ok Hrut). 

kveSja, f. welcome, greeting, saluta- 
tio7i (konungr tok kvedju bans). 

kvet^ju-boc5, n., -sending, f. greets 
i7igfro77i one absent^ co77ip/i7nents. 

kve^-skapr, m. poetry ^ verse- 
viaki7ig (g63r, illr, -skapr). 

kveQa (kvaf (Sa^, v. = kefja, 

kveif, f. coif cap, esp. mit)e, 

kveiking, if. ki7idling. 

kveikja (-ta, -tr), v. (l) to light, 
kindle ; k. eld, Ijos, to kindle a fire, 
light; (2) fig. to arouse, give rise to 
(k. sorg, harm, fjdndskap). 

kveikja, f. kindling (ofundar k.), 

kveikr, m. wick of a laj7ip. 

kvein, n. wailing, la7>ienlation. 

kveina (aS), v. to wail, lavient ; k. 
um e-t, to complain of {qv her kveinat 
um eldiviSarfaeS). 

kvein an, f. wailing, 

kveinka (a$), v. to co7nplain, 

kveinkan, f. la77ientatio7i, 

kvein-sa'nligr, a. doleful; -stafir, 
m. pi. waitings, la7nentations. 

kveisa, f. whitlow, boil (hann hefir 
kveisu mikla i foetinum). 

kveisu-nagli, m. the core of a boil, 

kveld, n. eveni7ig; at kveldi (dags), 
at eventide ; 1 k., to-night ; a kveldit, 
d kveldum, of an ei'ening, in the eve7i' 
ings ; um kveldit, i7t the evening, that 

kvelda (a^), v. impers., kveldar or 
daginn tekr at k., eve7ii7ig draws near. 

kveld-langt, adv. all the evening 
(drekka -langt) ; -ligr, a. pertai7iing 
to evefiiug ; -mal, n . eve7itide ; -mal- 
tiS, f. supper; -rit5a, f. night-hag^ 
witch (riding on wolves in the twi- 
light); -sei^yf. sitti7?g up late; -sveBfr, 
a. i?icli7ied to sleep in the e7>e7iingj 
opp. to ' morgunsvsefr ' ; -songr, m. 
evenso7ig, vespers (eptir kveldsong um 
aptaninn) ; -timi, m. eve7itde. 

kvelja (kvel, kvalda, kvaldr and 
kvalinn), v. to tor77ient, torture ; refl., 
kveljast, to be tor7nented (k. i vesold). 

kveljari, m. to7-77ientor. 

kvelling, f. aibitent, ailing, 

kvellinga-samr, a. ailing. 

kvelli-sjukr, a. ailing, sickly (ekki 
hefi ek verit -sjiikr); -sott, f. = kvell- 
ing (engar hefi tk -sottarj. 

kvendi, n. wo7na7i, pi. womankind. 

kvenna-, gen. pi. from ' kona ' ; -dst, 
f. wo77ien^ slove; -bunat^r, m. wo7nefi! s 
attire ; -far, n. love affairs ; -folk, n. 
wo7nen-folk ; -fritSr, m. i77i7nunity of 
women ; -griS, n. = -friSr ; -hjal, n. 
wo7nen^s gossip ; -hus, n. lady's bower ; 
-klaecSna^r, m,fe7nale d7-ess ; -liS, n. 
women-folk ; -maSr, m. 07te fond of 
women ; -mal. n. pi. love matters ; 
-munr, m. distinction of wo7nen ; 
-nam, n. abduction, rape ; -raS, 
women's counsel; -sitSr, m. habits of 




women \ -skap, n. women's temper \ 
-skdli, m. women' s apartment \ -skip- 
an, f. placing of the ladies (at a ban- 
quet) ; -sveit, f. bevy of wojnen ; 
-vagn, m. the Lesser Bear (Ursa 
Minor) ; -vist, f. women's abode. 

kvenn-borinn, pp. cognate ; -bun- 
at5r, m. wo7nen's dress ; -dyr, n. 
female beast ; -folk, n. wo7Jien-folk ; 
-fugl, m. heti bird\ -hallr, a. inclined 
to love, amorous ; -kenna (-da, -dr), 
V. to address as a wo?nan ; -kenndr, 
^\i.fe?HiniTie', -klas^i, n. pi. woineii's 
dress ; -kne, n. cognate lineage ; fe- 
male degree of kin ; -kostr, m. good 
match (of a woman) ; -kyn, n. female 
sex ; -kyrtill, m. woman's kirtle ; 
-leggr, m. kindred on the woman' s 
side, the cognates ; -liga, adv., -ligr, a. 
wojfianl}', womanlike ; -list, {.female 
skill; -roaSr, m. woman, opp. to 
' karlmaSr ' ; -mannligr, a. wo?nan- 
like ; -nytr, a. able to procreate ; 
-samliga, adv. lasciviously (m^la kv. 
vi6 konu) ; -samr, a. amorous ; -semi, 
f. ajnorousness ; -sift, adv. on the 
female side ; -skikkja, f. wo7nan's 
cloak; -skratti, m. ivicked woman, 
termagant ; -skrutSi, m. women's 
attire ; -skygn, a. looking after 
women ; -skorungr, n\. great (stately) 
lady\ -styrkr, a. strong enough for a 
womafi ; -svift, adv. = -sift ; -soSull, 
m. wotjzan's saddle, side-saddle ; 
-umagi, m. female pauper ; -va(5ir, 
f. pi. woman's dress, female attire ; 
-v61ar, f. pi. wotnati's wiles. 

kvenska, f. womanhood, chastity, 

kver, n. sheet (folded in a book). 

kverk (pi. kverkr), f. (i) the atigle 
below the chin (hann tok undir kverkina 
ok kyssti hana) ; fig. the inner angle 
of an axe-head (undir k. 0xinni) ; (2) 
in pi. throat (konungr for hondum 
um kverkr sveininum). 

kverka-mein, n. bronchitis ; -sott, 
f. throat disease; -sullr, m. boil in 
the throat, quitisy. 

kverk-band, n. string of a cap or 
hood, going under the chin. 

kvern (pi. -ir), f. (i) quern-stone, 
7nillstotie ; (2) quertiy hatidinill (J)ar 
sat kona vi6 k.). 

kvernar-auga, n. the eye or hole of 
a fnill-stone. 

kvern-steinn, m. quern-stone, mill- 
stone (hjo hann -stein til augans). 

kveyking, kveykja, see ' kveiking, 
kveikja '. 

kvioa, f. narrative poem, ballad. 

kvi(5ar-girnd, f. gluttony. 

kvi$-biirtSi% m. verdict, or delivery 
of the verdict, of neighbours. 

kviSja (atS), v. to forbid i^. e-m e-t) ; 
refl., kviSjast e-t, to decline, shim. 

kvi^lingr (-s, -ar), m. ditty. 

kvi$-maSr, m. ^inquest-man' , furor. 

kvicSr (-ar ; pi. -ir, ace. -u), m. (i) 
verdict (of neighbours) ; bera kvid 
um e-t, to give a verdict in a case ; 
bera kvi6 i. e-n, 1 m6ti e-m (af 
e-m), to give a verdict agai?tst [for, 
in favour of) one ; (2) inquest, jury ; 
kveSja e-n kviSar, to call {a neighbour) 
on an inquest ; ryQja kvidinn, bj66a 
til ruSningar um kviSinn, to challenge 
the jury ; (3) sayitig, word; k. noma, 
the decree of the Fates (kveld lifir 
ma6r ekki eptir kviS noma). 

kvic5r (-ar ; pi. -ir, ace. -u), m. 
(i) belly, abdomen ; (2) womb. 

kvi$-s6tt, f. colic ; -sullr, m. boil on 
the stomach. 

kvic^ugr, 2.. pregfiant. 

kviSu-hattr, m. a kind of metre. 

kviS-J)roti, m. swelling of the 
stomach ; -verkr, m. belly-ache. 

kvika, f. (i) the quick (under the 
nail or under a horse's hoof) ; (2) 
rtmnifig fluid ; yeast ; (3) k. i nosum, 
polypus in the fiostrils (?). 

kvik-fe, n., -fena($i% m. live stocky 
cattle {^pn skalt njota kvikfjdr J)ins). 

kvikindi, n. = kykvendi. 

kvik-latr, a. quick, lively ; -liga, 
adv. briskly ; -ligr, a. brisk, lively. 

kvikna (atS), v. (\) to quicken, come 
to life (dvergar hofc5u kviknat i mold- 
unni, sva sem ma5kar i holdi) ; (2) 
to be kindled (eldr kviknarj ; treit 
kviknaSi, the tree took fire ; (3) to 
revive, get fresh spirit (J)a kviknafii 
hestr hans, er fyrr var moQr). 

kviknan, f. quickeniftg. 

kvikr (ace. -van), a. (1) quick, alive^ 
living (yfir J)d gotu nddi engi k. kom- 




ast) ; skera e-n kvikvan, to dissect 
alive \ (2) lively, glad (svi verSr 
herrinn k. vi6 J)enna kvitt, at). 

kvik-setja (see setja), v. to bury 
alive (hann let kviksetja sik) ; -silfr, 
n. quicksilver, viercury. 

kviku-dropi, m. drop of a fluid. 

kvikva, f. = kvika. 

kvikva-votSvi, m. the calf of the leg. 

kvikvendi, n. a living creature ; 
in pi. aftimals, beasts, as opp. to men 
(menninir ok kykvendin). 

kvinna, f. wonian^ = kona. 

kvis, n. mm our, tattle. 

kvisa (ac5), v. to gossip, whisper. 

kvista (aS), v. (i) to lop off, cut the 
branches of (\i. lim, trd) ; peirkvistuSu 
{)ar bal mikit, they cut wood for a 
large fire ; {2) to cut down (k. menn 
ni6r sem hraviQi). 

kvistr (-ar ; pi. -ir, ace. -u), m. 
twig, branch ; stroke in a letter. 

kvist-skoetSr, a. branch-scathing. 

kvitta (atS), v. to rzanour, report. 

kvittr (pi. -ir, ace. -u), m. loose 
rumour, report (sogSu af l)vi slikan 
kvitt, sem J)eir hofdu heyrt) ; Ijosta 
upp kvitt, to spread reports. 

kvittr, a. quit,acg7atted(k. um e-t). 

kvittsam.r, a. ready to believe {or 
repeat) idle rumours. 

kvi (pi. -ar), f. {\) fold, pen (reka fd 
i kviar) \ {1) a lane of men gradually 
narrowing (also in pi.). 

kvia (atS), v. to pen ^ hem in, enclose. 

kvia-dyrr, f. pi. gate of a fold\ 
-garSr, va. pen-wall. 

kvitSa (-dda, -tt), v. to feel appre- 
hension for (k. e-u or viS e-u). 

kvlcSa, f. apprehension, arixiety. 

kvitS-bj6c5r, m. dismal foreboding. 

kvi(5i, m. = kviSa (hvdrki er l)at 

aedra ne kviSi). 

kvit5inn, a. anxious, timid, con- 
cerned (ef. ' kdtr ok okviSinn '). 
kvitSu-staSr, m. cause of fear. 
kviga (gen, pi kvigna), {.young cow, 

heifer; kvigendi, n. = kviga; kvigr, 

m. ycung bullock. 
kvisl (pi. -ir), f. (i) branch {of a 

tree) ; {i)fork\ {'i)fork of a river \ 

(4) pedigree of afainily. 
kvisla (at5), v. to branch out ; refl., 

kvislast = kvisla (of a tree, lineage, 

river, etc.). 

kvisla-tr§, n.forked tree. 

kvialottr, a. branched, branchy. 

kvora (atS), v. = kvdra. 

kvaetSa-frotSr, a. knowing many 
songs or poe??is by heart. 

kvaetS', n. poem, song (yrkja k.). 

kvsetSis-laun, n. pi. reward for a 
poe7n ; -mynd, i. for77t of a poem. 

kv8Bfa (-^a, -Sr), v. = kcefa. 

kvsBkla (a$), v. = kvaka. 

kvaemt, a. r\. free (for one) to come 
(er engum ySrum manni k. f Noreg). 

kvsBn, f. = kvdn. 

kvaena (-da, -dr), v. to make one 
marry ; refl., kvaenast, to take a wife. 

kvaendr, kvaentr, pp. married (of 
a man) , = kvanga5r. 

kv8Bning, i. taking a wife, marriage. 

kvotS (gen. kvaSar, pi, kvaSar), f. 
(i) claijfi', (2) summo7ii7ig of neigh- 
bours (= buakvoSj ; (3) the body of 

kvol (gen, kvalar, pi. kvalar), f. 
tor77ient, torture. 

kykr, a. = kvikr. 

kykvendi, n, = kvikvendi. 

kylfa (-da), v. to ai7n ; k. til orSanna, 
to hesitate for words. 

kylfa, f. club (k. eSa klumba). 

kylfu-hogg, n. blow with a club, 

kyllir, m. the scrotton. 

kylr, m. gust of cold air. 

kyn (gen. pi. kynja), n. (l) kin^ 
kindred (par dtti hann k. hdlft) ; 
danskr at kyni, Danish by extraction ; 
telja k. sitt til e-s, to clai7n kindred 
with ; (2) kind, so7-t, species ; i 
skyldasta kyni, of the 77iost befitting 
ki7id; 3\\s'kyns, of eve7y ki7id; hvers 
kyns, of a7ty ki7id \ margs kyns, of 
many kinds', I)ess kyns, of that ki7id', 
(3) ge7ider (karl-, kvcnn-kyn). 

kyn (gen. pi. kynja), n. wonder 
7narvel, portent (pa urc5u morg k. basdi 
i draumum ok synum). 

kyn-birtr, a., poet, very bright. 

kynda (-nda, -ndr), v. to kindle, 
light (k. eld, funa, loga, bil, vita). 

kyndari, m. kindler. 

kyndlU (pi, kyndlar), m. candle, 
torch (k. ok kerti). 




kyndil-nies3a, f. CandU^naSy the 
feast of the purification. 

kyndugr, a. guileful, ctmning. 

kyndug-akapr, m. guile y iv illness . 

k3ni-ferc5, f., -fert5i, n. kifidred, 
extraction', -fylgja, f. (l) family 
characteristic, peculiarity ; (2) kind, 
nature ; (3) kindred. 

kyngi, f. knowledge of magic; kyngi 
kraptr, 7naglcal power. 

kyn-gocSr, a. of good family ; -gof- 
ugr, a. of noble extraction. 

'k.ynja^v, a., descended, born\ sprung 
from a place (hvaSan ertu k.?). 

kynja-lauss, a. ' without wonders ', 
natural \ er eigi -laust um hann, there 
is somelhiftg wrong with him ; -laBti, 
n. pi. strange gestures ; -mein, n. 
strange illness ; -menn, m. pi.' wonder- 
people ', fairies, goblins ; -sott, f. = 
-mein; -vetr, m. ^wonder-winter*. 

kyn-kvisl, f. lineage, pedigree ; 
branch ; -leggr, m. = sett-leggr. 

kyn-liga, adv. strangely, 

kjmlig-leikr, m. a strange thing. 

kyn-ligr, a. strange, wonderful, ex- 
traordinary (me6 kynligu moti) ; e-m 
g0rist -ligt, one feels strange. 

kyn-likr, a. resembling (-likr e-m) ; 
-litill, a. of low extraction ; -margr, a. 
of various kinds ; -mot, n. {specific) 
look or appearance. 

kynna (-ta, -tr), v. to 7nake known ; 
k. ser e-t, to make ofieself acquaijited 
with, study (k. ser kaupskap) ; hverr 
mun k. OSS til konungs, who will show 
us the way to the king; refl., kynnast, 
to become known, come abroad', k. 
e-u, to become acquainted with ; e-m 
kynnist e-t, one gets acquainted 7u it h ; 
k. e-t, lo study (= kynna ser e-t) ; k. 
vi3 e-n, /j make acquaintance with one. 

kynni, n. (i) way, fashion, nature 
(kaupum vel saman, J)at er vina k.) ; 
(2) cxffairs, circumstances (J)au ein eru 
k. heima at t»in) ; (3) kltidred, kins- 
me?i (mer })ykkir sem pu munir eiga 
her k.); Glumr var J)rjar n^etr at k. 
sinu, with his krjismen ; [^) friendly 
visit to a friend or kinsman ; leita 
(koma til) kynnis, soekja k., fara d k., 
fara til kynnis, to make a visit ; sitja 
at k., to stay on a visit. 

kynni-liga, adv. = kunnliga (J)eir 
kvoddust kynniliga). 

kynning, f. acquaintance with, know- 
ledge of{k. e-s). 

kynnis-fert5, f. journey on a visit ; 
-gjof, f. gift to a visitor ; -leit, -sokn, 
f. visit ; -vist, f. stay on a visit. 

kyn-rikr, a. of g7-eat extraction, 
noble (st6rau3gir ok kynrikir) . 

kynsl, n. pi. wonders, strange things. 

kyn-sloS, f. kindred, progeny. 

kyns-mat$i% m. kinsman, descendant. 

kyn-smar, a. of low extraction ; 
-smesS, f. low extraction ; -stafr, m. 
scion ; -storr, a. of noble extraction. 

kjTistr, n. pi. strange, prodigiotis 
things ; magical acts or arts. 

kyn-stoertS, f. noble extraction ; -saell, 
a. blessed with good and great off- 
spring ; - vani, a. wantijigin kindred ; 
-J)dttr, m. lineage. 

kyrS, f. rest, tranquillity ; med k., 
qicietly ; 1 (at, a) kyrSum, /« quiet. 

kyrfi-ligr, a. hiwible, fnean. 

kyrking, f. choking, strangulation. 

kyrkja (-ta, -tr), v. to strangle or 
choke (hengdr eSa kyrktr). 

kyrpingr (s-, -ar), m. weakling {}) 

ksrrr, a. ( i) still, quiet, at rest ; halda 
vapni kyrru, to hold a weapon at rest ; 
sitja um kyrt, to remain quiet ; setjast 
um kyrt, to take to rest (in life) ; halda 
kyrru fyrir, not to stir', (2) neut.,kyrt, 
as 2idiV. gently ; tak ^<i kyrt J^ar d, touch 
it gently. 

kyrra (-tSa, -tSr), v. to calm, still', 
impers., kyrrir sjainn, the sea becomes 
calm ; refl,, kyrrast, to become caltn 
(en er kyrfiist i. strsetinu). 

kyira, f. cahnness, calm (kyrra var 
a sjonum). 

kyrr-latr, a. calm, peaceful, tranquil; 
-leikr, m. tranquillity; -liga, adv. 
quietly, calmly ; -ligr, a. calm ; -seta, 
f. sitting {living) at rest ; setjast i 
-setu, to take rest in life ; hafa -setu, 
to have rest; -setja (see setja), v. to 
sequester ; -ssBti, n. = -seta. 

kyrtill (-s, pi. kyrtlar), m. kirtle, 
tujiic (k. ok yflrhofn). 

kyrtils-bla$, n. the lap of a kirtle\ 
-klaetSi, n. cloth for a kirtle ; -lauss, a. 
without a kirtle : -skaut, n. = -blad.